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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is mostly attributed to alterations in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal myopathy in patients with HFrEF are not completely understood. We hypothesized that (i) aerobic exercise training (AET) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would change skeletal muscle microRNA-1 expression and downstream-associated pathways in patients with HFrEF and (ii) AET and IMT would increase leg blood flow (LBF), functional capacity, and quality of life in these patients. METHODS: Patients age 35 to 70 years, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%, New York Heart Association functional classes II-III, were randomized into control, IMT, and AET groups. Skeletal muscle changes were examined by vastus lateralis biopsy. LBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography, functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, and quality of life by Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. All patients were evaluated at baseline and after 4 months. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients finished the study protocol: control (n = 10; LVEF = 25 ± 1%; six males), IMT (n = 11; LVEF = 31 ± 2%; three males), and AET (n = 12; LVEF = 26 ± 2%; seven males). AET, but not IMT, increased the expression of microRNA-1 (P = 0.02; percent changes = 53 ± 17%), decreased the expression of PTEN (P = 0.003; percent changes = -15 ± 0.03%), and tended to increase the p-AKTser473 /AKT ratio (P = 0.06). In addition, AET decreased HDAC4 expression (P = 0.03; percent changes = -40 ± 19%) and upregulated follistatin (P = 0.01; percent changes = 174 ± 58%), MEF2C (P = 0.05; percent changes = 34 ± 15%), and MyoD expression (P = 0.05; percent changes = 47 ± 18%). AET also increased muscle cross-sectional area (P = 0.01). AET and IMT increased LBF, functional capacity, and quality of life. Further analyses showed a significant correlation between percent changes in microRNA-1 and percent changes in follistatin mRNA (P = 0.001, rho = 0.58) and between percent changes in follistatin mRNA and percent changes in peak VO2 (P = 0.004, rho = 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: AET upregulates microRNA-1 levels and decreases the protein expression of PTEN, which reduces the inhibitory action on the PI3K-AKT pathway that regulates the skeletal muscle tropism. The increased levels of microRNA-1 also decreased HDAC4 and increased MEF2c, MyoD, and follistatin expression, improving skeletal muscle regeneration. These changes associated with the increase in muscle cross-sectional area and LBF contribute to the attenuation in skeletal myopathy, and the improvement in functional capacity and quality of life in patients with HFrEF. IMT caused no changes in microRNA-1 and in the downstream-associated pathway. The increased functional capacity provoked by IMT seems to be associated with amelioration in the respiratory function instead of changes in skeletal muscle. ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01747395).

2.
Lipids ; 54(6-7): 381-388, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141200

RESUMO

Exercise training not only improves the plasma lipid profile but also reduces risk of developing coronary heart disease. We investigate whether plasma lipids and high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism are affected by aerobic training and whether the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at baseline influence exercise-induced changes in HDL. Seventy-one male sedentary volunteers were evaluated and allocated in two subgroups, according to the HLD-C levels (< or >40 mg/dL). Participants underwent an 18-week aerobic training period. Blood was sampled before and after training for biochemical analysis. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, HDL diameter, and VO2 peak were determined. Lipid transfers to HDL were determined in vitro by incubating plasma samples with a donor lipid artificial nanoemulsion. After the 18-week period of aerobic training, the VO2 peak increased, while the mean body mass index (BMI) decreased. HDL-C concentration was higher after the training period, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL-C did not change. The transfer of esterified cholesterol and phospholipids was greater after exercise training, but the triacylglycerol and unesterified cholesterol transfers were unchanged. The HDL particle diameter increased after aerobic training in all participants. When the participants were separated in low-HDL and normal-HDL groups, the postaerobic exercise increment in HDL-C was higher in the low-HDL group, while the transfer of esterified cholesterol was lower. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases the lipid transfers to HDL, as measured by an in vitro method, which possibly contributes to the classical elevation of the HDL-C associated with training.

