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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611758

RESUMO

Perchlorate is a persistent pollutant, generated via natural and anthropogenic processes, that possesses a high potential for endocrine disruption in humans and biota. It inhibits iodine fixation, a major reason for eliminating this pollutant from ecosystems. Remediation of perchlorate can be achieved with various physicochemical treatments, especially at low concentrations. However, microbiological approaches using microorganisms, such as those from the genera Dechloromonas, Serratia, Propionivibrio, Wolinella, and Azospirillum, are promising when perchlorate pollution is extensive. Perchlorate-reducing bacteria, isolated from harsh environments, for example saline soils, mine sediments, thermal waters, wastewater treatment plants, underground gas storage facilities, and remote areas, including the Antarctica, can provide removal yields from 20 to 100%. Perchlorate reduction, carried out by a series of enzymes, such as perchlorate reductase and superoxide chlorite, depends on pH, temperature, salt concentration, metabolic inhibitors, nutritional conditions, time of contact, and cellular concentration. Microbial degradation is cost-effective, simple to implement, and environmentally friendly, rendering it a viable method for alleviating perchlorate pollution in the environment.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358213

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 represents an enormous challenge to global public health, with thousands of infections and deaths in over 200 countries worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify SARS-CoV-2 epitopes with potential to interact in silico with the alleles of the human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA I) and class II (HLA II) commonly found in the Colombian population to promote both CD4 and CD8 immune responses against this virus. The generation and evaluation of the peptides in terms of HLA I and HLA II binding, immune response, toxicity and allergenicity were performed by using computer-aided tools, such as NetMHCpan 4.1, NetMHCIIpan 4.0, VaxiJem, ToxinPred and AllerTop. Furthermore, the interaction between the predicted epitopes with HLA I and HLA II proteins frequently found in the Colombian population was studied through molecular docking simulations in AutoDock Vina and interaction analysis in LigPlot+. One of the promising peptides proposed in this study is the HLA I epitope YQPYRVVVL, which displayed an estimated coverage of over 82% and 96% for the Colombian and worldwide population, respectively. These findings could be useful for the design of new epitope-vaccines that include Colombia among their population target.

3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 596, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426877

RESUMO

Emerging pollutants and priority substances are of growing concern due to their toxicity potential to aquatic organisms and human health. However, few reports on this issue in marine ecosystems in general and, more specifically, on the Colombian Caribbean coast are available. The aim of this study was to detect these compounds in sediments from Cartagena Bay (CB) and in the Grand Marsh of Santa Marta, GMSM (Ramsar site), in order to determine how they related to in vitro cytotoxicity assays on HepG2 cells of sediment extracts. A total of thirty compounds were detected using GC-MS/MS in fifteen stations during both the rainy and the dry seasons. Sediments from CB had a wide range of different toxicants, with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) being the most prevalent (12 PAHs, 5.5-881.6 ng/g). Total PCBs ranged from < LOD to 18.6 ng/g, with PCB 138 being the most common detected congener. Residues of p,p'-DDE, Chlorpyrifos and two organophosphate flame retardants, TEHP and ToTP, were found in most sampling locations. The UV filters 4MBC and homosalate were recurrently found in sediments, and the fragrance galaxolide appeared in all cases, with the greatest concentrations found on a touristic beach. In GMSM, with the exception of deltamethrin, all chemicals evaluated had lower average values than in CB. According to sediment quality guidelines, some sites in CB presented values of PAHs higher than the threshold effects level, while in the marsh, none of the stations exceeded it. HepG2 cells exposed to 1% sediment extracts presented reduced cell viability up to 26%. Cytotoxicity displayed a negative correlation with chlorpyrifos concentration. In short, these data suggest the bay and the marsh have specific contamination fingerprints related to anthropogenic interventions. This research highlights the need to further investigate the ecotoxicological implications of detected chemical stressors in these ecosystems.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Baías , Colômbia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205626

