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1.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1883336, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899695

RESUMO

Introduction: Innovative interventions are needed to address the growing burden of breast cancer globally, especially among vulnerable patient populations. Given the success of Community Health Workers (CHWs) in addressing communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases, this scoping review will investigate the roles and impacts of CHWs in breast cancer screening programs. This paper also seeks to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of these programs, with particular attention paid to differences between CHW-led interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs).Methods: A scoping review was performed using six databases with dates ranging from 1978 to 2019. Comprehensive definitions and search terms were established for 'Community Health Workers' and 'breast cancer screening', and studies were extracted using the World Bank definition of LMIC. Screening and data extraction were protocolized using multiple independent reviewers. Chi-square test of independence was used for statistical analysis of the incidence of themes in HICs and LMICs.Results: Of the 1,551 papers screened, 33 were included based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study locations included the United States (n=27), Bangladesh (n=1), Peru (n=1), Malawi (n=2), Rwanda (n=1), and South Africa (n=1). Three primary roles for CHWs in breast cancer screening were identified: education (n=30), direct assistance or performance of breast cancer screening (n=7), and navigational services (n=6). In these roles, CHWs improved rates of breast cancer screening (n=23) and overall community member knowledge (n=21). Two studies performed cost-analyses of CHW-led interventions.Conclusion: This review extends our understanding of CHW effectiveness to breast cancer screening. It illustrates how CHW involvement in screening programs can have a significant impact in LMICs and HICs, and highlights the three CHW roles of education, direct performance of screening, and navigational services that emerge as useful pillars around which governments and NGOs can design effective programs in this area.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry. METHODS: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9,241 cases and 10,193 controls. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry, and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category. RESULTS: For overall BC, the odds ratios per standard deviation of PRS313 was 1.27 (95%CI = 1.23 to 1.31), with an AUC of 0.571 (95%CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared to women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.72). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction. CONCLUSION: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared to that reported in European, Asian and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 18, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541403

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate weight change patterns over time following the diagnosis of breast cancer and to examine the association of post-diagnosis weight change and survival outcomes in Black and White patients. METHODS: The study included 2888 women diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer in 2000-2017 in Chicago. Longitudinal repeated measures of weight and height were collected, along with a questionnaire survey including questions on body size. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in body mass index (BMI). Delayed entry Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the impacts of changing slope of BMI on survival outcomes. RESULTS: At diagnosis, most patients were overweight or obese with a mean BMI of 27.5 kg/m2 and 31.5 kg/m2 for Blacks and Whites, respectively. Notably, about 45% of the patients had cachexia before death and substantial weight loss started about 30 months before death. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, compared to stable weight, BMI loss (> 0.5 kg/m2/year) showed greater than 2-fold increased risk in overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.60, 95% CI 1.88-3.59), breast cancer-specific survival (HR = 3.05, 95% CI 1.91-4.86), and disease-free survival (HR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.52-2.96). The associations were not modified by race, age at diagnosis, and pre-diagnostic weight. BMI gain (> 0.5 kg/m2/year) was also related to worse survival, but the effect was weak (HR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.10-2.33 for overall survival). CONCLUSION: BMI loss is a strong predictor of worse breast cancer outcomes. Growing prevalence of obesity may hide diagnosis of cancer cachexia, which can occur in a large proportion of breast cancer patients long before death.

4.
Cancer ; 127(11): 1827-1835, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of herbs and supplements (HS) is common among patients with cancer, yet limited information exists about potential medication interactions (PMIs) with HS use around chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients with breast or prostate cancer who had recently finished chemotherapy at 2 academic medical centers were surveyed by telephone. Interviewers inquired about all medications, including HS, before, during, and after chemotherapy. Micromedex, Lexicomp, and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database interaction software programs were used to determine PMIs. RESULTS: A total of 67 subjects (age range, 39-77 years) were evaluated in this study. Participants were primarily White patients (73%) with breast cancer (87%). The median number of medications was 11 (range, 2-28) during the entire study and was highest during chemotherapy (7; range, 2-22). Approximately four-fifths (84%) used HS. A total of 1747 PMIs were identified, and they represented 635 unique PMIs across all 3 timeframes, with most occurring during chemotherapy. Prescription-related PMIs (70%) were the most common type, and they were followed by HS-related (56%) and anticancer treatment-related PMIs (22%). Approximately half of the PMIs (54%) were categorized as moderate interactions, and more than one-third (38%) were categorized as major interactions. Patient use of HS increased from 51% during chemotherapy to 66% after chemotherapy, and this correlated with an increased prevalence of HS PMIs (46% to 60%). HS users were more likely to be at risk for a major PMI than non-HS users (92% vs 70%; P = .038). CONCLUSIONS: The use of HS remains prevalent among patients with cancer and may place them at risk for PMIs both during chemotherapy and after the completion of treatment. LAY SUMMARY: This study evaluates the risk of potential medication interactions for patients with breast or prostate cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The results show that patients often use herbs and supplements during treatment. Prescription medications are most often associated with medication interactions, which are followed by herb and supplement-related interactions. More than one-third of potential medication interactions are considered major. Patients should be educated about the risk of herb and supplement-related medication interactions during treatment.

