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1.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026421

RESUMO

Importance: Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a common and generally benign keratinocyte skin tumor. Reports of the incidence rates of KA are scant. In addition, the risk factors for KA are not well understood, although associations with UV radiation exposure and older age have been described. Objective: To investigate the incidence rate of KA and the risk factors for developing KA. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study included data from 40 438 of 193 344 randomly selected residents of Queensland, Australia, who participated in the QSkin Sun and Health (QSkin) prospective population-based cohort study. All participants completed a baseline survey between 2010 and 2011 and were ages 40 to 69 years at baseline. Histopathologic reports of KA were prospectively collected until June 30, 2014, through data linkage with pathologic records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk factors associated with KA while controlling for potential confounding variables. Data were analyzed from January 2 to April 8, 2020. Exposures: Demographic characteristics, phenotypes, UV radiation exposure, medical history, and lifestyle. Results: Among 40 438 participants (mean [SD] age, 56 [8] years; 18 240 men [45.1%]), 596 individuals (mean [SD] age, 62 [6] years; 349 men [58.6%]) developed 776 KA tumors during a median follow-up period of 3.0 years (interquartile range, 2.8-3.3 years). The person-based age-standardized incidence rate for KA in the age-restricted cohort was 409 individuals per 100 000 person-years (based on the 2001 Australian population). Risk factors after adjustment for potential confounders were older age (age ≥60 years vs age <50 years; hazard ratio [HR], 6.38; 95% CI, 4.65-8.75), male sex (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.33-1.84), fair skin (vs olive, dark, or black skin; HR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.66-7.04), inability to tan (vs ability to tan deeply; HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19-2.40), previous excisions of keratinocyte cancers (ever had an excision vs never had an excision; HR, 6.28; 95% CI, 5.03-7.83), current smoking (vs never smoking, HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.59-2.57), and high alcohol use (≥14 alcoholic drinks per week vs no alcoholic drinks per week; HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86). Conclusions and Relevance: This is, to date, the first large prospective population-based study to report the incidence rate and risk factors for KA. The high person-based incidence rate (409 individuals per 100 000 person-years) highlights the substantial burden of KA in Queensland, Australia. Furthermore, the study's findings suggest that older age (≥60 years), male sex, UV radiation-sensitive phenotypes, indications of high sun exposure (eg, previous keratinocyte cancer excisions), smoking, and high alcohol use are independent risk factors for the development of KA.

3.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926899

RESUMO

The publisher regrets that this article has been temporarily removed. A replacement will appear as soon as possible in which the reason for the removal of the article will be specified, or the article will be reinstated. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(9): e21243, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia and New Zealand have the highest skin cancer incidence rates worldwide, and sun exposure is the main risk factor for developing skin cancer. Sun exposure during childhood and adolescence is a critical factor in developing skin cancer later in life. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the effectiveness of wearable UV sensors to increase sun protection habits (SPH) and prevent sunburn in adolescents. METHODS: During the weeklong school leavers outdoor festival (November 2019) at the Gold Coast, Australia, registered attendees aged 15-19 years were recruited into the field study. Participants were provided with a wearable UV sensor and free sunscreen. The primary outcome was sun exposure practices using the SPH index. Secondary outcomes were self-reported sunburns, sunscreen use, and satisfaction with the wearable UV sensor. RESULTS: A total of 663 participants were enrolled in the study, and complete data were available for 188 participants (188/663, 28.4% response rate). Participants provided with a wearable UV sensor significantly improved their use of sunglasses (P=.004) and sunscreen use both on the face (P<.001) and on other parts of the body (P=.005). However, the use of long-sleeve shirts (P<.001) and the use of a hat (P<.001) decreased. During the study period, 31.4% (59/188) of the participants reported receiving one or more sunburns. Satisfaction with the wearable UV sensor was high, with 73.4% (138/188) of participants reporting the UV sensor was helpful to remind them to use sun protection. CONCLUSIONS: Devices that target health behaviors when outdoors, such as wearable UV sensors, may improve use of sunscreen and sunglasses in adolescents.