RESUMO

Alkaloids are a group of secondary metabolites that have been widely studied for the discovery of new drugs due to their properties on the central nervous system and their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer activities. Molecular docking was performed for 10 indole alkaloids identified in the ethanol extract of Tabernaemontana cymosa Jacq. with 951 human targets involved in different diseases. The results were analyzed through the KEGG and STRING databases, finding the most relevant physiological associations for alkaloids. The molecule 5-oxocoronaridine proved to be the most active molecule against human proteins (binding energy affinity average = -9.2 kcal/mol) and the analysis of the interactions between the affected proteins pointed to the PI3K/ Akt/mTOR signaling pathway as the main target. The above indicates that indole alkaloids from T. cymosa constitute a promising source for the search and development of new treatments against different types of cancer.


Assuntos
Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tabernaemontana/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 14(3): 206-218, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098855

RESUMO

The presence of metals in canned fish has been associated with adverse effects on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk-based fish consumption limits based on the concentrations of eight essential elements and four elements of toxicological concern in sardines and tuna brands commercially available in the Latin American canned goods market. One brand of canned sardines and six of canned tuna were collected and evaluated by ICP-MS and direct mercury analysis. The Hg content was much higher than that previously observed in scientific literature. According to the calculated hazard quotients, all brands may present some risk in terms of this element, especially brand F in which levels up to 3.1 µg/g were measured. Sardine samples surpassed the maximum limits of Mn and As. Stricter quality control in retail chains and industries should be implemented in order to guarantee safe levels in fishery products.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trace elements comprise both nutritionally essential and non-essential, and their presence in organisms plays important role in human health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of trace elements, together with cellular and molecular biomarkers, in adolescents from Tierrabomba Island, a Caribbean community located near an industrial area, comparing them with a group living in San Onofre, a reference community. METHODS: Hair and blood samples were obtained from 238 individuals aged 11-18 years old, 131 from Tierrabomba Island and 107 from San Onofre. Trace elements were quantified in hair using ICP-MS. The hematological evaluation was done by peripheral blood smears, and gene expression analysis was carried out through RT-PCR. RESULTS: Thirteen elements were analyzed; eight showed significant differences between sites. In Tierrabomba, arsenic (As) and tungsten (W) registered mean values greater than in San Onofre. In contrast, in the reference site, average values for boron (B), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), yttrium (Y), tin (Sn), and barium (Ba) were greater. The peripheral blood film showed differences between populations. Mean lymphocyte percentage was higher in the Island, while eosinophil and monocyte percentages displayed greater means in San Onofre. Some correlations between trace elements and hematological parameters were found, mainly with platelets in Tierrabomba. This trend remained even when partial correlation coefficients were adjusted for age. Levels of gene expression of metallothionein 1X (MT1X) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) registered significant differences between sites, being greater in Tierrabomba. Negative correlations between SOD and As were observed in both sampling sites. Discriminant analysis suggested sampling locations could be differentiated by Zn, Mo, Ba, and MT1X levels. SIGNIFICANCE: Trace elements and the relative gene expression associated with metal exposure are critical exposure biomarkers for coastal communities.

7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109521, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052195

RESUMO

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin; TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that elicits a variety of toxic effects, many of which are mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Interaction between AhR and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which regulates fatty acid metabolism, has been suggested. Furthermore, with recognition of the prevalence of inflammatory conditions, there is current interest in the potential for inflammatory stress to modulate the response to environmental agents. The aim of this work was to assess the interaction of TCDD with hepatic inflammation modulated by fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist. Female, C57BL/6 mice were treated orally with vehicle or fenofibrate (250 mg/kg) for 13 days, and then were given vehicle or 30 µg/kg TCDD. Four days later, the animals received an i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide-galactosamine (LPS-GalN) (0.05x107 EU/kg and 500 mg/kg, respectively) to incite inflammation, or saline as vehicle control. After 4 h, the mice were euthanized, and blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. Livers of animals treated with TCDD with or without LPS-GalN had increased lipid deposition, and this effect was blocked by fenofibrate. In TCDD/LPS-GalN-treated mice, fenofibrate caused an increase in plasma activity of alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular injury. TCDD reduced LPS-GalN-induced apoptosis, an effect that was prevented by fenofibrate pretreatment. LPS-GalN induced an increase in the concentration of interleukin-6 in plasma and accumulation of neutrophils in liver. TCDD exposure enhanced the former response and inhibited the latter one. These results suggest that fenofibrate counteracts the changes in lipid metabolism induced by TCDD but increases inflammation and liver injury in this model of inflammation-TCDD interaction.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/toxicidade , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Fenofibrato/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Medicamentosas , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Fenofibrato/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145576, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940734

