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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 25(6): 498-502, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042367

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction Prostate cancer is the most prevalent neoplastic disease in men. After diagnosis, different treatment regimens are proposed based on the stage of the cancer. These treatments affect physical and muscle function, quality of life, and prognosis differently. Objectives To assess fatigue, muscle strength, muscle thickness, and muscle quality in prostate cancer survivors undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods Ten ADT patients, eight non-ADT patients and 18 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Perceived fatigue was assessed through the 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Muscle thickness and quality (e.g., echo intensity) were assessed through B-mode ultrasound. Muscle strength and work capacity were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. The groups were compared with one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustment. Results Muscle thickness, peak torque, and work capacity were lower in ADT than in the control group (CON) (p = 0.021; p = 0.005; p <0.001, respectively). ADT showed greater echo intensity than CON (p = 0.005) and N-ADT (p = 0.046). There were no differences between N-ADT and CON in terms of muscle thickness, peak torque, work capacity, and echo intensity (p >0.05). General fatigue was greater in both ADT (p = 0.030) and N-ADT (p = 0.047) compared to CON. Physical fatigue was greater in ADT than CON (p = 0.006). Conclusion ADT patients showed lower levels of muscle function and greater levels of perceived fatigue than healthy control subjects. It appears that muscle function remains lower in ADT patients, even several years after treatment initiation, although this does not apply to non-ADT patients. Level of evidence II; Diagnostic Studies - Investigating a Diagnostic Test.


RESUMO Introdução O câncer de próstata é a doença neoplásica mais frequente nos homens. Após seu diagnóstico, diferentes métodos de tratamento são propostos baseados no estágio do câncer. Esses tratamentos afetam diferentemente a função física e muscular, qualidade de vida e o prognóstico. Objetivos Avaliar a fadiga, força muscular, espessura muscular e a qualidade muscular dos sobreviventes ao câncer de próstata que foram submetidos a terapia de privação androgênica (ADT). Métodos Dez pacientes ADT, oito não ADT (N-ADT) e 18 indivíduos saudáveis no grupo controle (CON) foram inscritos neste estudo. A fadiga percebida foi avaliada através do Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory composto por 20 itens. A espessura e qualidade musculares (eco-intensidade) foram avaliadas através de um aparelho de ultrassom B-mode. A força muscular e a capacidade de trabalho foram avaliadas utilizando um dinamômetro isocinético. Os grupos foram comparados através de ANOVA de um fator e ajuste de Bonferroni. Resultados O grupo ADT apresentou menor espessura muscular, pico de torque e capacidade de trabalho do que o grupo controle (p = 0,021; p = 0,005; p < 0,001, respectivamente). O grupo ADT demonstrou maior eco-intensidade que o grupo controle (p = 0,005) e N-ADT (p = 0,046). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre o grupo N-ADT e CON quanto à espessura muscular, pico de torque, capacidade de trabalho e eco-intensidade (p > 0,05). A fadiga geral foi maior tanto no grupo ADT (p = 0,030) quanto no grupo N-ADT (p = 0,047) quando comparada ao grupo CON. A fadiga física foi maior no grupo ADT do que no grupo CON (p = 0,006). Conclusão Os pacientes submetidos à terapia de privação androgênica demonstraram menores níveis de função muscular e maiores níveis de fadiga percebida do que os indivíduos saudáveis do grupo controle. Parece que a função muscular permanece menor em pacientes submetidos à ADT vários anos após o início do tratamento, o que não ocorre com os pacientes N-ADT. Nível de evidência II; Estudos diagnósticos - Investigação de um exame para diagnóstico.


RESUMEN Introducción El cáncer de próstata es la enfermedad neoplásica más frecuente en los hombres. Después de su diagnóstico, diferentes métodos de tratamiento son propuestos basados en la etapa del cáncer. Estos tratamientos afectan de forma diferente la función física y muscular, la calidad de vida y el pronóstico. Objetivos Evaluar la fatiga, fuerza muscular, espesor muscular, y la calidad muscular de sobrevivientes al cáncer de próstata que fueron sometidos a la terapia de privación de andrógenos (ADT). Métodos Diez pacientes ADT, ocho no ADT (N-ADT) y 18 individuos sanos en el grupo control (CON) fueron inscriptos en este estudio. La fatiga percibida fue evaluada a través del Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory compuesto por 20 ítems. El espesor y calidad muscular (eco intensidad) fueron evaluadas a través de un aparato de ultrasonido B-mode. La fuerza muscular y la capacidad de trabajo fueron evaluadas en un dinamómetro isocinético. Los grupos fueron comparados a través de ANOVA de un factor y ajuste de Bonferroni. Resultados El grupo ADT demostró menor espesor muscular, pico de torque y capacidad de trabajo que el grupo control (p = 0,021; p = 0,005; p <0,001, respectivamente). El grupo ADT demostró mayor eco intensidad que el grupo control (p = 0,005) y N-ADT (p = 0,046). No se encontraron diferencias entre el grupo N-ADT y el grupo CON, con respecto al espesor muscular, pico de torque, capacidad de trabajo y eco intensidad (p > 0,05). La fatiga general fue mayor tanto en el grupo ADT (p = 0,030) como en el grupo N-ADT (p = 0,047), cuando comparada al grupo CON. La fatiga física fue mayor en el grupo ADT que en el grupo CON (p = 0,006). Conclusión Los pacientes sometidos a la terapia de privación de andrógenos demostraron menores niveles de función muscular y mayores niveles de fatiga percibida que los individuos saludables del grupo control. Parece que la función muscular permanece menor en pacientes sometidos a ADT varios años después del inicio del tratamiento, lo que no ocurre con los pacientes N-ADT. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios de diagnóstico - Investigación de un examen de diagnóstico.