5.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 185-186, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529075
6.
Cancer Res ; 81(6): 1540-1551, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472891

RESUMO

Innate immune defense mechanisms play a pivotal role in antitumor responses. Recent evidence suggests that antiviral innate immunity is regulated not only by exogenous non-self-RNA but also by host-derived pseudogene RNAs. A growing body of evidence also indicates a biological role for pseudogenes as gene expression regulators or immune modulators. Here, we report an important role for BRCA1P1, the pseudogene of the BRCA1 tumor-suppressor gene, in regulating innate immune defense mechanisms in breast cancer cells. BRCA1P1 expresses a long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in breast cancer cells through divergent transcription. Expression of lncRNA-BRCA1P1 is increased in breast tumors compared with normal breast tissues. Depletion of BRCA1P1 induces an antiviral defense-like program, including the expression of antiviral genes in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, BRCA1P1-deficient cancer cells mimic virus-infected cells by stimulating cytokines and inducing cell apoptosis. Accordingly, depletion of BRCA1P1 increases host innate immune responses and restricts virus replication. In converse, overexpression of BRCA1P1 reduces cytokine expression in breast cancer cells. Mechanistically, lncRNA-BRCA1P1 is localized in the nucleus, binds to the NF-κB subunit RelA, and negatively regulates antiviral gene expression. Finally, in a xenograft mouse model of breast cancer, depletion of BRCA1P1 stimulates cytokine expression and local immunity, and suppresses tumor growth. Our results suggest an important role for BRCA1P1 in innate immune defense mechanisms and antitumor responses. This mechanism of antiviral immunity regulated by a host-derived pseudogene RNA may guide the development of novel therapies targeting immune responses in breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies a novel mechanism of innate immunity driven by a host pseudogene RNA that inhibits innate immune defense mechanisms and antitumor responses through regulation of antiviral gene expression.

7.
Cancer J ; 27(1): 8-16, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475288

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer accounted for 12% of breast cancers diagnosed in the United States from 2012 to 2016, with a 5-year survival 8% to 16% lower than hormone receptor-positive disease. However, preventive and screening strategies remain tailored to the demographics of less lethal luminal cancers. This review examines the ethnic, genetic, and modifiable risk factors associated with triple-negative breast cancer, which providers must recognize to address the societal disparities of this deadly disease. Most notable is that triple-negative cancers disproportionately affect African American women and carriers of germline BRCA and PALB2 mutations. Even controlling for treatment delays, stage, and socioeconomic factors, African Americans with triple-negative breast cancer remain nearly twice as likely to die of their disease. To level the playing field, we must integrate genomic predictors of disease and epidemiologic characteristics of molecular breast cancer subtypes to provide personalized risk assessment, screening, and treatment for each patient.