3.
New Phytol ; 218(1): 81-93, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315591

RESUMO

Feruloylation of arabinoxylan (AX) in grass cell walls is a key determinant of recalcitrance to enzyme attack, making it a target for improvement of grass crops, and of interest in grass evolution. Definitive evidence on the genes responsible is lacking so we studied a candidate gene that we identified within the BAHD acyl-CoA transferase family. We used RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of orthologs in the model grasses Setaria viridis (SvBAHD01) and Brachypodium distachyon (BdBAHD01) and determined effects on AX feruloylation. Silencing of SvBAHD01 in Setaria resulted in a c. 60% decrease in AX feruloylation in stems consistently across four generations. Silencing of BdBAHD01 in Brachypodium stems decreased feruloylation much less, possibly due to higher expression of functionally redundant genes. Setaria SvBAHD01 RNAi plants showed: no decrease in total lignin, approximately doubled arabinose acylated by p-coumarate, changes in two-dimensional NMR spectra of unfractionated cell walls consistent with biochemical estimates, no effect on total biomass production and an increase in biomass saccharification efficiency of 40-60%. We provide the first strong evidence for a key role of the BAHD01 gene in AX feruloylation and demonstrate that it is a promising target for improvement of grass crops for biofuel, biorefining and animal nutrition applications.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Coenzima A-Transferases/genética , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Setaria (Planta)/enzimologia , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Supressão Genética , Ácidos/metabolismo , Brachypodium/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Coenzima A-Transferases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcriptoma/genética , Xilanos/metabolismo
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 865, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642761

RESUMO

Acidic soils are distributed worldwide, predominantly in tropical and subtropical areas, reaching around 50% of the arable soil. This type of soil strongly reduces crop production, mainly because of the presence of aluminum, which has its solubility increased at low pH levels. A well-known physiological mechanism used by plants to cope with Al stress involves activation of membrane transporters responsible for organic acid anions secretion from the root apex to the rhizosphere, which chelate Al, preventing its absorption by roots. In sorghum, a membrane transporter gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family was identified and characterized as an aluminum-activated citrate transporter gene responsible for Al tolerance in this crop. Setaria viridis is an emerging model for C4 species and it is an important model to validate some genes for further C4 crops transformation, such as sugarcane, maize, and wheat. In the present work, Setaria viridis was used as a model plant to overexpress a newly identified MATE gene from Brachypodium distachyon (BdMATE), closely related to SbMATE, for aluminum tolerance assays. Transgenic S. viridis plants overexpressing a BdMATE presented an improved Al tolerance phenotype, characterized by sustained root growth and exclusion of aluminum from the root apex in transgenic plants, as confirmed by hematoxylin assay. In addition, transgenic plants showed higher root citrate exudation into the rhizosphere, suggesting that Al tolerance improvement in these plants could be related to the chelation of the metal by the organic acid anion. These results suggest that BdMATE gene can be used to transform C4 crops of economic importance with improved aluminum tolerance.

5.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 38(5): 981-990, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500413

RESUMO

Central factors negatively affect the functional capacity of Fontan patients (FP), but "non-cardiac" factors, such as pulmonary function, may contribute to their exercise intolerance. We studied the pulmonary function in asymptomatic FP and its correlations with their functional capacity. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed in a prospective study of 27 FP and 27 healthy controls (HC). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was used to evaluate the Fontan circulation. The mean age at tests, the mean age at surgery, and the median follow-up time of FP were 20(±6), 8(±3), and 11(8-17) years, respectively. Dominant ventricle ejection fraction was within normal range. The mean of peak VO2 expressed in absolute values (L/min), the relative values to body weight (mL/kg/min), and their predicted values were lower in FP compared with HC: 1.69 (±0.56) vs 2.81 (±0.77) L/min; 29.9 (±6.1) vs 41.5 (±9.3) mL/kg/min p < 0.001 and predicted VO2 Peak [71% (±14) vs 100% (±20) p < 0.001]. The absolute and predicted values of the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), inspiratory capacity (IC), total lung capacity (TLC), diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide of the lung (DLCO), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) were also significantly lower in the Fontan population compared to HC. An increased risk of restrictive ventilatory pattern was found in patients with postural deviations (OD:10.0, IC:1.02-97.5, p = 0.042). There was a strong correlation between pulmonary function and absolute peak VO2 [FVC (r = 0.86, p < 0.001); FEV1 (r = 0.83, p < 0.001); IC (r = 0.84, p < 0.001); TLC (r = 0.79, p < 0.001); and DLCO (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). The strength of the inspiratory muscles in absolute and predicted values was also reduced in FP [-79(±28) vs -109(±44) cmH2O (p = 0.004) and 67(±26) vs 89(±36) % (p = 0.016)]. Thus, we concluded that the pulmonary function was impaired in clinically stable Fontan patients and the static and dynamic lung volumes were significantly reduced compared with HC. We also demonstrated a strong correlation between absolute Peak VO2 with the FVC, FEV1, TLC, and DLCO measured by complete pulmonary test.


