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1.
Heart ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of the ECG in the differential diagnosis between Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: In this multicentre retrospective study, 111 AFD patients with left ventricular hypertrophy were compared with 111 patients with HCM, matched for sex, age and maximal wall thickness by propensity score. Independent ECG predictors of AFD were identified by multivariate analysis, and a multiparametric ECG score-based algorithm for differential diagnosis was developed. RESULTS: Short PR interval, prolonged QRS duration, right bundle branch block (RBBB), R in augmented vector left (aVL) ≥1.1 mV and inferior ST depression independently predicted AFD diagnosis. A point-by-point ECG score was then derived with the following diagnostic performances: c-statistic 0.80 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.86) for discrimination, the Hosmel-Lemeshow χ2 6.14 (p=0.189) for calibration, sensitivity 69%, specificity 84%, positive predictive value 82% and negative predictive value 72%. After bootstrap resampling, the mean optimism was 0.025, and the internal validated c-statistic for the score was 0.78. CONCLUSIONS: Standard ECG can help to differentiate AFD from HCM while investigating unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy. Short PR interval, prolonged QRS duration, RBBB, R in aVL ≥1.1 mV and inferior ST depression independently predicted AFD. Their systematic evaluation and the integration in a multiparametric ECG score can support AFD diagnosis.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(7): 922-936, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602475

RESUMO

Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient α-galactosidase A activity that leads to an accumulation of globotriasylceramide (Gb3) in affected tissues, including the heart. Cardiovascular involvement usually manifests as left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, heart failure, and arrhythmias, which limit quality of life and represent the most common causes of death. Following the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy, early diagnosis and treatment have become essential to slow disease progression and prevent major cardiac complications. Recent advances in the understanding of FD pathophysiology suggest that in addition to Gb3 accumulation, other mechanisms contribute to the development of Fabry cardiomyopathy. Progress in imaging techniques have improved diagnosis and staging of FD-related cardiac disease, suggesting a central role for myocardial inflammation and setting the stage for further research. In addition, with the recent approval of oral chaperone therapy and new treatment developments, the FD-specific treatment landscape is rapidly evolving.

3.
Europace ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447843

RESUMO

Myocardial disarray is defined as disorganized cardiomyocyte spatial distribution, with loss of physiological fibre alignment and orientation. Since the first pathological descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), disarray appeared as a typical feature of this condition and sparked vivid debate regarding its specificity to the disease and clinical significance as a diagnostic marker and a risk factor for sudden death. Although much of the controversy surrounding its diagnostic value in HCM persists, it is increasingly recognized that myocardial disarray may be found in physiological contexts and in cardiac conditions different from HCM, raising the possibility that central focus should be placed on its quantity and distribution, rather than a mere presence. While further studies are needed to establish what amount of disarray should be considered as a hallmark of the disease, novel experimental approaches and emerging imaging techniques for the first time allow ex vivo and in vivo characterization of the myocardium to a molecular level. Such advances hold the promise of filling major gaps in our understanding of the functional consequences of myocardial disarray in HCM and specifically on arrhythmogenic propensity and as a risk factor for sudden death. Ultimately, these studies will clarify whether disarray represents a major determinant of the HCM clinical profile, and a potential therapeutic target, as opposed to an intriguing but largely innocent bystander.