8.
Phys Med ; 81: 31-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373779

RESUMO

There are increasing concerns regarding intracellular accumulation of gadolinium (Gd) after multiple dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI scans. We investigated whether a low dose (LD) of Gd-based contrast agent is as effective as a high dose (HD) for quantitative analysis of DCE-MRI data, and evaluated the use of a split dose protocol to obtain new diagnostic parameters. Female C3H mice (n = 6) were injected with mammary carcinoma cells in the hind leg. MRI experiments were performed on 9.4 T scanner. DCE-MRI data were acquired with 1.5 s temporal resolution before and after a LD (0.04 mmol/kg), then again after 30 min followed by a HD (0.2 mmol/kg) bolus injection of Omniscan. The standard Tofts model was used to extract physiological parameters (Ktrans and ve) with the arterial input function derived from muscle reference tissue. In addition, an empirical mathematical model was used to characterize maximum contrast agent uptake (A), contrast agent uptake rate (α) and washout rate (ß and γ). There were moderate to strong correlations (r = 0.69-0.97, p < 0001) for parameters Ktrans, ve, A, α and ß from LD versus HD data. On average, tumor parameters obtained from LD data were significantly larger (p < 0.05) than those from HD data. The parameter ratios, Ktrans, ve, A and α calculated from the LD data divided by the HD data, were all significantly larger than 1.0 (p < 0.003) for tumor. T2* changes following contrast agent injection affected parameters calculated from HD data, but this was not the case for LD data. The results suggest that quantitative analysis of LD data may be at least as effective for cancer characterization as quantitative analysis of HD data. In addition, the combination of parameters from two different doses may provide useful diagnostic information.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5007, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024116

RESUMO

p50, the mature product of NFKB1, is constitutively produced from its precursor, p105. Here, we identify BARD1 as a p50-interacting factor. p50 directly associates with the BARD1 BRCT domains via a C-terminal phospho-serine motif. This interaction is induced by ATR and results in mono-ubiquitination of p50 by the BARD1/BRCA1 complex. During the cell cycle, p50 is mono-ubiquitinated in S phase and loss of this post-translational modification increases S phase progression and chromosomal breakage. Genome-wide studies reveal a substantial decrease in p50 chromatin enrichment in S phase and Cycln E is identified as a factor regulated by p50 during the G1 to S transition. Functionally, interaction with BARD1 promotes p50 protein stability and consistent with this, in human cancer specimens, low nuclear BARD1 protein strongly correlates with low nuclear p50. These data indicate that p50 mono-ubiquitination by BARD1/BRCA1 during the cell cycle regulates S phase progression to maintain genome integrity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Instabilidade Genômica , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Serina/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitinação
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Differences in tumor biology, genomic architecture, and health care delivery patterns contribute to the breast cancer mortality gap between White and Black patients in the US. Although this gap has been well documented in previous literature, it remains uncertain how large the actual effect size of race is for different survival outcomes and the four breast cancer subtypes. METHODS: We established a breast cancer patient cohort at the University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center. We chose five major survival outcomes to study: overall survival, recurrence-free survival, breast-cancer-specific survival, time-to-recurrence and post-recurrence survival. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios between Black and White patients, adjusting for selected patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, and also stratified by the four breast cancer subtypes. RESULTS: The study included 2795 stage I-III breast cancer patients (54% White and 38% Black). After adjusting for selected patient, tumor and treatment characteristics, Black patients still did worse than White patients in all five survival outcomes. The racial difference was highest within the HR-/HER2+ subgroup, in both overall survival (hazard ratio = 4.00, 95% CI 1.47-10.86) and recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio = 3.00, 95% CI 1.36-6.60), adjusting for age at diagnosis, cancer stage, and comorbidities. There was also a significant racial disparity within the HR+/HER2- group in both overall survival and recurrence-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed that racial disparity existed between White and Black breast cancer patients in terms of both survival and recurrence, and found that this disparity was largest among HR-/HER2+ and HR+/HER2- patients.

