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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1562, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived risk towards the coronavirus pandemic is key to improved compliance with public health measures to reduce the infection rates. This study investigated how Sub-Saharan Africans (SSA) living in their respective countries and those in the diaspora perceive their risk of getting infected by the COVID-19 virus as well as the associated factors. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey on 1969 participants aged 18 years and above (55.1% male) was conducted between April 27th and May 17th 2020, corresponding to the mandatory lockdown in most SSA countries. The dependent variable was the perception of risk for contracting COVID-19 scores. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, and COVID-19 related knowledge and attitude scores. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses identified the factors associated with risk perception towards COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the respondents, majority were living in SSA (n = 1855, 92.8%) and 143 (7.2%) in the diaspora. There was no significant difference in the mean risk perception scores between the two groups (p = 0.117), however, those aged 18-28 years had lower risk perception scores (p = 0.003) than the older respondents, while those who were employed (p = 0.040) and had higher levels of education (p < 0.001) had significantly higher risk perception scores than other respondents. After adjusting for covariates, multivariable analyses revealed that SSA residents aged 39-48 years (adjusted coefficient, ß = 0.06, 95% CI [0.01, 1.19]) and health care sector workers (ß = 0.61, 95% CI [0.09, 1.14]) reported a higher perceived risk of COVID-19. Knowledge and attitude scores increased as perceived risk for COVID-19 increased for both SSAs in Africa (ß = 1.19, 95% CI [1.05, 1.34] for knowledge; ß = 0.63, 95% CI [0.58, 0.69] for attitude) and in Diaspora (ß = 1.97, 95% CI [1.16, 2.41] for knowledge; ß = 0.30, 95% CI [0.02, 0.58] for attitude). CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to promote preventive measures focusing on increasing people's knowledge about COVID-19 and encouraging positive attitudes towards the mitigation measures such as vaccines and education. Such interventions should target the younger population, less educated and non-healthcare workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Migração Humana , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Health Secur ; 19(4): 393-404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227870

RESUMO

Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic and associated high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, there is panic among healthcare workers because of the higher risk of being infected. This study compared knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of COVID-19 among healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) and examined common associated factors. A web-based cross-sectional study of 1,871 respondents (430 HCWs and 1,441 non-HCWs) was conducted while lockdown measures were in place in 4 regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Data were obtained using a validated self-administered questionnaire via an online survey platform. Mean scores were calculated and summarized using a t test for both groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the unadjusted (B) and adjusted coefficients (ß) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%. The mean scores were slightly higher among HCWs than non-HCWs, but not statistically significant. Being worried about contracting COVID-19 was the only common factor associated with knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions between the 2 groups. Knowledge of COVID-19 was associated with attitudes and perceptions between the 2 groups. Other significant associated factors were: the sub-Saharan Africa region, ages 29 to 38 years (ß = .32; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.60 for knowledge among non-HCWs), education (ß = -.43; 95% CI, -0.81 to -0.04; and ß = -.95; 95% CI, -1.69 to -0.22, for knowledge among non-HCWs and HCWs, respectively), practice of self-isolation (ß = .71; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.02 for attitude among non-HCWs and HCWs (ß = .97; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.49), and home quarantine due to COVID-19, in both groups. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider these factors when targeting interventions during COVID-19 and other future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e8, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the search for effective treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection continues, the public opinion around the potential use of chloroquine (CQ) in treating COVID-19 remains mixed. AIM: To examine opinion and uptake of CQ for treating COVID-19 in the sub-Saharan African (SSA) region. SETTING: This study was conducted through an online survey software titled SurveyMonkey. METHODS: Anonymous online survey of 1829 SSA countries was conducted during the lockdown period using Facebook, WhatsApp and authors' networks. Opinion and uptake of CQ for COVID-19 treatment were assessed using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: About 14% of respondents believed that CQ could treat COVID-19 and of which, 3.2% took CQ for COVID-19 treatment. Multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from Central (adjusted odds ratios [aOR]: 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43, 4.43) and West Africa (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15, 2.88) had higher odds of believing that CQ could treat COVID-19. Respondents from East Africa reported higher odds for uptake of CQ for COVID-19 than Central, Western and Southern Africans. Knowledge of the disease and compliance with the public health advice were associated with both belief and uptake of CQ for COVID-19 treatment. CONCLUSION: Central and West African respondents were more likely to believe in CQ as a treatment for COVID-19 whilst the uptake of the medication during the pandemic was higher amongst East Africans. Future intervention discouraging the unsupervised use of CQ should target respondents from Central, West and East African regions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Health Secur ; 19(1): 44-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606572