4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 28, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mortality in infective endocarditis (IE) is still high, and the long term prognosis remains uncertain. This study aimed to identify predictors of long-term mortality for any cause, adverse event rate, relapse rate, valvular and ventricular dysfunction at follow-up, in a real-world surgical centre. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 363 consecutive episodes of IE (123 women, 34%) admitted to our department with a definite diagnosis of non-device-related IE. Median follow-up duration was 2.9 years. Primary endpoints were predictors of mortality, recurrent endocarditis, and major non-fatal adverse events (hospitalization for any cardiovascular cause, pace-maker implantation, new onset of atrial fibrillation, sternal dehiscence), and ventricular and valvular dysfunction at follow-up. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis independent predictors of mortality showed age (HR per unit 1.031, p < 0.003), drug abuse (HR 3.5, p < 0.002), EUROSCORE II (HR per unit 1.017, p < 0.0006) and double valve infection (HR 2.3, p < 0.001) to be independent predictors of mortality, while streptococcal infection remained associated with a better prognosis (HR 0.5, p < 0.04). Major non-fatal adverse events were associated with age (HR 1.4, p < 0.022). New episodes of infection were correlated with S aureus infection (HR 4.8, p < 0.001), right-sided endocarditis (HR 7.4, p < 0.001), spondylodiscitis (HR 6.8, p < 0.004) and intravenous drug abuse (HR 10.3, p < 0.001). After multivariate analysis, only drug abuse was an independent predictor of new episodes of endocarditis (HR 8.5, p < 0.001). Echocardiographic follow-up, available in 95 cases, showed a worsening of left ventricular systolic function (p < 0.007); severe valvular dysfunction at follow-up was reported only in 4 patients, all of them had mitral IE (p < 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights some clinical, readily available factors that can be useful to stratify the prognosis of patients with IE.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiofrequency transcatheter ablation (RFCA) for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been proven feasible. However, the long-term results of RFCA and its impact on clinical course of HCM are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse clinical outcomes and long-term efficacy of RFCA in a multicentre cohort of patients with HCM and concomitant AF. METHODS: Patients with HCM and AF consecutively undergoing RFCA were included. Ablation failure was defined as recurrence of AF, atrial tachycardia, or flutter lasting more than 3 min and occurring after the blanking period. RESULTS: Overall, 116 patients with symptomatic AF refractory to antiarrhythmic drugs were included. Over a median follow-up of 6.0 years (interquartile range: 3.0-8.9 years) recurrence rate after a single RFCA was 32.3 per 100 patient/years with 26% of patients free from AF relapses at 6-year follow-up. Among patients experiencing AF recurrence, 51 (66%) underwent at least one redo-procedure. The overall recurrence rate considering redo-procedures was 12.6 per 100 patients/years with 53% of patients free from AF relapses at 6 years. At last follow-up, with an average of 1.6 procedures, 67 (61%) patients were in sinus rhythm (SR). Patients remaining in SR showed better functional status compared with those experiencing arrhythmic recurrences (NYHA Class 1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 2.0 ± 0.1, p = .009). CONCLUSIONS: RFCA of AF in HCM patients is an effective and safe strategy favoring long-term SR maintenance, reduction of atrial arrhythmic events, and improved functional status. However, most patients need repeat procedures and continuation of antiarrhythmic drugs.

6.
Genet Med ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500567

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the genetic architecture of left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) and investigate the extent to which it may represent a distinct pathology or a secondary phenotype associated with other cardiac diseases. METHODS: We performed rare variant association analysis with 840 LVNC cases and 125,748 gnomAD population controls, and compared results to similar analyses on dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). RESULTS: We observed substantial genetic overlap indicating that LVNC often represents a phenotypic variation of DCM or HCM. In contrast, truncating variants in MYH7, ACTN2, and PRDM16 were uniquely associated with LVNC and may reflect a distinct LVNC etiology. In particular, MYH7 truncating variants (MYH7tv), generally considered nonpathogenic for cardiomyopathies, were 20-fold enriched in LVNC cases over controls. MYH7tv heterozygotes identified in the UK Biobank and healthy volunteer cohorts also displayed significantly greater noncompaction compared with matched controls. RYR2 exon deletions and HCN4 transmembrane variants were also enriched in LVNC, supporting prior reports of association with arrhythmogenic LVNC phenotypes. CONCLUSION: LVNC is characterized by substantial genetic overlap with DCM/HCM but is also associated with distinct noncompaction and arrhythmia etiologies. These results will enable enhanced application of LVNC genetic testing and help to distinguish pathological from physiological noncompaction.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284039

