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1.
AIDS ; 33(12): 1831-1842, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of cannabis and/or cocaine use on inflammatory, oxidative stress status and circulating monocyte subsets in HIV-infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN: Soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and oxidative stress markers were examined. The monocyte subsets and their activation and cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1 infected individuals upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation were also investigated. METHODS: sCD14, IFABP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels were evaluated using ELISA, CRP by turbidimetry; lipid peroxidation (TBARS) spectrofluometrically and total thiol levels by using 5-5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) reagent. Monocyte subsets and activation were assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: All HIV-infected drug user groups showed higher sCD14 levels compared with HIV+ nondrug users. IFABP was increased in HIV+ drug-users in relation to healthy individuals. Cannabis use lowered the percentages of inflammatory, nonclassical, activated-classic and activated-inflammatory monocytes. Cocaine users showed increased plasmatic TNF-α and TBARS levels, decreased thiols content and lower activated-classic and inflammatory-monocyte percentages. Cannabis-plus-cocaine use increased CRP, IL-8 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio, but decreased thiol content, and inflammatory and activated-classic monocyte percentages. PBMCs of cannabis and cannabis-plus-cocaine users showed low-potential cytokine production either spontaneously or under LPS-stimulation. CONCLUSION: In HIV infection, the use of cannabis induces predominantly an anti-inflammatory profile. The use of cocaine and cannabis-plus-cocaine showed a mixed pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory profile, with predominance of inflammatory status. Further studies are required to better understand the action of these drugs in HIV infection.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 283: 100-105, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). AAS abuse leads to a remarkable decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma concentration, which could be a key factor in the atherosclerotic process. Moreover, not only the concentration of HDL, but also its functionality, plays a pivotal role in CAD. We tested the functionality of HDL by cholesterol efflux and antioxidant capacity. We also evaluated the prevalence of CAD in AAS users. METHODS: Twenty strength-trained AAS users (AASU) age 29 ±â€¯5 yr, 20 age-matched strength-trained AAS nonusers (AASNU), and 10 sedentary controls (SC) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Functionality of HDL was evaluated by 14C-cholesterol efflux and the ability of HDL in inhibiting LDL oxidation. Coronary artery was evaluated with coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: Cholesterol efflux was lower in AASU compared with AASNU and SC (20 vs. 23 vs. 24%, respectively, p < 0.001). However, the lag time for LDL oxidation was higher in AASU compared with AASNU and SC (41 vs 13 vs 11 min, respectively, p < 0.001). We found at least 2 coronary arteries with plaques in 25% of AASU. None of the AASNU and SC had plaques. The time of AAS use was negatively associated with cholesterol efflux. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that AAS abuse impairs the cholesterol efflux mediated by HDL. Long-term AAS use seems to be correlated with lower cholesterol efflux and early subclinical CAD in this population.

3.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 29(3): 422-429, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387184

RESUMO

Disturbed shear rate (SR), characterized by increased retrograde and oscillatory SR in the brachial artery, is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Young subjects do not have disturbed SR; however, elderly subjects do, which seems to be associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse in young is associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). We hypothesized that AAS users might have disturbed SR. We tested the association between retrograde and oscillatory SR with MSNA. In addition, we measured the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). We evaluated 10 male AAS users, age 27 ± 4 years, and 10 age-matched AAS nonusers, age 29 ± 5 years. At rest, retrograde and oscillatory SR were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, MSNA was measured with microneurography, and hs-CRP was measured in blood sample. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was also assessed. AAS users had higher retrograde SR (24.42 ± 17.25 vs 9.15 ± 6.62 s- 1 , P = 0.01), oscillatory SR (0.22 ± 0.13 vs 0.09 ± 0.07 au P = 0.01), and MSNA (42 ± 9 vs 32 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.018) than nonusers. MSNA (bursts/100 heart beats) was correlated with retrograde SR (r = 0.50, P = 0.050) and oscillatory SR (r = 0.51, P = 0.042). AAS users had higher hs-CRP [1.17 (0.44-3.63) vs 0.29 (0.17-0.70) mg/L, P = 0.015] and decreased FMD (6.42 ± 2.07 vs 8.28% ± 1.53%, P = 0.035) than nonusers. In conclusion, AAS abuse is associated with retrograde and oscillatory SR which were associated with augmented sympathetic outflow. In addition, AAS seems to lead to inflammation characterized by increased hs-CRP. These alterations may have the potential of increasing the early risk of atherosclerotic disease in young AAS users.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Aterosclerose , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Oscilometria , Fatores de Risco , Sistema Nervoso Simpático , Adulto Jovem
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012. 222 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-691550