2.
Arch Osteoporos ; 14(1): 38, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868338

RESUMO

A better understanding of the relationship between osteoporosis and sarcopenia may help to develop effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. In the present study, the association between different stages of sarcopenia, BMD, and osteoporosis was examined. The salient findings indicate that a dose-response relationship exists between sarcopenia stages and bone-related phenotypes. PURPOSE: To assess the association between sarcopenia stages, bone mineral density (BMD), and the prevalence of osteoporosis in older women. METHODS: Two hundred thirty-four women (68.3 ± 6.3 years) underwent body composition and BMD measurements using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Quadriceps isokinetic torque was evaluated, and the timed up-and-go test was conducted as a measure of function. Sarcopenia stages were classified according to European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP): nonsarcopenia, presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia. Osteoporosis was defined as BMD value (hip or spine) 2.5 standard deviations below a young-adult reference population. Between-group differences were examined using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-squared for categorical variables. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between sarcopenia stages and osteoporosis. RESULTS: Rates of osteoporosis were 15.8%, 19.2%, 35.3%, and 46.2% for nonsarcopenia, presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia, respectively (P = 0.002). Whole-body and femoral neck BMD values were significantly lower among all sarcopenia stages when compared to nonsarcopenia (all P values < 0.05, η2p 0.113 to 0.109). The severe sarcopenia group also showed significantly lower lumbar spine BMD values and T-scores (both P values < 0.05; η2p 0.035 and 0.037, respectively). When clustered, sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia exhibited lower BMD values for all sites (all P values < 0.01), and presented a significantly higher risk for osteoporosis (odds ratio 3.445; 95% CI 1.521-7.844). CONCLUSION: The observed results provide support for the concept that a dose-response relationship exists between sarcopenia stages, BMD, and the presence of osteoporosis. These findings strengthen the clinical significance of the EWGSOP sarcopenia definition and indicate that severe sarcopenia should be viewed with attention by healthcare professionals.

3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 26(3): 178-184, jul.-set.2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-967552

RESUMO

A prática regular de exercícios físicos de diferentes naturezas tem sido amplamente recomendada para a população idosa, em virtude dos inúmeros benefícios relacionados à capacidade funcional e cognitiva nesta etapa da vida, aumentando a longevidade com independência funcional. Os efeitos da equoterapia na melhora do equilíbrio postural estão sendo cada vez mais estudados nas diversas populações, contudo, os estudos sobre esses efeitos em idosos são recentes. Dada a importância de melhorar a prática baseada em evidências, surgiu o interesse em realizar uma síntese rigorosa de todas as consultas relacionadas com o efeito da equoterapia no equilíbrio de idosos. Esta revisão seguiu as recomendações do Preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-análise (PRISMA) e registrado em um banco de dados internacional de revisões sistemáticas (PROSPERO). Foram selecionados artigos de bases de dados BIREME, SCIELO, MEDLINE CINAHAL, EBSCHOST e ISI, publicados em português e inglês. As palavras-chaves utilizadas foram: "equoterapia" OR "terapia assistida por animais" AND "equilíbrio postural" AND "idoso", presentes no título ou nos resumos dos artigos. Os artigos foram avaliados com base em seu nível de evidência e conduta. Utilizou-se a escala PEDro, para avaliação metodológica dos artigos incluídos na revisão. Identificou-se 20 estudos; 4 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Estudos sobre os efeitos de equoterapia em idosos apresentam uma homogeneidade (I2 = 0 %) e uma melhora significativa (p = 0,001) equilíbrio. Embora os estudos apontem que a equoterapia seja benéfica para a melhora do equilíbrio postural, somente 4 estudos foram analisados, havendo necessidade de mais pesquisas que relacionem essas variáveis na população idosa....(AU)