RESUMO

Background - The impact of sex on phenotypic expression in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has not been well characterized in genotyped cohorts. Methods - Retrospective cohort study from an international registry of patients receiving care at experienced HCM centers. Sex-based differences in baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were assessed. Results - Of 5,873 patients (3,788 genotyped), 2,226 (37.9%) were women. At baseline, women were older (49.0±19.9 vs. 42.9±18.4 years, p<0.001) and more likely to have pathogenic/likely-pathogenic sarcomeric variants (SARC+; 51% vs 43%, p<0.001) despite equivalent utilization of genetic testing. Age at diagnosis varied by sex and genotype despite similar distribution of causal genes. Women were 3.6 to 7.1 years older at diagnosis (p<0.02) except for patients with MYH7 variants where age at diagnosis was comparable for women and men (n=492; 34.8±19.2 vs 33.3±16.8 years, p=0.39). Over 7.7 median years of follow up, NYHA III-IV heart failure (HF) was more common in women (HR 1.87, CI 1.48-2.36, p<0.001), after controlling for their higher burden of symptoms and outflow tract obstruction at baseline, reduced ejection fraction, SARC+, age and hypertension. All-cause mortality was increased in women (HR 1.50, CI 1.13-1.99, p<0.01), but neither ICD utilization nor ventricular arrhythmia varied by sex. Conclusions - In HCM, women are older at diagnosis, partly modified by genetic substrate. Regardless of genotype, women were at higher risk of mortality and developing severe HF symptoms. This points to a sex-effect on long-term myocardial performance in HCM, which should be investigated further.

9.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 516, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiovascular disease that affects approximately one in 500 people. HCM is a recognized genetic disorder most often caused by mutations involving myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) and ß-myosin heavy chain (MYH7) which are responsible for approximately three-quarters of the identified mutations. METHODS: As a part of the international multidisciplinary SILICOFCM project ( www.silicofcm.eu ) the present study evaluated the association between underlying genetic mutations and clinical phenotype in patients with HCM. Only patients with confirmed single pathogenic mutations in either MYBPC3 or MYH7 genes were included in the study and divided into two groups accordingly. The MYBPC3 group was comprised of 48 patients (76%), while the MYH7 group included 15 patients (24%). Each patient underwent clinical examination and echocardiography. RESULTS: The most prevalent symptom in patients with MYBPC3 was dyspnea (44%), whereas in patients with MYH7 it was palpitations (33%). The MYBPC3 group had a significantly higher number of patients with a positive family history of HCM (46% vs. 7%; p = 0.014). There was a numerically higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the MYH7 group (60% vs. 35%, p = 0.085). Laboratory analyses revealed normal levels of creatinine (85.5 ± 18.3 vs. 81.3 ± 16.4 µmol/l; p = 0.487) and blood urea nitrogen (10.2 ± 15.6 vs. 6.9 ± 3.9 mmol/l; p = 0.472) which were similar in both groups. The systolic anterior motion presence was significantly more frequent in patients carrying MYH7 mutation (33% vs. 10%; p = 0.025), as well as mitral leaflet abnormalities (40% vs. 19%; p = 0.039). Calcifications of mitral annulus were registered only in MYH7 patients (20% vs. 0%; p = 0.001). The difference in diastolic function, i.e. E/e' ratio between the two groups was also noted (MYBPC3 8.8 ± 3.3, MYH7 13.9 ± 6.9, p = 0.079). CONCLUSIONS: Major findings of the present study corroborate the notion that MYH7 gene mutation patients are presented with more pronounced disease severity than those with MYBPC3.

10.
Eur J Neurol ; 2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare inherited disease caused by NOTCH3 gene mutations. Although the main clinical features reflect brain injury, CADASIL is a systemic microangiopathy, and cardiac involvement has been observed but not systematically assessed. We aimed to study the prevalence and severity of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in CADASIL patients. METHODS: Seventeen patients with genetically confirmed CADASIL, aged <60 years (mean age 40 ± 9 years), with ≤1 cardiovascular risk factor underwent neurological and neuropsychological evaluation, 3T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG), standard echocardiography, and measurement of myocardial blood flow at rest (resting MBF) and of maximal myocardial blood flow following Regadenoson infusion (Reg-MBF) by 13 NH3 positron emission tomography (PET). Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was defined as Reg-MBF/resting MBF. PET results were compared to those of 15 healthy controls who were age and sex matched. RESULTS: Twelve patients (71%) presented migraine, none (53%) had psychiatric disturbances, and one (6%) had a previous stroke. None had cognitive impairment or ECG or echocardiography abnormalities. Both Reg-MBF and CFR were blunted in CADASIL patients compared with controls (Reg-MBF 2.46 ± 0.54 vs. 3.09 ± 0.44 ml/g/min, respectively; p < 0.01; CFR 2.74 ± 0.36 vs. 3.28 ± 0.66, respectively, p < 0.01). No correlations were found between Reg-MBF values and neuropsychological performance or cerebral lesion burden on MRI. CONCLUSIONS: CADASIL patients exhibit blunted CFR due to CMD, which can be severe and is independent of the severity of brain lesion load and cognitive performances. CADASIL is a systemic microcirculation disease, and active surveillance of cardiac symptoms should be considered in these patients.