5.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 711-723, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Keratinocyte cancers are exceedingly common in high-risk populations, but accurate measures of incidence are seldom derived because the burden of manually reviewing pathology reports to extract relevant diagnostic information is excessive. Thus, we sought to develop supervised learning algorithms for classifying basal and squamous cell carcinomas and other diagnoses, as well as disease site, and incorporate these into a Web application capable of processing large numbers of pathology reports. METHODS: Participants in the QSkin study were recruited in 2011 and comprised men and women age 40-69 years at baseline (N = 43,794) who were randomly selected from a population register in Queensland, Australia. Histologic data were manually extracted from free-text pathology reports for participants with histologically confirmed keratinocyte cancers for whom a pathology report was available (n = 25,786 reports). This provided a training data set for the development of algorithms capable of deriving diagnosis and site from free-text pathology reports. We calculated agreement statistics between algorithm-derived classifications and 3 independent validation data sets of manually abstracted pathology reports. RESULTS: The agreement for classifications of basal cell carcinoma (κ = 0.97 and κ = 0.96) and squamous cell carcinoma (κ = 0.93 for both) was almost perfect in 2 validation data sets but was slightly lower for a third (κ = 0.82 and κ = 0.90, respectively). Agreement for total counts of specific diagnoses was also high (κ > 0.8). Similar levels of agreement between algorithm-derived and manually extracted data were observed for classifications of keratoacanthoma and intraepidermal carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Supervised learning methods were used to develop a Web application capable of accurately and rapidly classifying large numbers of pathology reports for keratinocyte cancers and related diagnoses. Such tools may provide the means to accurately measure subtype-specific skin cancer incidence.

6.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615124

RESUMO

Organ-transplant recipients have an elevated risk of keratinocyte cancers: basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma. We assessed whether polygenic risk scores (PRSs) generated in nontransplantees from the UK Biobank and 23andMe (13,981 squamous cell carcinoma, 33,736 BCC, and >560,000 controls) can predict keratinocyte cancer risk in an independent organ-transplant recipient cohort. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, compared with the bottom 20%, organ-transplant recipients in the top 20% PRS had an increased risk of BCC (OR = 3.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.44-7.31, P = 4.4 × 10-3) and squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 2.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.98-4.53, P = 0.055). For BCC, the top 20% PRS individuals had an absolute risk of 23%, whereas the risk in the bottom 20% was similar to that in the general nontransplantee population. Adding PRS to a model containing traditional skin cancer risk factors yielded a 3% increase in the area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curve for BCC (0.73 vs. 0.70); adding the PRS did not significantly increase the area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curve for squamous cell carcinoma. Organ-transplant recipients in the highest genetic risk quintile could benefit from more intense keratinocyte cancer screening and preventive strategies compared with their counterparts. The BCC PRS improves prediction over and above the traditional skin cancer risk factors by 3%.

7.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(5): 1406-1414, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature surrounding survival of patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) yields variable and opposing findings, constrained by statistical challenges. OBJECTIVES: To critically examine the available literature regarding survival of patients with MPM compared with a single primary melanoma and detail statistical methods used. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus, with cross-checking of references, for the period January 1956 to June 2019. Studies published in English examining survival in patients with multiple melanomas were included. Case studies and small case series were excluded. RESULTS: There were 14 studies eligible for inclusion. Conclusions on survival varied markedly depending on the statistical method used. Four studies that accounted for survival bias by partitioning the survival time were included in the quantitative review, with 3 of these reporting a survival disadvantage for MPM, whereas the fourth showed no difference in survival. The pooled hazard ratio was 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.81) but with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 96.8%, Phet < .001). LIMITATIONS: Studies showed significant heterogeneity in methodology. CONCLUSION: When data were analyzed with robust statistical methods, patients with MPM had a survival disadvantage compared with patients with a single primary melanoma.