The regular practice of physical exercises of diff erent natures has been widely recommended for the elderly population, due to the innumerable benefi ts related to functional and cognitive capacity in this stage of life, increasing the longevity with functional independence.The eff ects hippotherapy on the improvement of postural balance are being increasingly studied in diff erent populations, however, studies on these eff ects in the elderly are recent. Given the importance of improving evidence-based practice, the interest in performing a rigorous synthesis of all queries related to the eff ect of hippotherapy on balance postural. This review followed the reporting items Preferred recommendations for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) And registered in an international database of systematic reviews (PROSPERO). Were selected articles from databases BIREME, SCIELO, MEDLINE CINAHAL, EBSCHOST e ISI, published Portuguese and English. The key words used were: hippotherapy, therapeutic riding, postural balance and elderly, present in the title or summary of articles. Were used the PEDro scale for methodological evaluation of the articles included in the review. It identifi ed 20 studies; 4 met the inclusion criteria. Studies on the eff ects of hippotherapy in older adults homogeneity (I2 = 0 %) and a signifi cant improvement (p = 0.001) in the functional capacity of the elderly. Although the studies indicate that hippotherapy is benefi cial for the improvement of postural balance, only 4 studies were analyzed, and there is a need for research that relates these variables to the elderly population....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Idoso , Terapia Assistida por Cavalos
4.
J Geriatr Phys Ther ; 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lower-limb strength is required for everyday activities and thus its evaluation has been especially emphasized in older adults. Isokinetic testing is a criterion standard method to assess muscle strength; however, lack of reference values limits its usefulness in geriatric evaluation and rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to develop reference values of knee extensor isokinetic strength for older women. As a secondary aim, functional tests were performed for clinical significance validation. METHODS: A total of 453 older women aged 60 to 84 years participated in this study. Knee extensor isokinetic strength was measured using the Biodex System dynamometer at 60° per second. The Timed Up and Go test and the 5 times Sit-to-Stand test were used for functional performance evaluation. Participants were categorized into age groups of 5 years range. The 20th, 40th, 60th, and 80th percentiles were used for stratification purposes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: As expected, mean strength values significantly decreased with advancing age groups. Isokinetic percentile groups are presented according to age. Individuals in the lower percentile strata showed significantly reduced performance in both the Timed Up and Go and 5 times Sit-to-Stand tests (P < .05). CONCLUSION: This study provides normative values of isokinetic knee extensor strength in older women. The association between lower isokinetic knee extensor strength strata and reduced functional capacity supports the potential application of these reference values in clinical and research settings. Future studies should ascertain these findings in different female populations.

5.
Exp Aging Res ; 44(3): 258-269, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29558320

RESUMO

Background/Study context: Falls represent the leading cause of accidental deaths in the elderly. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome defined as the loss of muscle mass and strength. However, the association between falls and sarcopenia is still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between different stages of sarcopenia and postural balance, risk of falls, and fear of falling in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: A total of 196 women (68.6 ± 6.5 years) underwent body composition (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry), muscle strength (isokinetic), and functional (Timed Up-and-Go) assessments. Sarcopenia was classified according to European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Center of pressure (CoP) sway, risk, and fear of falling were assessed through force platform, QuickScreen, and Falls Efficacy Scale, respectively. ANOVA models and chi-squared were used to compare groups. RESULTS: Severe sarcopenic subjects presented higher risk of falling when compared to the other stages (p < 0.01). Regarding CoP sway, both mean speed and mediolateral range were significantly higher in severe sarcopenia when compared to both nonsarcopenia and presarcopenia (p < 0.05). Fear of falling was higher in all sarcopenia stages when compared to nonsarcopenic individuals (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia negatively affects balance, and both risk and fear of falling in community-dwelling older women. Moreover, this study provides evidence that sarcopenia severity is further associated to reduced balance and imposes an even greater risk of falls in the elderly.

6.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 17(2): 299-305, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617061

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare fatigue, strength, body composition, muscle thickness, and muscle quality between Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors (HLS) and apparently healthy subjects matched by age, gender, and physical activity levels (CON). Twelve HLS (32.16 ± 8.06) and 36 CON (32.42 ± 7.64) were enrolled in the study. Fatigue was assessed using the 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, muscle strength using an isokinetic dynamometer, body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and thickness and muscle quality using B-mode ultrasound. Differences between HLS and CON were analyzed using independent samples t tests. No significant differences were observed between groups for any demographic characteristics: age ( P = .922), weight ( P = .943), height ( P = .511), body mass index ( P = .796), fat mass ( P = .688), fat-free mass ( P = .520), and percent body fat ( P = .446). No significant differences were observed for strength (peak torque; P = .552), relative peak torque ( P = .200), muscle thickness ( P > .05) and muscle quality ( P > .05). However, self-perceived fatigue was significantly higher in HLS than in CON ( P = .009). It appears that when HLS are matched by age and physical activity levels to CON, no significant difference in body composition, muscle thickness, muscle quality, or strength is observed. Self-perceived fatigue, as predicted, is higher in HLS, which may have implications and should be considered when prescribing exercise training to this cancer population.