11.
NMR Biomed ; 33(10): e4363, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881124

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed malignancy among women globally. Past MRI studies have linked a high animal fat diet (HAFD) to increased mammary cancer risk in the SV40Tag mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Here, serial MRI examines tumor progression and measures the arterial blood volume feeding mammary glands in low fat diet (LFD) or HAFD fed mice. Virgin female C3(1)SV40Tag mice (n = 8), weaned at 3 weeks old, were assigned to an LFD (n = 4, 3.7 kcal/g, 17.2% kcal from vegetable oil) or an HAFD (n = 4, 5.3 kcal/g, 60% kcal from lard) group. From ages 8 to 12 weeks, weekly fast spin echo MR images and time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography of inguinal mammary glands were acquired at 9.4 T. Following in vivo MRI, mice were sacrificed. Inguinal mammary glands were excised and fixed for ex vivo MRI and histology. Tumor, blood, and mammary gland volumes for each time point were measured from manually traced regions of interest; tumors were classified as invasive by histopathology-blinded observers. Our analysis confirmed a strong correlation between total tumor volume and blood volume in the mammary gland. Tumor growth rates from weeks 8-12 were twice as high in HAFD-fed mice (0.42 ± 0.14/week) as in LFD-fed mice (0.21 ± 0.03/week), p < 0.004. Mammary gland blood volume growth rate was 2.2 times higher in HAFD mice (0.29 ± 0.11/week) compared with LFD mice (0.13 ± 0.06/week), p < 0.02. The mammary gland growth rate of HAFD-fed mice (0.071 ± 0.011/week) was 2.7 times larger than that of LFD-fed mice (0.026 ± 0.009/week), p < 0.01. This is the first non-invasive, in vivo MRI study to demonstrate a strong correlation between an HAFD and increased cancer burden and blood volume in mammary cancer without using contrast agents, strengthening the evidence supporting the adverse effects of an HAFD on mammary cancer. These results support the potential future use of TOF angiography to evaluate vasculature of suspicious lesions.

12.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(5): 100079, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864637

RESUMO

In a recent issue of Cancer Cell, Carrot-Zhang et al. identified ancestry-specific molecular variants and expression changes among patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).1 Their study findings and limitations highlight the critical need to diversify populations represented in cancer genomics research.

13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 713, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is both higher mortality and morbidity from cancer in low and medium income countries (LMICs) compared with high income countries (HICs). Clinical trial activities and development of more effective and less toxic therapies have led to significant improvements in morbidity and mortality from cancer in HICs. Unfortunately, clinical trials remain low in LMICs due to poor infrastructure and paucity of experienced personnel to execute clinical trials. There is an urgent need to build local capacity for evidence-based treatment for cancer patients in LMICs. METHODS: We conducted a survey at facilities in four Teaching Hospitals in South West Nigeria using a checklist of information on various aspects of clinical trial activities. The gaps identified were addressed using resources sourced in partnership with investigators at HIC institutions. RESULTS: Deficits in infrastructure were in areas of patient care such as availability of oncology pharmacists, standard laboratories and diagnostic facilities, clinical equipment maintenance and regular calibrations, trained personnel for clinical trial activities, investigational products handling and disposals and lack of standard operating procedures for clinical activities. There were two GCP trained personnel, two study coordinators and one research pharmacist across the four sites. Interventions were instituted to address the observed deficits in all four sites which are now well positioned to undertake clinical trials in oncology. Training on all aspects of clinical trial was also provided. CONCLUSIONS: Partnerships with institutions in HICs can successfully identify, address, and improve deficits in infrastructure for clinical trial in LMICs. The HICs should lead in providing funds, mentorship, and training for LMIC institutions to improve and expand clinical trials in LMIC countries.

14.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 19: 1534735420945769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients frequently use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and spirituality has been associated with CAM use among patients. We evaluated how oncologists' spirituality and religiosity are associated with personal use and patient recommendations for CAM. METHODS: A survey was mailed to 1000 medical oncologists in the United States. The questionnaire asked about oncologists' approaches to CAM use by patients, focusing on the use of herbs and supplement (HS), and about religiosity and spirituality. RESULTS: Of 937 deliverable questionnaires, 392 were returned (response rate 42%). Respondents were mostly men (71%) and Caucasian (76%), with a median age of 48. Approximately 16% reported no religion, 19% Jewish, 24% Catholic, 28% Christian, and 13% other religions. Eighteen percent reported attending religious services at least once a week, including 15% who attend several times per week. Twenty-eight percent reported high theological pluralism (skepticism regarding whether one religion is comprehensively and uniquely true); 58% described themselves as moderately or very spiritual. Self-reported spirituality and religious service attendance were associated with using CAM personally and recommending HS to patients. In multivariate analyses, moderate-high spirituality and attending religious services less than monthly was positively associated with personal use of CAM: odds ratio (OR) = 3.10 (confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-6.5) and OR = 3.04 (CI = 1.5-6.6), respectively. Physicians with moderate to high spirituality were more likely to report recommending CAM in general (OR = 3.07, CI = 1.3-7.1), but less likely to report recommending HS (OR = 0.33, CI = 0.14-0.75). CONCLUSION: Self-reported spirituality is a significant factor among US oncologists' decision to use CAM and recommend CAM to patients.

