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1.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 95(6): 657-666, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of infectious morbidities according to day care attendance during the first year of life. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 12-month follow-up of a medium-sized city birth cohort from children born in 2015, in the Southern Brazil. Main exposure variables were day care attendance from 0 to 11 months of age, type of day care center (public or private), and age at entering day care. Health outcomes were classified as follows: "non-specific respiratory symptoms," "upper respiratory tract infection," "lower respiratory tract infection," "flu/cold," "diarrhea," or "no health problem," considering the two weeks prior to the interview administered at 12 months of life. Associations were assessed using Poisson regression adjusted by demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The sample included 4018 children. Day care attendance was associated with all classifications of health outcomes mentioned above, except for flu/cold. These were stronger among children who entered day care at an age closer to the outcome time-point. An example are the results for lower respiratory tract infection and diarrhea, with adjusted prevalence ratios of 2.79 (95% CI: 1.67-4.64) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.48-2.82), respectively, for those who entered day care after 8 months of age when compared with those who never attended day care. CONCLUSIONS: The present study consistently demonstrated the association between day care attendance and higher occurrence of infectious morbidities and symptoms at 12 months of life. Hence, measures to prevent infectious diseases should give special attention to children attending day care centers.

2.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0163428, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27682232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity has been reported to worsen pulmonary function (PF). This study aimed to examine the association between PF and several body composition (BC) measures in two population-based cohorts. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals aged 18 and 30 years from two Pelotas Birth Cohorts in southern Brazil. PF was assessed by spirometry. Body measures that were collected included body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentages of total and segmented (trunk, arms and legs) fat mass (FM) and total fat-free mass (FFM). FM and FFM were measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BODPOD) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations were verified through linear regressions stratified by sex, and adjusted for weight, height, skin color, and socioeconomic, behavioral, and perinatal variables. RESULTS: A total of 7347 individuals were included in the analyses (3438 and 3909 at 30 and 18 years, respectively). Most BC measures showed a significant positive association between PF and FFM, and a negative association with FM. For each additional percentage point of FM, measured by BOD POD, the forced vital capacity regression coefficient adjusted by height, weight and skin color, at 18 years, was -33 mL (95% CI -38, -29) and -26 mL (95% CI -30, -22), and -30 mL (95% CI -35, -25) and -19 mL (95% CI -23, -14) at 30 years, in men and women, respectively. All the BOD POD regression coefficients for FFM were the same as for the FM coefficients, but in a positive trend (p<0.001 for all associations). CONCLUSIONS: All measures that distinguish FM from FFM (skinfold thickness-FM estimation-BOD POD, total and segmental DXA measures-FM and FFM proportions) showed negative trends in the association of FM with PF for both ages and sexes. On the other hand, FFM showed a positive association with PF.

3.
J Bras Pneumol ; 40(5): 513-20, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25410839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ≥ 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. RESULTS: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ≥ 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers.


Assuntos
Administração por Inalação , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Inaladores de Pó Seco/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inaladores Dosimetrados/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 40(5): 513-520, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-728779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ≥ 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. RESULTS: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ≥ 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers. .


