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Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(6): 477-485, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328064


End-stage kidney disease is associated with low fertility, with rates of conception in women on dialysis estimated at 1/100th of the general population. However, live birth rates are increasing over time in women on hemodialysis, whereas they remain lower and static in women on peritoneal dialysis. Intensification of hemodialysis, targeting a serum blood urea nitrogen <35 mg/dL or 36 hours of dialysis per week in women with no residual kidney function, is associated with improved live birth rates and longer gestational age. Even in intensively dialyzed cohorts, rates of prematurity and need for neonatal intensive care are high, upwards of 50%. Although women on peritoneal dialysis in pregnancy do not appear to be at increased risk of delivering preterm compared with those on hemodialysis, their infants are more likely to be small for gestational age. As such, hemodialysis has emerged as the preferred dialysis modality in pregnancy. Provision of specialized nephrology, obstetric, and neonatal care is necessary to manage these complex pregnancies and family planning counseling should be offered to all women with end-stage kidney disease.

Kidney Med ; 2(5): 569-577.e1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094275


Rationale & Objective: Recent evidence suggests that adults with cerebral palsy have an elevated risk for developing advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). To develop effective interventions, the objective was to identify whether demographics and preexisting medical conditions are risk factors for advanced CKD among adults with cerebral palsy. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting & Participants: Data were from the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart. Adults 18 years or older with cerebral palsy and without advanced CKD (CKD stage 4 or later) were identified from 2013 and subsequently followed up from January 1, 2014, to the development of advanced CKD, death, loss to follow-up, or end of the study period (December 31, 2017), whichever came first. Diagnostic, procedure, and diagnosis-related group codes were used to identify cerebral palsy, incident cases of advanced CKD, comorbid intellectual disability, and 10 preexisting medical conditions. Exposures: Demographic variables and 10 preexisting medical conditions: CKD stages 1-3, hypertension, diabetes, heart and cerebrovascular disease, non-CKD urologic conditions, bowel conditions, respiratory disease, skeletal fragility, arthritis, and dysphagia. Outcome: Incidence of advanced CKD. Analytic Approach: Crude incidence rate (IR) of advanced CKD and IR ratios with 95% CIs were estimated. Cox proportional hazards regression models that were adjusted for demographics, intellectual disability, and preexisting medical conditions were used to evaluate the adjusted independent effect of predictor variables. Results: 237 of the 8,011 adults with cerebral palsy developed advanced CKD during follow-up (IR, 10.16/1,000 person years; 95% CI, 8.87-11.46). In the crude analysis, all preexisting medical conditions were associated with an elevated IR and IR ratio of advanced CKD. In the fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model, the HR was elevated for older age, CKD stages 1-3 (HR, 3.32; 95% CI, 2.39-4.61), diabetes (HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 2.03-3.57), hypertension (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, .10-2.16), heart and cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12-2.07), and non-CKD urologic conditions (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.84). Limitations: Private insurance database, short follow-up period, and lack of laboratory values, such as albuminuria/proteinuria. Conclusions: Advanced CKD was common among adults with cerebral palsy and its development was associated with both traditional and nontraditional urologic risk factors.

Diabet Med ; : e14434, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078420


AIM: People with diabetes have contraceptive needs that have been inadequately addressed. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop a theoretical model that reflects contraceptive decision-making and behaviour in the setting of diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews of 17 women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes from Michigan, USA. Participants were recruited from a diabetes registry and local clinics. We adapted domains from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and applied reproductive justice principles to inform the qualitative data collection and analysis. Using an iterative coding template, we advanced from descriptive to theoretical codes, compared codes across characteristics of interest (e.g. diabetes type), and synthesized the theoretical codes and their relationships in an explanatory model. RESULTS: The final model included the following constructs and themes: perceived barriers and benefits to contraceptive use (effects on blood sugar, risk of diabetes-related complications, improved quality of life); perceived seriousness of pregnancy (harm to self, harm to foetus or baby); perceived susceptibility to pregnancy risks (diabetes is a 'high risk' state); external cues to action (one-size-fits-all/anxiety-provoking counselling vs. personalized/trust-based counselling); internal cues to action (self-perceived 'sickness'); self-efficacy (reproductive self-efficacy, contraceptive self-efficacy); and modifying factors (perceptions of biased counselling based upon one's age, race or severity of disease). CONCLUSIONS: This novel adaptation of the HBM highlights the need for condition-specific and person-centred contraceptive counselling for those with diabetes.

Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(5): 762-771, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785826


RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Women with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) have decreased fertility and are at increased risk for pregnancy complications. This study examined secular trends and outcomes of obstetric deliveries in a US cohort of women with ESKD. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 18 to 44 years with ESKD and registered in the US Renal Data System from 2002 to 2015. EXPOSURE: ESKD modality (hemodialysis [HD], peritoneal dialysis, transplantation). OUTCOMES: Infant delivery, preterm delivery, cesarean delivery. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Unadjusted delivery rates were expressed as number of delivering women per 1,000 patient-years among women aged 18 to 44 years within each year during the study period, stratified by ESKD modality. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of delivery, preterm delivery, and cesarean delivery with patient characteristics. RESULTS: The delivery rate in women undergoing HD and women with a kidney transplant increased from 2.1 to 3.6 and 3.1 to 4.6 per 1,000 patient-years, respectively (P<0.001 for each). The delivery rate in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis was lower and did not increase significantly (P=0.9). Women with a transplant were less likely to deliver preterm compared with women undergoing HD (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84-1.00), though more likely have a cesarean delivery (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31). For deliveries occurring in the 2012 to 2015 period, 75% of women treated with HD were prescribed 4 or fewer outpatient HD treatments per week and 25% were prescribed 5-plus treatments per week in the 30 days before delivery. LIMITATIONS: Ascertainment of outcomes and comorbid conditions using administrative claims data. CONCLUSIONS: The delivery rate in women of reproductive age with ESKD increased from 2002 to 2015 among those treated with transplantation or HD. Women with a functioning transplant were less likely to deliver preterm, but more likely to have a cesarean delivery. Prescriptions for outpatient intensified HD for pregnant women with ESKD were infrequent in 2012 to 2015.

Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Substituição Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
Front Pediatr ; 7: 306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396499


Nephrotic syndrome is classically categorized by the histopathology with examples including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and minimal change disease. Pediatric patients are also classified by whether their nephrotic syndrome is sensitive to, dependent on, or resistant to steroids. However, this traditional classification system overlooks the frequent clinical conundrum when, for example, one patient with FSGS responds briskly to steroids, and another quickly progresses to end stage kidney disease despite therapy. Two patients may have similar histopathologic appearances on kidney biopsy but entirely different clinical characteristics, rates of progression, and treatment responses. Transcriptional regulation of gene activation and posttranscriptional processing of mRNA may drive the unique and heterogeneous phenotypes which are incompletely understood in kidney disease and are a recent focus of research. Gene expression profiles provide insight on active transcriptional programs in tissues, are being used to understand biologic mechanisms of progressive chronic kidney disease, and may help to identify patients with shared mechanisms of kidney damage. This mini-review discusses clinically relevant techniques of bulk tissue and single cell transcriptomics, as well as strengths and limitations of each methodology. Further, we summarize recent examples in kidney research achieved through transcriptomics. This review offers an outlook on the role of transcriptomics in an integrative systems biology model with the goal of defining unique disease subgroups, finding targets for drug development, and aligning the right drug with the right patient.

J Clin Med ; 8(2)2019 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717445


A range of women's health issues are intimately related to chronic kidney disease, yet nephrologists' confidence in counseling or managing these issues has not been evaluated. The women's health working group of Cure Glomerulonephropathy (CureGN), an international prospective cohort study of glomerular disease, sought to assess adult nephrologists' training in, exposure to, and confidence in managing women's health. A 25-item electronic questionnaire was disseminated in the United States (US) and Canada via CureGN and Canadian Society of Nephrology email networks and the American Society of Nephrology Kidney News. Response frequencies were summarized using descriptive statistics. Responses were compared across provider age, gender, country of practice, and years in practice using Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. Among 154 respondents, 53% were women, 58% practiced in the US, 77% practiced in an academic setting, and the median age was 41⁻45 years. Over 65% of respondents lacked confidence in women's health issues, including menstrual disorders, preconception counseling, pregnancy management, and menopause. Most provided contraception or preconception counseling to less than one woman per month, on average. Only 12% had access to interdisciplinary pregnancy clinics. Finally, 89% felt that interdisciplinary guidelines and/or continuing education seminars would improve knowledge. Participants lacked confidence in both counseling and managing women's health. Innovative approaches are warranted to improve the care of women with kidney disease and might include the expansion of interdisciplinary clinics, the development of case-based teaching materials, and interdisciplinary treatment guidelines focused on this patient group.