RESUMO

Microplastics in the environment occur in different sizes and shapes and are made of various polymers. Therefore, they also considerably differ in their properties and ecotoxicity. However, the majority of microplastics research uses pre-made spherical microplastics, which practically do not exist in the environment. Our work focused on a comprehensive study of six different types of microplastic that were prepared to simulate common microplastics found in the environment. All types of microplastics where chemically and physically characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and laser diffraction analysis. The specific surface area was determined using the BET method. Furthermore, effects of microplastics and microplastic leachates on a common duckweed (Lemna minor) were evaluated. All tested microplastics did not affect specific growth rate and chlorophyll a content in duckweed, while microplastics with a rough surface and sharp edges caused a significant reduction of duckweed root length. Microplastics made of Bakelite also showed an intensive leaching, which increased their ecotoxicity potential. Natural particles used as a control did not have any negative effect on duckweed. Overall, microplastic particles have significantly different ecotoxicity profiles depending on their physico-chemical properties. Therefore, the testing of environmentally relevant particles and their proper characterization, as well as the testing of microplastic leaching properties, is crucial for understanding of microplastics ecotoxicological potential.


Assuntos
Araceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Clorofila A , Microplásticos , Plásticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 40(7): 2034-2043, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729601

RESUMO

Rodenticides are pesticides used worldwide, with little information available regarding health consequences in wildlife and humans. The aim of the present study was to use virtual screening to identify potential targets for flocoumafen, a superwarfarin rodenticide. Blind docking of more than 841 human proteins was carried out employing AutoDock Vina. The strength of the ligand interaction with the proteins was quantified based on the binding affinity score (kcal/mol). Results indicate that flocoumafen could be a promiscuous ligand for diversity of cellular protein targets. The best complexes were obtained for prostaglandin F synthase (-14.2 kcal/mol) and serum albumin (-14.0 kcal/mol) followed by glucocorticoid receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, nuclear receptor ROR-alpha, and activin receptor type-1, all with values equal or better than -13.5 kcal/mol. Docking method validation based on the root-mean-square deviation showed that flocoumafen had good capability to predict corresponding co-crystallized poses; and molecular dynamics simulations suggested the complex with greater binding affinity was thermodynamically stable. Protein-protein interaction networks built with main protein targets revealed that protein kinase B (AKT1), ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 (RPS6KB1), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), and protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit alpha (PPP2CA) were major hub proteins, whereas the gene ontology analysis reported that cellular response to endogenous stimulus, protein binding, and the TOR complex were the biological processes, molecular function, and cell component enrichments, respectively. These results should motivate more ecotoxicity testing for flocoumafen and other superwarfarins, as well as precautionary legislation to minimize exposure to these highly toxic chemicals. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;40:2034-2043. © 2021 SETAC.