11.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare systemic vasculitis. Cardiac specific involvement (CSI) is caused by coronary artery vasculitis, but also by myocardial eosinophilic infiltration. To date, the prevalence of CSI associated with EGPA is unresolved. Aim of this study was to systematically assess the prevalence and clinical impact of CSI in a consecutive outpatient EGPA population. METHODS: Between October 2018 and July 2019, we prospectively enrolled 52 consecutive EGPA patients. All underwent comprehensive evaluation including a standardized questionnaire, physical examination, 12-lead-ECG, echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance and 24 h-Holter were performed as deemed clinically appropriate. Cardiac abnormalities were defined as CSI based on the likelihood of their relation to EGPA vasculitis, after exclusion of alternative diagnoses. RESULTS: 52 enrolled patients, mean age 59±1 years. Thirteen of the 52 patients (25%) were classified as CSI+. CSI was characterized by myocarditis in four patients, non-scar-related regional wall motions abnormalities (RWMA) in three, apical thrombosis in two (one also had RWMA), pericarditis in three and non-atherosclerotic coronary disease (Prinzmetal angina and coronaritis) in 2. Five (38%) of the 13 CSI+ patients, presented an apical aneurysm. Peak eosinophil count at diagnosis was higher in CSI+: 8000 /µl vs CSI-: 3000 /µl, p = 0.017. Overall, 2 patients had severe LV dysfunction, 5 required urgent hospitalization and 8 required long-term cardioactive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: CSI was present in one-quarter of patients, often associated with high peak eosinophils. Myocarditis, RWMA and apical aneurysms were the most common manifestations. Although rarely severe and life-threatening, CSI often required long-term cardioactive treatment.

13.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(12): 926-934, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231212

RESUMO

Hereditary cardiomyopathies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction, are clinically and genetically very heterogeneous diseases, and they represent a frequent cause of cardiac arrest and sudden death. To date, over 100 genes are known to be associated with the onset of cardiomyopathies. Genetic testing is performed by next generation sequencing, a technology that has made it possible to analyze hundreds of genes in many patients simultaneously, shortening costs and execution times. However, with the use of this technology, new problems have arisen regarding the indications for access to the test, the interpretation of the data and the clinical implications of the results.This document aims to represent an operational support tool for hospital cardiologists to make the use of genetic testing more accessible and appropriate for their patients with suspected or ascertained hereditary cardiomyopathy.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186235

RESUMO

AIMS: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) represents a powerful independent predictor of adverse outcome in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). No treatment for CMD exists. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor perindopril improves myocardial blood flow (MBF) in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and in hypertensive patients. Whether HCM patients with CMD may benefit is unknown. METHODS: Fourteen HCM patients aged 18-60 years with CMD [MBF post 0.56 mg/kg dipyridamole (Dip) infusion <2.1 ml/min*g] were included. Presence of left ventricular outflow obstruction, hypertension and coronary artery disease were exclusion criteria. Perindopril was administered after the initial Dip 13N-NH3 PET study at 10 mg for 6 months. After wash-out, a second PET was performed. MBF before and after treatment was compared. RESULTS: No relevant associations were found between baseline MBF values and sex, genetics, history of angina, type of HCM (apical/classic), maximum left ventricular thickness and left ventricular mass. No significant improvement in Dip-MBF was observed with treatment (1.79 ±â€Š0.30 vs.1.76 ±â€Š0.26 ml/min*g at baseline; P = 0.59). A limited but significant improvement in Dip-MBF was seen only in the subset without evidence of fibrosis at cardiac MRI (n = 4; 28%; 2.03 ±â€Š0.13 vs.1.77 ±â€Š0.26 ml/min*g at baseline; P = 0.014). The drug was generally well tolerated: only one patient temporarily stopped the drug, because of cough. CONCLUSION: A 6-month perindopril treatment course in HCM patients with CMD was not associated with significant improvement in Dip-MBF. A limited but significant improvement was observed only in the subset of patients without myocardial fibrosis, suggesting potential utility in early disease stages.