7.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 23(5): 380-384, set.-out. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-899000

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Pre-prandial exercise promotes greater mobilization of fat metabolism due to the increased release of catecholamines, cortisol, and glucagon. However, this response affects how the cardiovascular system responds to exercise. Objective: To evaluate the response of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, heart rate (HR) and rate-pressure product (RPP) to pre- and postprandial exercise. Methods: Ten physically active male subjects (25.50 ± 2.22 years) underwent two treadmill protocols (pre- and postprandial) performed for 36 minutes at 65% of VO2max on different days. On both days, subjects attended the laboratory on a 10-hour fasting state. For the postprandial session, volunteers ingested a pre-exercise meal of 349.17 kcal containing 59.3 g of carbohydrates (76.73%), 9.97 g of protein (12.90%), and 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%). Blood pressure, HR and RPP were measured before and after exercise. The 2x2 factorial Anova with the multiple comparisons test of Bonferroni was applied to analyze cardiovascular variables in both moments (pre- vs. postprandial). The significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: Systolic (121.70 ± 7.80 vs. 139.78 ± 12.91 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (66.40 ± 9.81 vs. 80.22 ± 8.68 mmHg) increased significantly after exercise only in the postprandial session (p<0.05). HR increased significantly (p<0.05) after both protocols (64.20 ± 15.87 vs. 141.20 ± 10.33 bpm pre-prandial and 63.60 ± 8.82 vs. 139.20 ± 10.82 bpm postprandial). RPP had a similar result (8052.10 ± 1790.68 vs. 18382.60 ± 2341.66 mmHg.bpm in the pre-prandial session and 7772.60 ± 1413.76 vs. 19564.60 ± 3128.99 mmHg.bpm in the postprandial session). Conclusion: These data suggest that fasted exercise does not significantly alter the blood pressure. Furthermore, the meal provided before the postprandial exercise may promote a greater blood pressure responsiveness during exercise.


RESUMO Introdução: O exercício pré-prandial promove maior mobilização do metabolismo de gordura devido ao aumento da liberação de catecolaminas, cortisol e glucagon. Contudo, tal resposta afeta a forma como o sistema cardiovascular responde ao exercício. Objetivo: Avaliar a resposta da pressão sistólica, diastólica e média, a frequência cardíaca (FC) e o duplo produto (DP) ao exercício pré e pós-prandial. Métodos: Dez indivíduos ativos (25,50 ± 2,22 anos) foram submetidos a dois protocolos de exercício em esteira (pré e pós-prandial) realizados durante 36 minutos a 65% do VO2máx em dias diferentes. Em ambos os dias, os indivíduos compareceram ao laboratório em jejum de 10 horas. Para a sessão pós-prandial, os voluntários ingeriram uma refeição pré-exercício de 349,17 kcal, contendo 59,3 g de carboidratos (76,73%), 9,97 g de proteína (12,90%) e 8,01 g de lipídeos (10,37%). A pressão sanguínea, a FC e o DP foram medidos antes e depois do exercício. A Anova fatorial (2 X 2) com as comparações múltiplas de Bonferroni foi aplicada para análise das variáveis nos dois momentos (pré e pós-prandial). O nível de significância foi fixado em p < 0,05. Resultados: A pressão sanguínea sistólica (121,70 ± 7,80 vs. 139,78 ± 12,91 mmHg) e a diastólica (66,40 ± 9,81 vs. 80,22 ± 8,68 mmHg) aumentaram significantemente após o exercício somente na sessão pós-prandial (p < 0,05). A FC aumentou significantemente (p < 0,05) após ambos os protocolos (64,20 ± 15,87 vs. 141,20 ± 10,33 bpm pré-prandial e 63,60 ± 8,82 vs. 139,20 ± 10,82 bpm pós-prandial). O DP teve resultado semelhante (8.052,10 ± 1.790,68 vs. 18.382,60 ± 2.341,66 mmHg.bpm na sessão pré-prandial e 7.772,60 ± 1.413,76 vs. 19.564,60 ± 3.128,99 mmHg.bpm na sessão pós-prandial). Conclusão: Esses dados sugerem que o exercício em jejum não altera significantemente a pressão sanguínea. Além disso, a refeição fornecida antes do exercício pós-prandial pode promover maior responsividade da pressão sanguínea durante o exercício.