10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(3): 37009, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A analogs and derivatives (BPs) have emerged as new contaminants with little or no information about their toxicity. These have been found in numerous everyday products, from thermal paper receipts to plastic containers, and measured in human samples. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research were to identify in silico new protein targets of BPs associated with seven noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and to study their protein-ligand interactions using computer-aided tools. METHODS: Fifty BPs were identified by a literature search and submitted to a virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS) with 328 proteins associated with NCDs. Protein-protein interactions between predicted targets were examined using STRING, and the protocol was validated in terms of binding site recognition and correlation between in silico affinities and in vitro data. RESULTS: According to the vHTS, several BPs may target proteins associated with NCDs, some of them with stronger affinities than bisphenol A (BPA). The best affinity score (the highest in silico affinity absolute value) was obtained after docking 4,4'-bis(N-carbamoyl-4-methylbenzensulfonamide)diphenylmethane (BTUM) on estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1 (-13.7 kcal/mol). However, other molecules, such as bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP), bisphenol PH (BPPH), and Pergafast 201 also exhibited great affinities (top 10 affinity scores for each disease) with proteins related to NCDs. DISCUSSION: Molecules such as BTUM, BDP, BPPH, and Pergafast 201 could be targeting key signaling pathways related to NCDs. These BPs should be prioritized for in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing and to further assess their possible role in the development of these diseases. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7466.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626396

RESUMO

The aqueous extract of fallen leaves from Fridericia chica (Bonpl.) L.G. Lohmann is utilized as a remedy in communities at northern Colombia. Traditional uses include wound healing, gastrointestinal inflammation, leukemia and psoriasis, among others. The aims of this research were to evaluate the potential of the aqueous extract of fallen leaves of F. chica (AEFchica) to inhibit ethoxylated nonylphenol (Tergitol)-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans; and to identify its main components. The pharmacological properties of AEFchica was evaluated using a Tergitol-induced toxicity model in Caenorhabditis elegans. Lethality, locomotion, reproduction, and DAF-16 nuclear translocation were quantified. The chemical composition of AEFchica was carried out using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. AEFchica induced very little lethality on C. elegans (5.6%) even at high concentrations (10,000 µg/mL). The extract had no effect on locomotion impairing induced by ethoxylated nonylphenol. However, AEFchica (1000 µg/mL) abrogated Tergitol-induced mortality, recovering up to 53.3% of the nematodes from lethality induced by 10 mM Tergitol. Similarly, it also blocked Tergitol-dependent reproduction inhibition (82.1% recovery), as well as DAF-16 nuclear translocation (>95%), suggesting a prominent role on oxidative stress control. The chemical analysis indicated the presence of a great variety of molecules with known antioxidant, metabolic and immune modulator properties, such as hydroxylated methoxy flavones, N-methyl-1-deoxynojirimycin, and rehmaionoside A. In short, the aqueous extract of F. chica protects C. elegans from the deleterious effects of Tergitol on lethality, reproduction and oxidative stress involving DAF-16-mediated pathway. This extract is a promising source of bioactive phytochemicals for multi-target pharmacological purposes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Bignoniaceae/química , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta/química , Poloxaleno/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colômbia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116558, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631688

RESUMO

Pesticides and trace elements occur in complex mixtures in agroecosystems, affecting soil health and food security. Hence, it is necessary to determine their toxicity in field conditions and to develop monitoring approaches to assess conventional and organic agriculture. The aim of this research was to evaluate the associations between Allium cepa L. cytogenetic biomarkers and the realistic mixture of pesticides and trace elements found in soils of conventional, conversion, and organic crops in an intensive agricultural region in Colombia. Pesticide screening was conducted using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS methods. Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc were analyzed by ICP-MS; chromium, copper, nickel, and selenium by ICP-OES; and mercury by a direct analyzer. The meristematic cells in roots of Allium cepa L. were analyzed through microscopic observations to quantify cytogenetic effects. In conventional crops, 26 pesticides were detected in the soil samples, and those were below the limit of quantification in organic crops. The mean levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Se were also greater in soils of conventional crops compared to the organics. In addition, the biomarkers of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity appeared augmented in conventional samples, and those were correlated with pesticide and trace element concentrations, pollution indices, and hazard quotients. Subsequently, a discriminant function based on the mitotic index, chromosomal aberrations, and nuclear abnormalities was suitable to classify the samples by crop type. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of Allium cepa L. to the toxicity of complex mixtures in field crops and its potential as an in-situ approach for soil health monitoring in organic and conventional crop systems.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Cromatografia Líquida , Colômbia , Análise Citogenética , Cebolas , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Oligoelementos/toxicidade
13.
J Environ Qual ; 50(2): 350-363, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480042