8.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(5): 553-560, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211827

RESUMO

Importance: Men and women develop melanoma at different rates on different body sites, with variation across countries, but explanations for these disparities remain elusive. Objective: To test whether observed differences in melanoma incidence between men and women vary by population, age, or anatomic site. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of sex- and site-specific temporal trends in melanoma incidence over 3 decades was conducted for men and women diagnosed with invasive melanoma in the US (limited to white race), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Using cancer registry data, male to female incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated overall and by anatomic site, and Joinpoint regression models were used to estimate the annual percentage rate changes in sex- and site-specific incidence in each population. Incidence rates were standardized to the US 2000 population. Data on the incidence between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2015, were obtained; analysis was conducted from March 1 to October 15, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Male to female IRRs and annual percentage change in rates. Results: Total melanoma incidence was higher in men than women in US individuals (limited to white race), Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, but not in Denmark, the UK, Norway, and Sweden. In all populations, men had higher rates of melanoma of the head and neck and trunk than women (male to female IRR >1), but lower melanoma rates on the lower limbs (ie, male to female IRR approximately 0.5). The male to female IRR increased log linearly with age, with excess melanomas in women younger than 45 years in all populations (eg, IRR for 20-24 y age group, 0.3 in Denmark and 0.7 in Australia), and excess melanomas in men older than 69 years (eg, IRR for 70-74 y age group, 1.1 in Denmark and 2.1 in the US white population). The age at which the melanoma incidence in men exceeded the melanoma incidence in women differed by population, being achieved the earliest in Australia (45-49 years) and latest in Denmark (65-69 years). Conclusions and Relevance: In predominantly fair-skinned populations, melanoma incidence appears to differ systematically and consistently between men and women by age and anatomic site.

9.
Australas J Dermatol ; 61(3): e303-e309, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the most commonly encountered cancers in fair-skinned populations worldwide. Perineural invasion is associated with worse outcomes for patients with BCC or SCC. Estimates of perineural invasion prevalence range widely, likely reflecting non-representative patient samples. We sought to determine the prevalence of perineural invasion in BCC and SCC in the general population, as well as among cancers arising in solid organ transplant recipients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed histopathology reports of BCC and SCC from patients enrolled in the QSkin Study (a population-based cohort of 43 794 Queensland residents recruited 2010-2011) and the Skin Tumours in Allograft Recipients (STAR) study (a cohort of 509 high-risk kidney or liver transplant recipients at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, recruited 2012-2014.) We estimated the prevalence of perineural invasion (and 95% confidence interval) in BCC and SCC, respectively, and identified clinical factors associated with perineural invasion. RESULTS: In QSkin, we observed 35 instances of perineural invasion in 9850 histopathologically confirmed BCCs (0.36%) and 9 instances of perineural invasion in 3982 confirmed SCC (0.23%) lesions. In the STAR cohort, we identified 4 lesions with perineural invasion in 692 BCCs (0.58%) and 16 reports of perineural invasion in 875 SCC lesions (1.9%). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the overall prevalence of perineural invasion in keratinocyte cancer is low, although perineural invasion prevalence may be slightly higher among organ transplant recipients when compared to the general population.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) have both been positively associated with melanoma risk, although findings for BMI have been less consistent than height. It remains unclear, however, whether these associations reflect causality or are due to residual confounding by environmental and lifestyle risk factors. We re-evaluated these associations using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for BMI and height from separate genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses. We obtained melanoma SNPs from the most recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis comprising 12 874 cases and 23 203 controls. We used the inverse variance-weighted estimator to derive separate causal risk estimates across all SNP instruments for BMI and height. RESULTS: Based on the combined estimate derived from 730 SNPs for BMI, we found no evidence of an association between genetically predicted BMI and melanoma [odds ratio (OR) per one standard deviation (1 SD) (4.6 kg/m2) increase in BMI 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.11]. In contrast, we observed a positive association between genetically-predicted height (derived from a pooled estimate of 3290 SNPs) and melanoma risk [OR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13, per 1 SD (9.27 cm) increase in height]. Sensitivity analyses using two alternative MR methods yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide no evidence for a causal association between higher BMI and melanoma, but support the notion that height is causally associated with melanoma risk. Mechanisms through which height influences melanoma risk remain unclear, and it remains possible that the effect could be mediated through diverse pathways including growth factors and even socioeconomic status.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4219, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527586

RESUMO

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is caused by gastric acid entering the esophagus. GERD has high prevalence and is the major risk factor for Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA). We conduct a large GERD GWAS meta-analysis (80,265 cases, 305,011 controls), identifying 25 independent genome-wide significant loci for GERD. Several of the implicated genes are existing or putative drug targets. Loci discovery is greatest with a broad GERD definition (including cases defined by self-report or medication data). Further, 91% of the GERD risk-increasing alleles also increase BE and/or EA risk, greatly expanding gene discovery for these traits. Our results map genes for GERD and related traits and uncover potential new drug targets for these conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Esôfago/genética , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(18): 3148-3160, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174203