15.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179448

RESUMO

AIMS: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a complex disease where genetics interplay with extrinsic factors. This study aims to compare the phenotype, management, and outcome of familial DCM (FDCM) and non-familial (sporadic) DCM (SDCM) across Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with DCM that were enrolled in the prospective ESC EORP Cardiomyopathy & Myocarditis Registry were included. Baseline characteristics, genetic testing, genetic yield, and outcome were analysed comparing FDCM and SDCM; 1260 adult patients were studied (238 FDCM, 707 SDCM, and 315 not disclosed). Patients with FDCM were younger (P < 0.01), had less severe disease phenotype at presentation (P < 0.02), more favourable baseline cardiovascular risk profiles (P ≤ 0.007), and less medication use (P ≤ 0.042). Outcome at 1 year was similar and predicted by NYHA class (HR 0.45; 95% CI [0.25-0.81]) and LVEF per % decrease (HR 1.05; 95% CI [1.02-1.08]. Throughout Europe, patients with FDCM received more genetic testing (47% vs. 8%, P < 0.01) and had higher genetic yield (55% vs. 22%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that FDCM and SDCM have significant differences at baseline but similar short-term prognosis. Whether modification of associated cardiovascular risk factors provide opportunities for treatment remains to be investigated. Our results also show a prevalent role of genetics in FDCM and a non-marginal yield in SDCM although genetic testing is largely neglected in SDCM. Limited genetic testing and heterogeneity in panels provides a scaffold for improvement of guideline adherence.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151750

RESUMO

Background - The X-linked Danon disease (DD) manifests by severe cardiomyopathy, myopathy, and neuropsychiatric problems. We designed this registry to generate a comprehensive picture of clinical presentations and outcome of patients with Danon disease (DD) in cardiomyopathy centers throughout Europe. Methods - Clinical and genetic data were collected in 16 cardiology centers from 8 European countries. Results - The cohort comprised 30 male and 27 female patients. The age at diagnosis was birth to 42 yr. in males and 2-65 in females. Cardiac involvement was observed in 96%. Extracardiac manifestations were prominent in males but not in females. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was reported in 73% of male and 74% of female patients. LV systolic dysfunction was reported in 40% of males (who had LVEF 34±11%) and 59% of females (LVEF 28±13%). The risk of arrhythmia and heart failure (HF) were comparable among genders. The age of first HF hospitalization was lower in males (18 ± 6 vs. 28 ±17 yr., p<0.003). HF was the leading cause of death (10/17, 59%), and LV systolic dysfunction predicted an adverse outcome. Eight males and 8 females (28%) underwent heart transplantation or received a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Our cohort suggests better prognosis of female compared to male heart transplant recipients. Conclusions - DD presents earlier in males than females and runs a malignant course in both genders, due to cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy features: heart failure and arrhythmia, are similar among the genders. Clinical diagnosis and management is extremely challenging in females due to phenotypic diversity and absence of extracardiac manifestations.

17.
Genet Med ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate discrimination of benign and pathogenic rare variation remains a priority for clinical genome interpretation. State-of-the-art machine learning variant prioritization tools are imprecise and ignore important parameters defining gene-disease relationships, e.g., distinct consequences of gain-of-function versus loss-of-function variants. We hypothesized that incorporating disease-specific information would improve tool performance. METHODS: We developed a disease-specific variant classifier, CardioBoost, that estimates the probability of pathogenicity for rare missense variants in inherited cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias. We assessed CardioBoost's ability to discriminate known pathogenic from benign variants, prioritize disease-associated variants, and stratify patient outcomes. RESULTS: CardioBoost has high global discrimination accuracy (precision recall area under the curve [AUC] 0.91 for cardiomyopathies; 0.96 for arrhythmias), outperforming existing tools (4-24% improvement). CardioBoost obtains excellent accuracy (cardiomyopathies 90.2%; arrhythmias 91.9%) for variants classified with >90% confidence, and increases the proportion of variants classified with high confidence more than twofold compared with existing tools. Variants classified as disease-causing are associated with both disease status and clinical severity, including a 21% increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 11-29%) of severe adverse outcomes by age 60 in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: A disease-specific variant classifier outperforms state-of-the-art genome-wide tools for rare missense variants in inherited cardiac conditions ( https://www.cardiodb.org/cardioboost/ ), highlighting broad opportunities for improved pathogenicity prediction through disease specificity.