RESUMO

Urban dust is a mixture of deposited particles from different sources usually linked to potentially toxic elements (PTEs). Despite the industrialization of many South American countries, little is known about the impact of particulate matter in large cities; these data are necessary to promote environmental policies aiming to protect human health. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution, composition, and environmental and human health risks of settled dust particles from Barranquilla, a Colombian Caribbean industrialized area. Trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry from 35 different sites, covering all city areas. Dust was mostly composed of 10-to-70-µm particles. The average concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb, and Bi were above background. High spatial heterogeneity was observed for Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, and Bi. Concentration factors suggest that urban dusts are extremely contaminated by Zn and Cu. The ecological risk associated with specific elements decreased in the order Cd > Cu > As > Hg > Pb > Ni > Co ≈ Zn ≈ Cr, and the contamination load index showed that 91% of the samples are polluted by PTEs. Although the carcinogenic risks of Cr, Ni, As, Co, and Cd were low, chronic exposure to several PTEs may affect quality of life. Educational programs, as well as monitoring and greater control on traffic, industry, and construction activities are needed to protect environmental and human health.


Assuntos
Poeira , Metais Pesados , Região do Caribe , China , Cidades , Colômbia , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco
14.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(3): 850-860, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488615

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) exposure is a growing concern in developing countries, especially in vulnerable children. The objective of this study was to evaluate blood lead levels (BLL) in children from two fishing populations at Northern Colombia, Loma de Arena and Tierrabomba, as well as their association with morphometric parameters, markers of hematological status, liver function, and mRNA expression of genes related to Pb toxicity. A total of 198 blood samples were collected from participants aged 5-16 years old. The mean (± standard error) BLL for the studied sample was 3.6 ± 0.3 µg/dL, and the 97.5th percentile was 21.0 µg/dL. The participants of Loma de Arena and Tierrabomba presented BLL of 3.9 ± 0.5 and 2.9 ± 0.3 µg/dL, respectively. Children born preterm had greater BLL than those born at full term. Boys had greater BLL than girls, which also occurred for participants between 12 and 16 years old, compared with those aged 5-11 years old. The BLL were negatively correlated with body mass index in children from Loma de Arena, but an opposite behavior was observed for Tierrabomba. In Loma de Arena, the mRNA expression of interferon gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, increased with the BLL, but that of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase, a sensor for Pb poisoning, decreased. In Tierrabomba, gene expression did not change with BLL. These results show that in fishing communities, lead exposure promotes different health impacts depending on age, sex, and other site-specific factors. In any case, appropriate educational and intervention programs should be carried out to minimize Pb exposure in children.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Adolescente , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/análise , Masculino
15.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(3): 354-370, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025049

RESUMO

Heavy metals threaten communities near biodiversity hotspots, as their protein sources come from the environment. This study assessed Hg, Cd, and Se concentrations in fish, as well as the magnitude of exposure and hematological conditions of adult citizens from Puerto Nariño (Colombian Amazon). Among fish samples, greater Hg concentrations were found in higher trophic level species, including Rhaphiodon vulpinus (880 ± 130 ng/g) and Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (920 ± 87 ng/g). These species presented the highest hazard quotients and lowest Se:Hg molar ratios among those studied, showing their consumption represents a health risk to consumers. Moreover, some samples of Mylossoma duriventre and Prochilodus magdalenae had Cd levels greater than the regulated limit (100 ng/g). The average total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in human hair and blood were 5.31 µg/g and 13.7 µg/L, respectively. All hair samples exceeded the 1.0 µg/g threshold set by the USEPA, whereas 93% of the volunteers had T-Hg blood levels greater than 5 µg/L, suggesting elevated exposure. The mean Cd level was 3.1 µg/L, with 21% of samples surpassing 5 µg/L, value at which mitigating actions should be taken. Eighty-four percent of participants presented Se deficiencies (<100 µg/L). There was a significant association between fish consumption and T-Hg in hair (ρ = 0.323; p = 0.032) and blood (ρ = 0.381; p = 0.011). In this last matrix, Se correlated with Cd content, whereas lymphocytes were inversely linked to Hg concentrations. The results of this study show that there is  extensive exposure to Hg in fish, the consumption of which may promote detrimental impacts on hematology parameters within the community.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Cabelo/química , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise , Adulto , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Colômbia , Exposição Dietética/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13957, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811897