RESUMEN Introducción: El ejercicio preprandial promueve una mayor movilización de metabolismo de la grasa debido al aumento de la liberación de catecolaminas, cortisol y glucagón. Sin embargo, tal respuesta afecta la forma en que el sistema cardiovascular responde al ejercicio. Objetivo: Evaluar la respuesta de la presión sistólica, diastólica y media, la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y el doble-producto (DP) al ejercicio pre y postprandial. Métodos: Diez hombres activos (25,50 ± 2,22 años), fueron sometidos a dos protocolos de ejercicio en cinta rodante (pre y postprandial) realizados durante 36 minutos a 65% del VO2máx en días diferentes. En ambos días, los individuos asistieron al laboratorio después de un ayuno de 10 horas. Para la sesión postprandial, los voluntarios ingirieron una comida pre-ejercicio de 349,17 kcal, que contenía 59,3 g de hidratos de carbono (76,73%), 9,97 g de proteínas (12,90%) y 8,01 g de lípidos (10,37%). La presión sanguínea, la FC y el DP se midieron antes y después del ejercicio. Se aplicó el ANOVA factorial (2 x 2) con las comparaciones múltiples de Bonferroni para analizar las variables en los dos momentos (pre y postprandial). El nivel de significación se ha fijado en p < 0,05. Resultados: La presión sanguínea sistólica (121,70 ± 7,80 vs. 139,78 ± 12,91 mmHg) y la diastólica (66,40 ± 9,81 vs. 80,22 ± 8,68 mmHg) aumentaron significativamente después del ejercicio sólo en la sesión postprandial (p < 0,05). La FC aumentó significativamente (p < 0,05) después de ambos protocolos (64,20 ± 15,87 vs. 141,20 ± 10,33 lpm preprandial y 63,60 ± 8,82 vs. 139,20 ± 10,82 lpm postprandial). El DP tuvo un resultado similar (8.052,10 ± 1.790,68 vs. 18.382,60 ± 2.341,66 mmHg.lpm preprandial y 7.772,60 ± 1.413,76 vs. 19.564,60 ± 3.128.99 mmHg.lpm postprandial). Conclusión: Estos datos sugieren que el ejercicio en ayunas no altera significativamente la presión sanguínea. Además, la comida suministrada antes del ejercicio postprandial puede promover una mayor capacidad de respuesta de la presión sanguínea durante el ejercicio.

8.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 37(2): 205-210, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26373437

RESUMO

Ageing is associated with changes in body composition that may result in sarcopenic obesity (SO). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are important inflammatory markers related to ageing. SO has been examined as an important public health problem, but its association with inflammatory markers has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SO-related phenotypes and inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women. A total of 130 women (66·7 ± 5·2 years) underwent body composition evaluation using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Volunteers were classified according to a SO definition previously described in the literature. Waist circumference (WC) and handgrip strength (HG) were also measured. Blood samples were collected for CRP, tumour necrosis factor and IL-6 measurements. All the inflammatory markers were higher in SO individuals when compared to non-SO; however, only IL-6 reached statistical significance (median 3·34 versus 1·37 pg ml-1 ; P<0·05). Also, CRP was significantly correlated (P<0·01) with body mass index (rs  = 0·34), fat mass (FM; rs  = 0·25) and WC (rs  = 0·33). Similarly, IL-6 levels were significantly correlated (P<0·05) to age (rs  = 0·19), FM (rs  = 0·19) and WC (rs  = 0·17). HG was found to be significantly reduced among subjects with higher IL-6 levels (P = 0·02). In summary, the combination of reduced muscle mass and excess body fat (i.e. SO) is associated with elevated inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women. Moreover, CRP and IL-6 are associated with SO-related phenotypes in this population.


Assuntos
Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Sarcopenia/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
J Phys Act Health ; 14(4): 317-327, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elastic Resistance Exercise (ERE) has already demonstrated its effectiveness in older adults and, when combined with the resistance generated by fixed loads, in adults. This review summarizes the effectiveness of ERE performed as isolated method on muscle strength and functional performance in healthy adults. METHODS: A database search was performed (MEDLine, Cochrane Library, PEDro and Web of Knowledge) to identify controlled clinical trials in English language. The mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and overall effect size were calculated for all comparisons. The PEDro scale was used assess the methodological quality. RESULTS: From the 93 articles identified by the search strategy, 5 met the inclusion criteria, in which 3 presented high quality (PEDro > 6). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the effects of ERE were superior when compared with passive control on functional performance and muscle strength. When compared with active controls, the effect of ERE was inferior on function performance and with similar effect on muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: ERE are effective to improve functional performance and muscle strength when compared with no intervention, in healthy adults. ERE are not superior to other methods of resistance training to improve functional performance and muscle strength in health adults.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 65: 168-73, 2016 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27057600

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on sarcopenic obesity (SO) in older women. 243 older women underwent body composition measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the SO index was calculated. This randomized controlled trial adopted from the baseline sample, 113 volunteers (67.0±5.2years) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n=64) or an experimental group (EG, n=69). The EG took part in a 24-week RT program, conducted three times per week. Body composition measurements were repeated at the end of the training program. RT induced a significant increase in fat-free mass (P<0.01), but not decrease in fat mass in the EG. Moreover, the SO index was also significantly improved in the EG (P<0.01), while it decreased significantly in the CG (P<0.01). It is concluded that RT is an effective approach to promote body composition alterations in older women, and it might improve SO-related phenotypes.