Assuntos
Técnica de Fontan/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 9(11)2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study. Forty-one patients were enrolled: NoSDB (n=13, 46 [39-53] years) and SDB (n=28, 57 [54-61] years). SDB was characterized by apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per hour (polysomnography). Peripheral (10% O2 and 90% N2, with CO2 titrated) and central (7% CO2 and 93% O2) chemoreceptors were stimulated for 3 minutes. Forearm and calf blood flow were evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography, MSNA by microneurography, and blood pressure by beat-to-beat noninvasive technique. Baseline forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance were similar between groups. MSNA was higher in the SDB group. During hypoxia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.01 to all comparisons). Similarly, during hypercapnia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.001 to all comparisons). MSNA were higher in response to hypoxia (P=0.024) and tended to be higher to hypercapnia (P=0.066) in the SDB group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF and SDB have more severe muscle vasoconstriction during hypoxia and hypercapnia than HF patients without SDB, which seems to be associated with endothelial dysfunction and, in part, increased MSNA response.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Vasoconstrição , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Antebraço , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipercapnia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pletismografia , Polissonografia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/metabolismo , Volume Sistólico
7.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 10(5): 636-41, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25569611

RESUMO

AIM: To study the relationship between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and oxygen uptake (VO2) before and after exercise training. METHODS: Police recruits (N=206, 25±4 y) with RR (n=75), RX (n=97), and XX (n=33) genotypes were selected. After baseline measures, they underwent 18 wk of running endurance training. Peak VO2 was obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. RESULTS: Baseline body weight was not different among genotypes. At baseline, XX individuals displayed higher VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak than did RR individuals (P<.003). Endurance training significantly increased VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak (P<2×10(-6)), but the differences between XX and RR were no longer observed. Only relative peak VO2 exercise remained higher in XX than in RR genotype (P=.04). In contrast, the increase in relative peak VO2 was greater in RR than in XX individuals (12% vs 6%; P=.02). CONCLUSION: ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with VO2. XX individuals have greater aerobic capacity. Endurance training eliminates differences in peak VO2 between XX and RR individuals. These findings suggest a ceiling-effect phenomenon, and, perhaps, trained individuals may not constitute an adequate population to explain associations between phenotypic variability and gene variations.


Assuntos
Actinina/genética , Exercício/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Genótipo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e111123, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25379668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? METHODS: An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders) vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1-37.5). Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6-68.8). Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2-41.7). CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Erosão Dentária/complicações , Humanos , Risco
9.
J Dent Educ ; 75(12): 1620-6, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22184602

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess awareness and attitudes related to tooth erosion among dental students, patients, and faculty members in a Brazilian dental school. Data were collected by means of a self-applied questionnaire that was distributed among 298 participants. The response rate was 89.6 percent. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis (p<0.05). The majority of the participants had heard about erosion (72.9 percent), with lower percentages among the patients (p<0.001). In total, 74.9 percent believe that sugar can contribute to erosion (p=0.004). Almost 30 percent of the students did not know if they had had a patient with erosion, and 73.1 percent reported they were not advised by their clinical supervisor to examine their patients for tooth erosion (p=0.138). Concerning the faculty, 23.6 percent of them along with 61.5 percent of the students did not feel prepared to diagnose the condition (p<0.001). Reducing the consumption of acidic drinks was the practice most frequently mentioned as recommended to prevent erosion (89.6 percent). Knowledge about tooth erosion was not as widely evident as it should be in this sample, suggesting the need for better understanding and communication in this important area of oral health care.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Docentes de Odontologia , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Erosão Dentária/psicologia , Ácidos , Adulto , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Educação em Odontologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes/psicologia , Faculdades de Odontologia , Erosão Dentária/diagnóstico , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária
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