RESUMO

The keratinocyte cancers (KC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most common cancers in fair-skinned people. KC treatment represents the second highest cancer healthcare expenditure in Australia. Increasing our understanding of the genetic architecture of KC may provide new avenues for prevention and treatment. We first conducted a series of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of KC across three European ancestry datasets from Australia, Europe and USA, and used linkage disequilibrium (LD) Score regression (LDSC) to estimate their pairwise genetic correlations. We employed a multiple-trait approach to map genes across the combined set of KC GWAS (total N = 47 742 cases, 634 413 controls). We also performed meta-analyses of BCC and SCC separately to identify trait specific loci. We found substantial genetic correlations (generally 0.5-1) between BCC and SCC suggesting overlapping genetic risk variants. The multiple trait combined KC GWAS identified 63 independent genome-wide significant loci, 29 of which were novel. Individual separate meta-analyses of BCC and SCC identified an additional 13 novel loci not found in the combined KC analysis. Three new loci were implicated using gene-based tests. New loci included common variants in BRCA2 (distinct to known rare high penetrance cancer risk variants), and in CTLA4, a target of immunotherapy in melanoma. We found shared and trait specific genetic contributions to BCC and SCC. Considering both, we identified a total of 79 independent risk loci, 45 of which are novel.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Alelos , Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queratinócitos/patologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
15.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(7): 462-466, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure to cosmic and ultraviolet radiation may increase airline pilots' risk of cutaneous melanoma. Meta-analyses of available data show a higher than average incidence of melanoma in airline pilots, but the most recent systematic review revealed that few contemporary data are available. Moreover, all relevant studies have been conducted in Northern Hemisphere populations. We therefore aimed to examine if Australian commercial pilots have a raised incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. METHODS: We examined all melanoma histologically diagnosed among Australian-licensed commercial pilots in the period 2011-2016 by manually reviewing de-identified data in the medical records system of the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority. We estimated age-specific incidence rates and compared these with corresponding population rates using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) as measures of relative risk. Expected numbers were calculated by multiplying age- and calendar period-specific person-years (PYs) with corresponding rates from the entire Australian population; 95% CI were calculated assuming a Poisson distribution of the observed cases. RESULTS: In this cohort of Australian-licensed commercial pilots observed for 91 370 PYs, 114 developed a melanoma (51 invasive, 63 in situ). More than 50% of melanomas occurred on the trunk, and the predominant subtype was superficial spreading melanoma. The SIR for invasive melanoma was 1.20 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.55) and for melanoma in situ, 1.39 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.78). CONCLUSION: Australian-licensed commercial pilots have a modestly raised risk of in situ melanoma but no elevation of invasive melanoma compared with the general population.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Pilotos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Prev Med ; 124: 67-74, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077722

RESUMO

Sunscreen when applied at the recommended concentration (2 mg/cm2) has been shown to block the harmful molecular effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in vivo. In real world conditions, however, sunscreen is often not applied/reapplied sufficiently to yield protection. This field study tested the effectiveness of UV detection stickers to prevent sunburn and improve reapplication of sunscreen. During the Ashes Cricket Test match event (November 2017) in Brisbane, Australia interested spectators were recruited into the control group on DAY-1 and during subsequent days (DAY-2, DAY-3, DAY-4) new participants were recruited into the UV-Sticker group. Participants in both groups were provided with free sunscreen and participants in the UV-Sticker group were additionally provided with a UV detection sticker. Primary outcomes were self-reported sunburns and reapplication of sunscreen. Secondary endpoints included satisfaction with the UV detection stickers. 813 participants enrolled in the study, and complete data is available for 428 participants (52.6% response rate, n = 369 UV detection sticker, n = 59 control). Participants provided with a UV detection sticker were more likely to re-apply sunscreen than controls (80% vs 68%, p = 0.04); but do not reduce sunburn rates. UV detection stickers may improve sunscreen re-application in a high UV-environment. Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand clinical trials register (ACTRN12617001572358).