RESUMO

Misinformation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a significant threat to global public health because it can inadvertently exacerbate public health challenges by promoting spread of the disease. This study used a convenience sampling technique to examine factors associated with misinformation about COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa using an online cross-sectional survey. A link to the online self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,969 participants through social media platforms and the authors' email networks. Four false statements-informed by results from a pilot study-were included in the survey. The participants' responses were classified as "Agree," "Neutral," and "Disagree." A multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associated factors. Among those who responded to the survey, 19.3% believed that COVID-19 was designed to reduce world population, 22.2% thought the ability to hold your breath for 10 seconds meant that you do not have COVID-19, 27.8% believed drinking hot water flushes down the virus, and 13.9% thought that COVID-19 had little effect on Blacks compared with Whites. An average of 33.7% were unsure whether the 4 false statements were true. Multivariate analysis revealed that those who thought COVID-19 was unlikely to continue in their countries reported higher odds of believing in these 4 false statements. Other significant factors associated with belief in misinformation were age (older adults), employment status (unemployed), gender (female), education (bachelor's degree), and knowledge about the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Strategies to reduce the spread of false information about COVID-19 and other future pandemics should target these subpopulations, especially those with limited education. This will also enhance compliance with public health measures to reduce spread of further outbreaks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494209

RESUMO

Mental health and emotional responses to the effects of COVID-19 lockdown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are of serious public health concern and may negatively affect the mental health status of people. Hence, this study assessed the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as emotional reactions among sub-Saharan Africans (SSAs) and associated factors among SSAs during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This was a web-based cross-sectional study on mental health and emotional features from 2005 respondents in seven SSA countries. This study was conducted between 17 April and 17 May 2020 corresponding to the lockdown period in most SSA countries. Respondents aged 18 years and above and the self-reported symptoms were feeling anxious, being worried, angry, bored and frustrated. These were the main outcomes and were treated as dichotomous variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with these symptoms. We found that over half (52.2%) of the participants reported any of the mental health symptoms and the prevalence of feeling bored was 70.5% followed by feeling anxious (59.1%), being worried (57.5%), frustrated (51.5%) and angry (22.3%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariate analysis revealed that males, those aged >28 years, those who lived in Central and Southern Africa, those who were not married, the unemployed, those living with more than six persons in a household, had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Similarly, people who perceived low risk of contracting the infection, and those who thought the pandemic would not continue after the lockdown had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Health care workers had lower odds for feeling angry than non-healthcare workers. During the COVID-19 lockdown periods in SSA, about one in two participants reported mental health and emotional symptoms. Public health measures can be effectively used to identify target groups for prevention and treatment of mental health and emotional symptoms. Such interventions should be an integral component of SSA governments' response and recovery strategies of any future pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Disasters ; 42(3): 541-570, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277928

RESUMO

This paper proposes an empirically grounded framework for examining the preparedness and recovery phases of disaster management activities and processes pertaining to predictable disasters within a developed country. The two-stage framework provides a single model composed of important preparedness and recovery initiatives, as well as activities and processes derived from empirical data collected for case studies from Australia: the 'Black Saturday' bushfires in the state of Victoria in February 2009; and Cyclone Larry in March 2006. The framework enables a variety of analyses, including the generation of insights into disaster management preparedness and recovery in the context of events in wealthy developed countries. The paper combines two empirical examples, a series of bushfires and a severe tropical cyclone, to enhance understanding of, and to contribute to better, disaster preparedness and recovery in the future. The paper contributes to the growing literature on disasters, preparedness, recovery and associated logistics, and other issues.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Incêndios , Modelos Organizacionais , Humanos , Vitória
7.
Disasters ; 36(1): 54-82, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21702893

RESUMO

The United Kingdom uses the Defence Lines of Development (DLOD) framework to analyse and understand the key components and costs of a military capability. Rooted in the Resource Based View (RBV) of a firm, an adapted DLOD approach is employed to explore, analyse and discuss the preparedness, planning and response strategies of two markedly different countries (Australia and Bangladesh) when faced with a major cyclone event of a comparable size. Given the numerous similarities in the challenges facing military forces in a complex emergency and humanitarian agencies in a natural disaster, the paper demonstrates the applicability of the DLOD framework as an analysis and planning tool in the cyclone preparedness planning and response phases, and more broadly within the disaster management area. In addition, the paper highlights the benefit to disaster managers, policymakers and researchers of exploiting comparative cross-learning opportunities from disaster events, drawn from different sectors and countries.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Ciência Militar/métodos , Modelos Organizacionais , Socorro em Desastres/organização & administração , Austrália , Bangladesh , Humanos , Reino Unido
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