RESUMO

Mugil incilis (lisa) is an important commercial fish species in many countries, living along the coasts of the western Atlantic Ocean. It has been used as a model organism for environmental monitoring and ecotoxicological investigations. Nevertheless, available genomic and transcriptomic information for this organism is extremely deficient. The aim of this study was to characterize M. incilis hepatic transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 32,082,124 RNA-Seq read pairs were generated utilizing the HiSeq platform and subsequently cleaned and assembled into 93,912 contigs (N50 = 2,019 bp). The analysis of species distribution revealed that M. incilis contigs had the highest number of hits to Stegastes partitus (13.4%). Using a sequence similarity search against the public databases GO and KEGG, a total of 7,301 and 16,967 contigs were annotated, respectively. KEGG database showed genes related to environmental information, metabolism and organismal system pathways were highly annotated. Complete or partial coding DNA sequences for several candidate genes associated with stress responses/detoxification of xenobiotics, as well as housekeeping genes, were employed to design primers that were successfully tested and validated by RT-qPCR. This study presents the first transcriptome resources for Mugil incilis and provides basic information for the development of genomic tools, such as the identification of RNA markers, useful to analyze environmental impacts on this fish Caribbean species.


Assuntos
Smegmamorpha/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Fígado/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
17.
Toxicology ; 439: 152459, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278787

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs) are exogenous compounds that disrupt endocrine activity. Human exposure to EDPs can occur through occupational contact, and through the consumption of food, milk and water with trace amounts of these pollutants. Several EDPs are epidemiologically linked to breast cancer or are considered as possible carcinogens. However, current evidence is not fully conclusive and their mechanisms of action remain unknown. Thus, the potential interactions between 262 EDPs and 189 proteins associated with breast cancer were evaluated by using a virtual high-throughput screening approach, with AutoDock Vina 1.1.1. The molecular coordinates were previously downloaded from Protein Data Bank and EDCs DataBank, and used for preparation and optimization in Sybyl X-2.0. The best affinity score (-11.0 kcal/mol) was obtained for flucythrinate with the nuclear receptor for vitamin D (VDR). This synthetic pyrethroid, along with other EDPs, such as fluvalinate, bifenthrin, cyhalothrin and cypermethrin, are proposed as multi-target ligands of several proteins related to breast cancer. In addition, the validation of our protocol showed a good accuracy in terms of binding pose prediction and affinity estimation. This study provides a guide to prioritize EDPs for which further in vitro and in vivo analysis could be done to evaluate the risk and possible mechanisms of action of these contaminants and their potential association with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Feminino , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110588, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289633