18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5343-5346, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019190

RESUMO

In-silico clinical platforms have been recently used as a new revolutionary path for virtual patients (VP) generation and further analysis, such as, drug development. Advanced individualized models have been developed to enhance flexibility and reliability of the virtual patient cohorts. This study focuses on the implementation and comparison of three different methodologies for generating virtual data for in-silico clinical trials. Towards this direction, three computational methods, namely: (i) the multivariate log-normal distribution (log- MVND), (ii) the supervised tree ensembles, and (iii) the unsupervised tree ensembles are deployed and evaluated against their performance towards the generation of high-quality virtual data using the goodness of fit (gof) and the dataset correlation matrix as performance evaluation measures. Our results reveal the dominance of the tree ensembles towards the generation of virtual data with similar distributions (gof values less than 0.2) and correlation patterns (average difference less than 0.03).


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Árvores , Simulação por Computador , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Mol Genet Metab ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012654

RESUMO

Results from the 18-month randomized treatment period of the phase 3 ATTRACT study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of oral migalastat compared with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with Fabry disease who previously received ERT. Here, we report data from the subsequent 12-month, migalastat-only, open-label extension (OLE) period. ATTRACT (Study AT1001-012; NCT01218659) was a randomized, open-label, active-controlled study in patients aged 16-74 years with Fabry disease, an amenable GLA variant, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2. During the OLE, patients who received migalastat 150 mg every other day (QOD) during the randomized period continued receiving migalastat (Group 1 [MM]); patients who received ERT every other week discontinued ERT and started migalastat treatment (Group 2 [EM]). Outcome measures included eGFR, left ventricular mass index (LVMi), composite clinical outcome (renal, cardiac or cerebrovascular events), and safety. Forty-six patients who completed the randomized treatment period continued into the OLE (Group 1 [MM], n = 31; Group 2 [EM], n = 15). eGFR remained stable in both treatment groups. LVMi decreased from baseline at month 30 in Group 1 (MM) in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy at baseline. Only 10% of patients experienced a new composite clinical event with migalastat treatment during the OLE. No new safety concerns were reported. In conclusion, in patients with Fabry disease and amenable GLA variants, migalastat 150 mg QOD was well tolerated and demonstrated durable, long-term stability of renal function and reduction in LVMi.

20.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(9): e007230, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last 50 years, the epidemiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has changed because of increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic tools. We aim to describe the temporal trends in age, sex, and clinical characteristics at HCM diagnosis over >4 decades. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed records from the ongoing multinational Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry. Overall, 7286 patients with HCM diagnosed at an age ≥18 years between 1961 and 2019 were included in the analysis and divided into 3 eras of diagnosis (<2000, 2000-2010, >2010). RESULTS: Age at diagnosis increased markedly over time (40±14 versus 47±15 versus 51±16 years, P<0.001), both in US and non-US sites, with a stable male-to-female ratio of about 3:2. Frequency of familial HCM declined over time (38.8% versus 34.3% versus 32.7%, P<0.001), as well as heart failure symptoms at presentation (New York Heart Association III/IV: 18.1% versus 15.8% versus 12.6%, P<0.001). Left ventricular hypertrophy became less marked over time (maximum wall thickness: 20±6 versus 18±5 versus 17±5 mm, P<0.001), while prevalence of obstructive HCM was greater in recent cohorts (peak gradient >30 mm Hg: 31.9% versus 39.3% versus 39.0%, P=0.001). Consistent with decreasing phenotypic severity, yield of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants at genetic testing decreased over time (57.7% versus 45.6% versus 38.4%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Evolving HCM populations include progressively greater representation of older patients with sporadic disease, mild phenotypes, and genotype-negative status. Such trend suggests a prominent role of imaging over genetic testing in promoting HCM diagnoses and urges efforts to understand genotype-negative disease eluding the classic monogenic paradigm.

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