RESUMO

O produto comercial CI Disperse Blue 291 (CI DB291) é amplamente utilizado pela industria têxtil. Estudos mostram que corantes dinitrofenilazo são genotóxicos no ensaio de Ames/Salmonella, mas há poucos estudos sobre seus efeitos em células eucariontes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a genotoxicidade e citotoxicidade do corante DB291 em células humanas em cultura, bem como vias pelas quais o corante atua levando aos efeitos tóxicos. O corante comercial foi purificado por HPLC-DAD e utilizado para incubação com células HepG2 (5-100 µM por 3-72 h). A citotoxicidade foi avaliada pelos ensaios de XTT, corante cristal violeta, lactato desidrogenase extracelular e consumo de glicose. A geração de ROS intracelular foi verificada pela emissão de fluorescência da 2',7'-diclorofluoresceína. Análises de ciclo celular, fragmentação do DNA, potencial de membrana mitocondrial (Ψ) e cálcio intracelular foram realizadas por citometria de fluxo. A produção de ATP foi mensurada por quimiluminescência. Níveis de 8-oxodG e 5-mdC foram avaliados por HPLC-ESI-MS/MS e HPLC-UV, respectivamente. A expressão da enzima DNMT1 foi avaliada por western blot. Um produto de biotransformação foi identificado e caracterizado estruturalmente por MS/MS e 1H-RMN. A exposição ao corante DB291 diminuiu significativamente a sobrevivência das células em um modo tempo- e dose-dependente (IC50 = 74 µM), com a concomitante formação de um produto de biotransformação reduzido. A morte celular ocorreu sem lise da membrana plasmática. Nas células expostas, foi observado aumento da atividade enzimática mitocondrial, acompanhado por um aumento da taxa de consumo de glicose. Índices elevados de ATP, Ψ e cálcio foram verificados após a incubação das células com concentrações crescentes do corante. Alterações mitocondriais e o processo de biotransformação impeliram a aumento na produção de ROS intracelular, 8-oxodG e fragmentação do DNA. O dano ao DNA induziu a parada no ciclo...


The commercial CI Disperse Blue 291 (CI DB291) is widely used by textile industry. It is mutagenic in the Ames/S. typhimurium assay, but there are few studies showing its effects in eukaryotic cells. We evaluated here the toxicity of CI DB291 in the human HepG2 cell line. The commercial dye was purified by HPLC-DAD and used for incubation with HepG2 cells (5-100 µM for 3-72 h). Cytotoxicity was assessed by the XTT, crystal violet dye, extracellular lactate dehydrogenase and glucose consumption assays. ROS formation was assessed by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. Analyses of cell cycle, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψ) and intracellular calcium were analyzed by flow cytometry. ATP level was measured by chemiluminescence. Levels of 8-oxodG and 5-mdC were evaluated by HPLCESI-MS/MS and HPLC-UV, respectively. DNMT1 expression was assessed by western blot. A biotransformation product was identified and structurally characterized by MS/MS and 1H-NMR. DB291 significantly decreased cell survival in a time- and dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 74 µM), with concomitant formation of a reduced biotransformation product. Plasma membrane lysis did not occur. Increased mitochondrial enzymatic activity, accompanied by increase in glucose consumption rate, was observed in cells incubated with DB291. Elevated ATP, Ψ, and intracellular calcium was verified after cell incubation with increasing dye concentrations. Mitochondrial changes and the biotransformation process accounted for the observed raise in intracellular ROS, 8-oxodG, and DNA fragmentation. DNA damage induced cell cycle arrest and DNMT1 overexpression, followed by DNA hypomethylation in the subsequent cell cycle. Results point for the first time to toxicity of the dye through biotransformation, mitochondrial changes, and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Humanos , Biotransformação , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Corantes/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Técnicas In Vitro , Estresse Oxidativo , Metilação de DNA , Membranas Mitocondriais
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 15(5): 382-386, Sept.-Oct. 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-465917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hypodontia is the congenital absence of one or more (up to six) permanent and/or deciduous teeth, being one of the most common alterations of the human dentition. Genetic polymorphisms are variations of DNA sequences occurring in a population. This study investigated whether G-915C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the PAX9 gene promoter is associated with hypodontia in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The polymorphism in region G/C-915 of PAX9 gene (NCBI ref SNP ID: rs 2073247) of 240 patients was analyzed, being 110 controls and 130 individuals with third molar agenesis. After DNA extraction, the region of interest was amplified by PCR technique using two different primers. The significance of the differences in observed frequencies of polymorphisms in both groups was assessed by odds-ratio and chi-squared test with 95 percent confidence interval. RESULTS: Genotype CC was more frequent in patients with agenesis (11.5 percent) compared to the control (1.8 percent), while GG was more prevalent in the control group (39.1 percent) compared to the individuals with agenesis (26.2 percent). CONCLUSION: These data showed that the allele C could be associated with the third molar agenesis.

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