Assuntos
Obesidade/terapia , Treinamento de Resistência , Sarcopenia/terapia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos
11.
Top Stroke Rehabil ; 23(2): 84-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strength training post stroke is widely acknowledged as an important part of a rehabilitation program. Muscle strength has been shown to be a significant contributor to physical disability after stroke, which in turn has an immense impact on the reintegration of patients into society, affecting their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: This was a randomized intervention trial to determine the effect of a resistance training program on the quality of life in patients with stroke. METHODS: An experimental group (EG), consisting of 11 subjects aged 51.7 ± 8.0 years, and a control group (CG), consisting of 13 subjects aged 52.5 ± 7.7 years, were studied before and after 12 weeks. EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training three times a week. The CG did not undergo strength training during the 12-week study period. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in quality of life from pre-test to post-test (Δ% = 21.47%; p = 0.021) in EG. There were significant differences in all indicators of quality of life between groups at 12 weeks. There were greater gains in strength in EG than in CG (p ≤ 0.05). There was a negative correlation between the strength gains as determined with the 1RM test and the quality of life, especially in lower limb exercises. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that there was an improvement in the measures of strength in EG, and that there was a correlation between improvements in strength and quality of life in these patients who had previously suffered a stroke at least one year prior to study.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Man Ther ; 21: 10-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26144684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) requires a complex diagnostic and therapeutic approach, which usually involves a multidisciplinary management. Among these treatments, musculoskeletal manual techniques are used to improve health and healing. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of musculoskeletal manual approach in temporomandibular joint disorder patients. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analysis. METHODS: During August 2014 a systematic review of relevant databases (PubMed, The Cochrane Library, PEDro and ISI web of knowledge) was performed to identify controlled clinical trials without date restriction and restricted to the English language. Clinical outcomes were pain and range of motion focalized in temporomandibular joint. The mean difference (MD) or standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and overall effect size were calculated at every post treatment. The PEDro scale was used to demonstrate the quality of the included studies. RESULTS/FINDINGS: From the 308 articles identified by the search strategy, 8 articles met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) and large effect on active mouth opening (SMD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.42 to 1.25) and on pain during active mouth opening (MD, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.30) in favor of musculoskeletal manual techniques when compared to other conservative treatments for TMD. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal manual approaches are effective for treating TMD. In the short term, there is a larger effect regarding the latter when compared to other conservative treatments for TMD.


Assuntos
Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/terapia , Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 15: 99, 2015 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26265075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current recommendations on resistance training involving older adults have reported an improvement of body composition variables. Despite this, there is a lack of knowledge on how elastic resistance training (ERT) affects the muscle mass in older adults population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a short-term ERT on muscle mass of health and untrained older adults. METHODS: Forty older adults were randomized into two groups of 20 individuals each: Control Group (CG = 66.2 ± 6.6 years) and Training Group (TG = 69.1 ± 6.3 years). TG underwent an ERT twice a week during 8 weeks and control group did not receive any specific intervention. The primary outcome was the upper and lower limbs muscle mass, measured by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The secondary outcomes were knee isokinetic peak torque (PT) at 60°/s and 120°/s speeds and isometric handgrip strength. A 2×2 mixed model (group [TG and CG] × time [pre and post]) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine the effect on primary and secondary outcomes. RESULTS: The results of the ANOVA showed no significant effects in group x time interaction for (1) upper limbs fat free mass (F [1.38] = 1.80, p = 0.19, effect size [ES] = 0.1) and for (2) lower limbs fat free mass (F [1.38] = 0.03, p = 0.88, ES = 0.02). Regarding muscle strength, the ANOVA showed no significant effects in group x time interaction for (3) PT at 60°/s (F [1.38] = 0.33, p = 0.56, ES = 3.0), for (4) PT at 120°/s (F [1.38] = 0.80, p = 0.38, ES = 4.1) and for handgrip strength (F [1.38] = 0.65, p = 0.42-value, ES = 0.9). Analysis of PT in TG showed a significant change of 4.5%, but only at 120°/s (p = 0.01) when comparing pre and post-training (time interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of ERT did not show significant changes in muscle mass and strength of untrained older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02253615 (09/25/14).