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Australas J Dermatol ; 60(4): 294-300, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical settings in which keratinocyte cancers are excised in Queensland and describe the types of practitioners who excise them; to examine costs; and to identify predictors of hospital admission. METHODS: We used linked data for participants from the QSkin study (n = 43 794), including Medicare claims and Queensland hospital admissions relating to treatment episodes for incident keratinocyte cancers from July 2011 to June 2015. We used multinomial logistic regression to measure associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment setting. The median costs of Medicare claims (AU$) were calculated. RESULTS: During 4 years of follow-up, there were 18 479 skin cancer excision episodes among 8613 people. Most excisions took place in private clinical rooms (89.7%), the remainder in hospitals (7.9% private; 2.4% public). Compared with other anatomical sites, skin cancers on the nose, eyelid, ear, lip, finger or genitalia were more likely to be treated in hospitals than in private clinical rooms (public hospital OR 5.7; 95%CI 4.5-7.2; private hospital OR 8.3; 95%CI 7.3-9.4). Primary care practitioners excised 83% of keratinocyte cancers, followed by plastic surgeons (9%) and dermatologists (6%). The median Medicare benefit paid was $253 in private clinical rooms and $334 in private hospitals. Out-of-pocket payments by patients treated in private hospitals were fourfold higher than those in private clinical rooms ($351 vs $80). CONCLUSIONS: Most keratinocyte cancers are excised in primary care, although more than 10% of excisions occur in hospital settings.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/economia , Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/economia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Dermatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Salas Cirúrgicas/economia , Salas Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/economia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Oncotarget ; 10(20): 1868-1869, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956768
19.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 2944-2953, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30748013

RESUMO

The International Agency for Research on Cancer first concluded that alcohol causes cancer in humans in 1988. The World Cancer Research Fund has declared that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus (squamous cell carcinoma), female breast, colon, rectum, stomach and liver. It recommended that alcohol be avoided altogether to prevent cancer. We aimed to quantify the impact of reducing alcohol consumption on future cancer incidence in Australia. We used PREVENT 3.01 simulation modelling software to estimate the proportion of cancers that could potentially be prevented over a 25-year period under two hypothetical intervention scenarios and two latency periods (20 and 30 years). Under a scenario where alcohol consumption abruptly ceases, we estimated up to 4% of alcohol-related cancers could be avoided over a 25-year period (~49,500 cancers, depending on assumed latency). If the maximum consumption of all Australian adults was ≤20 g/day (~two Australian standard drinks), up to 2% of alcohol-related cancers could be avoided (~29,600 cancers). The maximum proportions were higher for men (6% for no alcohol consumption; 5% for ≤20 g/day) than women (3%; 1%). The proportion avoidable was highest for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (17% no alcohol consumption; 9% ≤20 g/day), followed by cancers of the oral cavity (12%; 5%) and pharynx (11%; 5%). The cancer sites with the highest numbers of potentially avoidable cases were colon in men (11,500; 9,900) and breast in women (14,400; 4,100). Successful interventions to reduce alcohol intake could lead to significant reductions in cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
20.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(2): 171-175, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681231

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancers of the skin are the most common cancers in humans, with Australia and New Zealand having the world's highest incidence. Primary prevention campaigns advise people to apply sunscreen to exposed body sites when outdoors. However, despite growing evidence that cumulative sub-erythemal exposures cause mutational damage, and trial data demonstrating benefit from daily sunscreen use, current policies do not consider the hazards of incidental (everyday) sun exposure. Thus, a Sunscreen Summit was convened to review the evidence and update the policies for people living in Australia and New Zealand. RESULTS: After reviewing the benefits and risks of sunscreen application, the policy group concluded that people living in Australia and New Zealand should be advised to apply sunscreen to the face/head/neck and all parts of the body not covered by clothing on all days when the ultraviolet index is forecast to reach three or greater, irrespective of their anticipated activities. For planned outdoors activities, sunscreen should be used alongside other sun protection measures. CONCLUSIONS: People living in Australia and New Zealand are now advised to apply sunscreen every day when the UV index is predicted to reach 3 or above. Implications for public health: Increased use of sunscreen as part of the daily routine to reduce incidental sun exposure will lead to decreased incidence of skin cancer in the future.


Assuntos
Prevenção Primária/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
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