OBJETIVO: Conhecer os erros na técnica de uso de dispositivos inalatórios empregada por pacientes com doenças respiratórias no sul do Brasil e o perfil daqueles que possuem dificuldades em realizá-la. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, com indivíduos com idade ≥ 10 anos e em uso de inaladores pressurizados (IPrs) ou inaladores de pó (IP) em 1.722 domicílios de Pelotas (RS). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 110 indivíduos que utilizavam 94 IPrs e 49 IP. Os principais erros no uso dos IPrs e IP foram não expirar antes da inalação (66% e 47%, respectivamente), não fazer uma pausa inspiratória após a inalação (29% e 25%) e não agitar o IPr antes do uso (21%). Os indivíduos com idade ≥ 60 anos mais frequentemente cometeram erros. Das demonstrações de uso do IPr e IP, respectivamente, 72% e 51% apresentaram ao menos um erro, enquanto 13% das demonstrações foram plenamente corretas e 11% apresentaram erros em todas as fases. A proporção de indivíduos com menor nível de escolaridade que cometeram ao menos um erro foi significativamente maior do que a daqueles com maior nível de escolaridade tanto no uso de IPrs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0,018) quanto no de IPs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0,010). CONCLUSÕES: Nesta amostra, os principais erros cometidos no uso dos inaladores foram não realizar a expiração antes da inalação, não fazer a pausa inspiratória após a inalação e não agitar o IPr. Pacientes com menor nível socioeconômico e educacional, assim como aqueles com idade avançada, merecem especial atenção na educação sobre a realização da técnica inalatória, pois apresentam um maior risco de cometer erros durante o uso dos inaladores. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Administração por Inalação , Inaladores de Pó Seco/métodos , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inaladores de Pó Seco/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inaladores Dosimetrados/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
J Bras Pneumol ; 39(3): 287-95, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23857689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of users of inhalers and the prevalence of inhaler use among adolescents and adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema. METHODS: A population-based study conducted in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, involving 3,670 subjects ≥ 10 years of age, evaluated with a questionnaire. RESULTS: Approximately 10% of the sample reported at least one of the respiratory diseases studied. Among those individuals, 59% reported respiratory symptoms in the last year, and, of those, only half reported using inhalers. The use of inhalers differed significantly by socioeconomic status (39% and 61% for the lowest and the highest, respectively, p = 0.01). The frequency of inhaler use did not differ by gender or age. Among the individuals reporting emphysema and inhaler use, the use of the bronchodilator-corticosteroid combination was more common than was that of a bronchodilator alone. Only among the individuals reporting physician-diagnosed asthma and current symptoms was the proportion of inhaler users higher than 50%. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, inhalers were underutilized, and the type of medication used by the individuals who reported emphysema does not seem to be in accordance with the consensus recommendations.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/tratamento farmacológico , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Criança , Enfisema/tratamento farmacológico , Enfisema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(3): 287-295, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-678253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of users of inhalers and the prevalence of inhaler use among adolescents and adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema. METHODS: A population-based study conducted in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, involving 3,670 subjects ≥ 10 years of age, evaluated with a questionnaire. RESULTS: Approximately 10% of the sample reported at least one of the respiratory diseases studied. Among those individuals, 59% reported respiratory symptoms in the last year, and, of those, only half reported using inhalers. The use of inhalers differed significantly by socioeconomic status (39% and 61% for the lowest and the highest, respectively, p = 0.01). The frequency of inhaler use did not differ by gender or age. Among the individuals reporting emphysema and inhaler use, the use of the bronchodilator-corticosteroid combination was more common than was that of a bronchodilator alone. Only among the individuals reporting physician-diagnosed asthma and current symptoms was the proportion of inhaler users higher than 50%. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, inhalers were underutilized, and the type of medication used by the individuals who reported emphysema does not seem to be in accordance with the consensus recommendations. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características dos usuários de dispositivos inalatórios e a prevalência de uso desses em adolescentes e adultos com diagnóstico médico autorreferido de asma, bronquite ou enfisema. MÉTODOS: Estudo de base populacional realizado em Pelotas, RS, incluindo 3.670 indivíduos com idade ≥ 10 anos, avaliados com um questionário. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 10% da amostra referiram pelo menos uma das doenças respiratórias investigadas. Entre esses, 59% apresentaram sintomas respiratórios no último ano, e, desses, apenas metade usou inaladores. O uso de inaladores diferiu significativamente de acordo com o nível socioeconômico (39% e 61% entre mais pobres e mais ricos, respectivamente; p = 0,01). Não houve diferença na frequência de uso de inaladores por sexo ou idade. Entre indivíduos com enfisema, o uso da combinação broncodilatador + corticoide inalatório foi mais frequente que o uso isolado de broncodilatador. Somente entre os indivíduos que referiram diagnóstico médico de asma e sintomas atuais, a proporção de uso de inaladores foi maior que 50%. CONCLUSÕES: Em nossa amostra, os inaladores foram subutilizados, e o tipo de medicamento usado por aqueles que referiram enfisema parece não estar de acordo com o preconizado em consensos sobre essa doença. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/tratamento farmacológico , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquite/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquite/epidemiologia , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Enfisema/tratamento farmacológico , Enfisema/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias Obstrutivas/epidemiologia , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sci. med ; 18(2): 98-101, abr.-jun. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-492762

RESUMO

Objetivos: realizar uma breve revisão sobre as complicações da varicela, descrevendo o caso de uma paciente adulta jovem que desenvolveu varicela primária com graves complicações.Descrição do caso: paciente do sexo feminino, 24 anos, com queixas de mialgia, tosse, dispnéia, hipertermia e lesões de pele, interna na emergência de um hospital público após diagnóstico médico de varicela. A paciente desenvolveu pneumonite e, mais tardiamente, encefalomielite disseminada aguda, com necessidade de ventilação mecânica invasiva por tempo prolongado e sintomas temporários do sistema nervoso central.Conclusões: a varicela no adulto é uma doença que merece sempre muita atenção, pela possibilidade de complicações graves associadas.


Aims: To review the literature about the complications of varicella, describing the case of a young adult patient who developed primary varicella and severe complications. Case description: A female patient, 24 years-old, complaining of myalgia, cough, dyspnea, hyperthermia and skin injuries, is admitted at the emergency room of a public hospital after the diagnosis of varicella. The patient developed pneumonitis, and later, acute disseminated encefalomielitis, with invasive mechanical ventilation for a long period, with temporary central nervous system abnormalities. Conclusions: Varicella in the adult is a disease that requires thorough attention, because of the potential associated complications.

8.
Porto Alegre; s.n; 2008. 18 p.
Tese em Português | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-931665

RESUMO

Detectar as características das crianças com idade até cinco anos internadas em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) Pediátrica, traçando comparativos entre as que foram prematuras e as a termo. - pt


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pediatria , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
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