RESUMO

The ethoxylated isomers of nonylphenol (NPEs, NP-9) are one of the main active ingredients present in nonionic surfactants employed as herbicides, cosmetics, paints, plastics, disinfectants and detergents. These chemicals and their metabolites are commonly found in environmental matrices. The aim of this work was to evaluate the intergenerational toxicity of NP-9 in Caenorhabditis elegans. The lethality, length, width, locomotion and lifespan were investigated in the larval stage L4 of the wild strain N2. Transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) strains were employed to estimate changes in relative gene expression. RT-qPCR was utilized to measure mRNA expression for neurotoxicity-related genes (unc-30, unc-25, dop-3, dat-1, mgl-1, and eat-4). Data were obtained from parent worms (P0) and the first generation (F1). Lethality of the nematode was concentration-dependent, with 48 h-LC50 values of 3215 and 1983 µM in P0 and F1, respectively. Non-lethal concentrations of NP-9 reduced locomotion. Lifespan was also decreased by the xenobiotic, but the negative effect was greater in P0 than in F1. Non-monotonic concentration-response curves were observed for body length and width in both generations. The gene expression profile in P0 was different from that registered in F1, although the expression of sod-4, hsp-70, gpx-6 and mtl-2 increased with the surfactant concentration in both generations. None of the tested genes followed a classical concentration-neurotoxicity relationship. In P0, dopamine presented an inverted-U curve, while GABA and glutamate displayed a bimodal type. However, in F1, inverted U-shaped curves were revealed for these genes. In summary, NP-9 induced intergenerational responses in C. elegans through mechanisms involving ROS, and alterations of the GABA, glutamate, and dopamine pathways.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Etilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dose Letal Mediana , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(12): 14216-14227, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043249

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is one of the heavy metals of concern for fish-eating populations. This pollutant can be released from many sources and generates diverse toxic effects in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological parameters and their relationship with total Hg (T-Hg) levels in the hair of adolescents from Tierrabomba, an island close to an industrialized area, and also from San Onofre, a reference site. Blood and hair samples were collected from 194 individuals, aged 11-18 years old, as well as sociodemographic and dietary information. The hematological profile showed marked differences between the two sites. Mean values for almost all variables of the red blood cell line, as well as lymphocyte percentage (LYM%) and monocyte percentage (MID%), were greater in Tierrabomba. In contrast, red cell distribution width (RDW), white blood cells (WBC), granulocyte percentage (GRA%), and plateletcrit (PTC) were higher at the reference site. Total Hg mean in Tierrabomba was 1.10 ± 0.07 µg/g, while at San Onofre, it was 1.87 ± 0.11 µg/g. In both places, more than 49% of participants had Hg concentrations over the limit threshold (1 µg/g). Overall mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and T-Hg showed a negative correlation (r = - 0.162, p = 0.024). However, positive associations were observed between T-Hg and MID% for Tierrabomba (r = 0.193, p = 0.041), and between T-Hg and mixed cells (MID) for the reference site (r = 0.223, p = 0.044). A significant relationship was found for fish consumption frequency and T-Hg levels (r = 0.360, p < 0.001). These results indicate blood parameters may be affected by Hg even at low-level exposure.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Adolescente , Animais , Região do Caribe , Criança , Colômbia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cabelo/química , Humanos
20.
Environ Res ; 182: 109055, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069741

RESUMO

Coal dust is a primary air contaminant from coal mining operations that produces harmful health effects. However, it is unclear to what extent its detrimental properties would impact future generations, and whether alterations in the progenies might be concentration-dependent. The aim of this study was to determine the intergenerational effects of chronic exposure to coal dust on the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), at three life stages. Groups of fifty adult insects were exposed during 30 days at different concentrations of coal dust mixed with ground oats as food substrate (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% weight/weight), both with a particle size <38 µm. The LC50 for F0 insects was 1.07%, whereas for larvae and adults from F1, values were 0.53 and 0.89%, respectively. Pathological findings assessed at F1 revealed a coal dust concentration-dependent frequency of several morphological abnormalities, including larvae without antenna or extremities, lack of T1, T2, T3 legs, loss of urogomphi, and the presence of abnormal protuberances. It was found that a considerable number of F1 larvae derived from parental beetles did not achieve a complete conversion into the next growth stage. Pupae with undeveloped eyes and adults with malformed elytra, as well as necrosis, were recurrently observed at high concentrations. Finally, adults exposed to 1% coal dust overexpressed genes related to oxidative stress (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, Nrf2) and synaptic transmission (GABA-gated ion channel, Grd). In short, coal dust particles induced intergenerational effects on T. castaneum, highlighting the need to further study the impact of this airborne pollutant on wildlife and human populations.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Poeira , Tribolium , Animais , Carvão Mineral/toxicidade , Larva , Pupa
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