16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 183(2): 243-250, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women at an elevated lifetime risk for breast cancer (BC), including carriers of pathogenic mutations in BC predisposition genes, are recommended intensified BC screening that includes annual mammography (MG) and annual breast MRI. Controversy exists regarding the clinical utility of MRI as a screening tool in high-risk women. This paper is intended to review recent advances and remaining areas of uncertainty in order to further facilitate the incorporation of breast MRI into an intensified BC screening protocol for women at high familial risk and BRCA carriers. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team of medical oncologists and a radiologist specializing in the treatment of BC and high-risk patients searched PubMed to identify studies deemed to have the highest scientific value. Since none of the initial MRI studies were randomized, meta-analyses examining breast MRI screening in high-risk women were prioritized for inclusion. RESULTS: Breast MRI performs well in high-risk women, including mutation carriers. Breast MRI screening allows for the detection of early stage, likely curable invasive BC. It is mandatory that radiologists receive appropriate MRI training to reduce false positives and unnecessary biopsies. MRI screening is cost-effective in the highest risk patients and new clinical trials are open examining abbreviated and ultra-fast MRI techniques as a tool to drive down costs and improve specificity. CONCLUSIONS: As breast MRI is recommended as part of an intensified screening program in addition to mammography for high-risk women, it important that health care providers understand the benefits and limitations of this screening modality for high-risk women, as well as areas for further investigation.

17.
Cancer ; 126(17): 4013-4022, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic assays such as Oncotype Dx (ODX) and MammaPrint are used for risk-adapted treatment decisions among patients with early breast cancer. However, to the authors' knowledge, concordance between genomic assays is modest. Using real-world data, the authors performed a comparative analysis of ODX and MammaPrint. METHODS: A cohort of women diagnosed with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer who received ODX or MammaPrint was established using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for 2010 through 2016. Using the propensity score matching method, 2 groups of patients with similar clinical and demographic characteristics were defined: one group received ODX and the other received MammaPrint. The authors examined the association between use of the ODX or MammaPrint assays and overall survival using Cox models. RESULTS: Of the 451,693 eligible patients, approximately 45.3% received ODX and 1.8% received MammaPrint testing. The use of ODX increased from 36.1% in 2010 to 49.9% in 2016, whereas use of MammaPrint increased from 0.5% in 2010 to 3.3% in 2016. The authors matched 5042 patients who received ODX with 5042 patients who received MammaPrint. The 5-year risks of death for the MammaPrint low-risk group and the ODX low-risk group were 3.4% and 4.7%, respectively. The prognostic value of MammaPrint was similar to that of ODX; the C-index was 0.614 (95% confidence interval, 0.572-0.657) for MammaPrint and 0.581 (95% confidence interval, 0.530-0.631) for ODX. There was a difference in the performance of the ODX assay observed across racial and/or ethnic groups (P < .001), with a slightly better performance noted among white compared with African American and Hispanic individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Both the ODX and MammaPrint tests are good at identifying low-risk individuals who could be spared chemotherapy. The suboptimal performance of ODX in ethnic minority individuals deserves further investigation.