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Extremidade Inferior , Força Muscular , Atrofia Muscular , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Extremidade Superior , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Extremidade Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 223, 2015 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26165865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteopathic medicine is based on a diagnostic and therapeutic system to treat tissue mobility/ motility dysfunctions in general, using different approaches (depending on the target tissue) known as osteopathic manipulative treatment. Among the available techniques those ones addressed to the cranial field are the most questioned because of the lack of scientific evidence; but the compression of the 4th ventricle technique has been largely studied in clinical trials. Studies have shown that the technique may affect both central and autonomous nervous system, modulating some reflexes (Traube-Hering baro signal), and modifying brain cortex electrical activity through central sensitization in subjects with chronic low back pain. Thus, investigators hypothesize that the compression of the 4th ventricle may modulate peak alpha frequency (eletroencephalographic assessment) and promote physical relaxation in subjects in vigil. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized, controlled crossover trial with blinded assessor was designed to test the hypothesis. A total of 81 participants will be assigned to three treatment conditions, with seven days of washout: (I) compression of the 4th ventricle; (II) sham compression of the fourth ventricle; (III) control (no intervention). The (I) power amplitude and the (II) frequencies of the dominant peak in the alpha band will be the primary outcome measures of the study. All participants will be recruited at the Outpatient Rehabilitation Service of the University Hospital of Brasília-University of Brasília. All the electroencephalographic exams will be conducted by a blinded assessor. DISCUSSION: The investigators hypothesize that patients with chronic low back pain submitted to the technique would have the peak alpha frequency modulated and, thus, would experience physical relaxation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02111382.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/terapia , Manipulação Osteopática , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Interv Aging ; 10: 247-53, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25609936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical classification of the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) for the prediction of inflammatory and atherogenic lipid profile risk in older women. METHOD: Cross-sectional analytical study with 277 elderly women from a local community in the Federal District, Brazil. PBF and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The investigated inflammatory parameters were interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein. RESULTS: Twenty-five percent of the elderly women were classified as normal weight, 50% overweight, and 25% obese by the BMI. The obese group had higher levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins than did the normal weight group (P≤0.05) and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) than did the overweight group (P≤0.05). According to the PBF, 49% of the elderly women were classified as eutrophic, 28% overweight, and 23% obese. In the binomial logistic regression analyses including age, FFM, and lipid profile, only FFM (odds ratio [OR]=0.809, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.739-0.886; P<0.0005) proved to be a predictor of reaching the eutrophic state by the BMI. When the cutoff points of PBF were used for the classification, FFM (OR=0.903, CI=0.884-0.965; P=0.003) and the total cholesterol/HDL ratio (OR=0.113, CI=0.023-0.546; P=0.007) proved to be predictors of reaching the eutrophic state. CONCLUSION: Accurate identification of obesity, systemic inflammation, and atherogenic lipid profile is key to assessing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Classification based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures, along with biochemical and inflammatory parameters, seems to have a great clinical importance, since it allows the lipid profile eutrophic distinction in elderly overweight women.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Sobrepeso
16.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 59(1): 56-61, 2014 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24766993

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) with cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. 149 volunteers (67.17±6.12 years) underwent body composition assessment using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and had analyzed blood samples collected for lipid profile, glucose metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP). Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular fat-free mass (AFFM) divided by height squared ≤5.45 kg/m(2) while SO was classified based on the residuals of a regression. Waist circumference (WC) and arterial blood pressure were also measured. Student's t-tests and correlations were used for analyses. Prevalence of sarcopenia and SO were respectively 16.8 and 21.5%. WC was significantly correlated with all the examined risk factors. AFFM relative to height squared was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), CRP, insulinaemia, HOMA score, and those classified as sarcopenic presented lower HOMA score when compared to nonsarcopenic. Regarding SO, although volunteers classified presented significantly higher fat mass (FM) and lower AFFM, it was not observed association with the examined risk factors. These findings support the association between WC and cardiometabolic risk factors in older women. In contrast, the approaches used to define sarcopenia and SO are not associated with cardiometabolic impairments.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Composição Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Physiother Theory Pract ; 30(3): 218-22, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24147983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify the force of elastic tubes at different elongation patterns used in exercises. METHODS: A tensile test of elastic tubes which had seven levels of resistance identified by colors was performed. All samples (n = 105; 15 samples for each color) were 7 cm of length and had two interfaces for fixation. The samples were tested in a tensile testing hydraulic machine, under elongation control, up to 200% of the original length (21 cm). The force values corresponding to an increase of 50%, 100%, 150% and 200% of the samples initial length were recorded. RESULTS: A strong linear association between force and elongation for all colors was found. There were different forces for each elongation investigated for the same tube and between different tubes in almost all percentage of elongation investigated, except for the red and green tubes (all elongations), and for the blue and black tubes at 50% elongation. CONCLUSION: Mechanical tests revealed different elastic forces for different levels of elongation of each tube. The replication of the results in clinical situations is recommended, so the elastic resistance in clinical routine could be evaluated with more propriety.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Resistência/instrumentação , Elasticidade , Desenho de Equipamento , Modelos Lineares , Teste de Materiais , Resistência à Tração
18.
Endocrine ; 45(3): 487-96, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23812803

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the GHR exon 3 fl/d3 polymorphism and body composition traits in Brazilian cohorts of normal post-menarche adolescent girls and in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis. First, multiplex PCR and quantitative PCR (TaqMan) were used with 105 DNA samples from the general Brazilian population to validate the SNP rs6873545 as a surrogate marker for the GHR polymorphism. Subsequently, genotyping was carried out to evaluate associations for this polymorphism in 136 post-menarche adolescents and 175 post-menopausal women, who were evaluated for body composition traits such as bone mineral density and fat-free mass. Statistical analysis used an independent sample t test, one-way ANOVA test and post hoc Tukey HSD test. Significant values were assumed by p < 0.05. Genotyping indicated complete linkage disequilibrium between the GHR polymorphism and the SNP alleles (r(2) = 1.0). Adolescents and healthy post-menopausal women showed no genotype associations for body composition traits or osteoporosis. However, a lower total body bone mineral density was observed in fl/fl post-menopausal women with osteoporosis (p = 0.0004). These results suggest that the SNP rs6873545 can be used as a surrogate for the GHR fl/d3 polymorphism due to linkage disequilibrium in the Brazilian population and that the fl/fl genotype is a severity-related risk factor for osteoporosis, but did not appear to be associated with disease status.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Densidade Óssea/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Transporte , Criança , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Menarca/fisiologia , Menopausa/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Hum Kinet ; 43: 7-15, 2014 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25713639

RESUMO

The Cerebral Vascular Accident is responsible for a significant increase in the mortality rate in individuals who have suffered this condition, regardless of the level of subsequent disability. This study aimed to analyze the influence of a strength training program on indicators of depression in survivors of the ischemic stroke. The study sample included subjects from both genders who were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG) consisting of 11 subjects aged 51.7 8.0 years, and a control group (CG) consisting of 13 subjects aged 52.5 7.7 years. The EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training. Assessment was made in the pre-test before training and at the re-test after 12 weeks of training. We used the Beck Depression Inventory and evaluated 1RM. Significant differences in depression were found between post-test and pretest measurements (Δ% = -21.47%, p = 0,021) in the EG; furthermore, there were significant differences in all indicators of depression between the EG and CG after completing 12 weeks of training. There were significant gains in strength of the EG in relation to the CG. There was a negative correlation between the strength gains as determined with the 1RM test and the levels of depression, especially in lower-limb exercises. The results of this study suggest that improvements in strength are negatively correlated with levels of depression. Improvements in strength are therefore associated with a reduction in levels of depression.

20.
J Hum Kinet ; 43: 177-84, 2014 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25713658

RESUMO

Aging produces several respiratory limitations and reduces tolerance to physical efforts, sometimes leading to pulmonary diseases in the elderly. The literature draws attention to the possible benefits of Yoga practice among the elderly, presenting evidence for significant improvements in quality of life. It was hypothesized that yoga practice can improve respiratory function in the elderly. The effects of a yoga program on pulmonary volumes and respiratory muscle strength were verified in 36 elderly women divided into a yoga group [YG] (63.1 ± 13.3 years of age) and a control group (61.0 ± 6.9 years of age). Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) were assessed by a manovacuometer and tidal volume (VT), vital capacity (VC) and minute ventilation (VE) were measured by a ventilometer. The program comprised 65 min sessions, 3 times/week during 12 weeks. The heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly in the YG (76-39 ± 8-03 vs. 74-61±10.26 bpm and 18.61 ± 3.15 vs. 16.72 ± 3.12 resp/min, respectively). In the YG, VT and VE increased significantly (0.55 ± 0.22 vs. 0.64 ± 0.2 ml and 9.19 ± 2.39 vs. 10.05 ± 2.11 ml, respectively), as well as VC (1.48 ± 0.45 vs. 2.03 ± 0.72 ml). Improvements were also found in MIP and MEP in the YG (62.17 ± 14.77 vs. 73.06 ± 20.16 cmH2O and 80.56 ± 23.94 vs. 86.39 ± 20.16 cmH2O, respectively). It was concluded that a 12-week yoga program significantly improves pulmonary function of aged women.

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