18.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(7): e534-e540, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, where it accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality. Newborn screening is paramount for early diagnosis and enrolment of affected children into a comprehensive care programme. Up to now, this strategy has been greatly impaired in resource-poor countries, because screening methods are technologically and financially intensive; affordable, reliable, and accurate methods are needed. We aimed to test the feasibility of implementing a sickle cell disease screening programme using innovative point-of-care test devices into existing immunisation programmes in primary health-care settings. METHODS: Building on a routine immunisation programme and using existing facilities and staff, we did a prospective feasibility study at five primary health-care centres within Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria. We systematically screened for sickle cell disease consecutive newborn babies and infants younger than 9 months who presented to immunisation clinics at these five centres, using an ELISA-based point-of care test (HemoTypeSC). A subgroup of consecutive babies who presented to immunisation clinics at the primary health-care centres, whose mothers gave consent, were tested by the HemoTypeSC point-of-care test alongside a different immunoassay-based point-of-care test (SickleSCAN) and the gold standard test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). FINDINGS: Between July 14, 2017, and Sept 3, 2019, 3603 newborn babies and infants who presented for immunisation were screened for sickle cell disease at five primary health-care centres using the ELISA-based point-of-care test. We identified 51 (1%) children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS), four (<1%) heterozygous for HbS and HbC (HbSC), 740 (21%) with sickle cell trait (HbAS), 34 (1%) heterozygous for HbA and HbC (HbAC), and 2774 (77%) with normal haemoglobin (HbAA). Of the 55 babies and infants with confirmed sickle cell disease, 41 (75%) were enrolled into a programme for free folic acid and penicillin, of whom 36 (88%) completed three visits over 9 months (median follow-up 226 days [IQR 198-357]). The head-to-head comparison between the two point-of-care tests and HPLC showed concordance between the three testing methods in screening 313 newborn babies, with a specificity of 100% with HemoTypeSC, 100% with SickleSCAN, and 100% by HPLC, and a sensitivity of 100% with HemoTypeSC, 100% with SickleSCAN, and 100% by HPLC. INTERPRETATION: Our pilot study shows that the integration of newborn screening into existing primary health-care immunisation programmes is feasible and can rapidly be implemented with limited resources. Point-of-care tests are reliable and accurate in newborn screening for sickle cell disease. This feasibility study bodes well for the care of patients with sickle cell disease in resource-poor countries. FUNDING: Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, Imperial College London Wellcome Trust Centre for Global Health Research, and Richard and Susan Kiphart Family Foundation.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Triagem Neonatal , Testes Imediatos/organização & administração , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/organização & administração , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1401-1406, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To better understand the longitudinal risks and benefits of telephone disclosure of genetic test results in the era of multigene panel testing. METHODS: Adults who were proceeding with germline cancer genetic testing were randomized to telephone disclosure (TD) with a genetic counselor or in-person disclosure (IPD) (i.e., usual care) of test results. All participants who received TD were recommended to return to meet with a physician to discuss medical management recommendations. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-three participants were randomized to TD and 497 to IPD. There were no differences between arms for any cognitive, affective, or behavioral outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Only 50% of participants in the TD arm returned for the medical follow-up appointment. Returning was associated with site (p < 0.0001), being female (p = 0.047), and not having a true negative result (p < 0.002). Mammography was lower at 12 months among those who had TD and did not return for medical follow-up (70%) compared with those who had TD and returned (86%) and those who had IPD (87%, adjusted p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Telephone disclosure of genetic test results is a reasonable alternative to in-person disclosure, but attention to medical follow-up may remain important for optimizing appropriate use of genetic results.

20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(3): 623-633, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Capecitabine is important in breast cancer treatment but causes diarrhea and hand-foot syndrome (HFS), affecting adherence and quality of life. We sought to identify pharmacogenomic predictors of capecitabine toxicity using a novel monitoring tool. METHODS: Patients with metastatic breast cancer were prospectively treated with capecitabine (2000 mg/m2/day, 14 days on/7 off). Patients completed in-person toxicity questionnaires (day 1/cycle) and automated phone-in assessments (days 8, 15). Correlation of genotypes with early and overall toxicity was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-nine patients were enrolled (14 institutions). Diarrhea and HFS occurred in 52% (17% grade 3) and 69% (9% grade 3), respectively. Only 29% of patients completed four cycles without dose reduction/interruption. In 39%, the highest toxicity grade was captured via phone. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with diarrhea-DPYD*5 (odds ratio [OR] 4.9; P = 0.0005), a MTHFR missense SNP (OR 3.3; P = 0.02), and a SNP upstream of MTRR (OR 3.0; P = 0.03). GWAS elucidated a novel HFS SNP (OR 3.0; P = 0.0007) near TNFSF4 (OX40L), a gene implicated in autoimmunity including autoimmune skin diseases never before implicated in HFS. Genotype-gene expression analyses of skin tissues identified rs11158568 (associated with HFS via GWAS) with expression of CHURC1, a transcriptional activator controlling fibroblast growth factor (beta = - 0.74; P = 1.46 × 10-23), representing a previously unidentified mechanism for HFS. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first cancer pharmacogenomic study to use phone-in self-reporting, permitting augmented toxicity characterization. Three germline toxicity SNPs were replicated, and several novel SNPs/genes having strong functional relevance were discovered. If further validated, these markers could permit personalized capecitabine dosing.

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