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1.
FEBS Lett ; 591(4): 573-580, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28130884

RESUMO

Photosynthesis in some phototrophic bacteria requires the PufX component of the reaction centre-light-harvesting 1-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) complex, which creates a pore for quinone/quinol (Q/QH2 ) exchange across the LH1 barrier surrounding the RC. However, photosynthetic bacteria such as Thermochromatium (T.) tepidum do not require PufX because there are fewer carotenoid binding sites, which creates multiple pores in the LH1 ring for Q/QH2 exchange. We show that an αTrp-24 →Phe alteration of the Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides LH1 antenna impairs carotenoid binding and allows photosynthetic growth in the absence of PufX. We propose that acquisition of PufX and confining Q/QH2 traffic to a pore adjacent to the RC QB site is an evolutionary upgrade that allows increased LH1 carotenoid content for enhanced light absorption and photoprotection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bacterioclorofilas/metabolismo , Luz , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Mutação , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Ligação Proteica , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/genética , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/efeitos da radiação , Espectrofotometria
2.
Photosynth Res ; 127(1): 117-30, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26216497

RESUMO

The photosynthetic membranes of the filamentous anoxygenic phototroph Roseiflexus castenholzii have been studied with electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and biochemistry. Electron microscopy of the light-harvesting reaction center complex produced a 3D model that aligns with the solved crystal structure of the RC-LH1 from Thermochromatium tepidum with the H subunit removed. Atomic force microscopy of the whole membranes yielded a picture of the supramolecular organization of the major proteins in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The results point to a loosely packed membrane without accessory antenna proteins or higher order structure.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/química , Chloroflexi/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Chloroflexi/metabolismo , Chromatiaceae/química , Heme/análise , Imageamento Tridimensional , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Fotossíntese
3.
J Biol Chem ; 289(43): 29927-36, 2014 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25193660

RESUMO

In the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, many protein complexes congregate within the membrane to form operational photosynthetic units consisting of arrays of light-harvesting LH2 complexes and monomeric and dimeric reaction center (RC)-light-harvesting 1 (LH1)-PufX "core" complexes. Each half of a dimer complex consists of a RC surrounded by 14 LH1 αß subunits, with two bacteriochlorophylls (Bchls) sandwiched between each αß pair of transmembrane helices. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the assembly of single molecules of the RC-LH1-PufX complex using membranes prepared from LH2-minus mutants. When the RC and PufX components were also absent, AFM revealed a series of LH1 variants where the repeating α(1)ß(1)(Bchl)2 units had formed rings of variable size, ellipses, and spirals and also arcs that could be assembly products. The spiral complexes occur when the LH1 ring has failed to close, and short arcs are suggestive of prematurely terminated LH1 complex assembly. In the absence of RCs, we occasionally observed captive proteins enclosed by the LH1 ring. When production of LH1 units was restricted by lowering the relative levels of the cognate pufBA transcript, we imaged a mixture of complete RC-LH1 core complexes, empty LH1 rings, and isolated RCs, leading us to conclude that once a RC associates with the first α1ß1(Bchl)2 subunit, cooperative associations between subsequent subunits and the RC tend to drive LH1 ring assembly to completion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Imageamento Tridimensional , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Detergentes/farmacologia , Membranas Intracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ultracentrifugação
4.
Plant Cell ; 26(7): 3051-61, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25035407

RESUMO

The cytochrome b6f (cytb6f) complex plays a central role in photosynthesis, coupling electron transport between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I to the generation of a transmembrane proton gradient used for the biosynthesis of ATP. Photosynthesis relies on rapid shuttling of electrons by plastoquinone (PQ) molecules between PSII and cytb6f complexes in the lipid phase of the thylakoid membrane. Thus, the relative membrane location of these complexes is crucial, yet remains unknown. Here, we exploit the selective binding of the electron transfer protein plastocyanin (Pc) to the lumenal membrane surface of the cytb6f complex using a Pc-functionalized atomic force microscope (AFM) probe to identify the position of cytb6f complexes in grana thylakoid membranes from spinach (Spinacia oleracea). This affinity-mapping AFM method directly correlates membrane surface topography with Pc-cytb6f interactions, allowing us to construct a map of the grana thylakoid membrane that reveals nanodomains of colocalized PSII and cytb6f complexes. We suggest that the close proximity between PSII and cytb6f complexes integrates solar energy conversion and electron transfer by fostering short-range diffusion of PQ in the protein-crowded thylakoid membrane, thereby optimizing photosynthetic efficiency.


Assuntos
Complexo Citocromos b6f/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Difusão , Transporte de Elétrons , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Oxirredução , Plastocianina/metabolismo , Plastoquinona/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/genética , Tilacoides/metabolismo
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1837(10): 1769-80, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24530865

RESUMO

Photosynthesis converts absorbed solar energy to a protonmotive force, which drives ATP synthesis. The membrane network of chlorophyll-protein complexes responsible for light absorption, photochemistry and quinol (QH2) production has been mapped in the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides using atomic force microscopy (AFM), but the membrane location of the cytochrome bc1 (cytbc1) complexes that oxidise QH2 to quinone (Q) to generate a protonmotive force is unknown. We labelled cytbc1 complexes with gold nanobeads, each attached by a Histidine10 (His10)-tag to the C-terminus of cytc1. Electron microscopy (EM) of negatively stained chromatophore vesicles showed that the majority of the cytbc1 complexes occur as dimers in the membrane. The cytbc1 complexes appeared to be adjacent to reaction centre light-harvesting 1-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) complexes, consistent with AFM topographs of a gold-labelled membrane. His-tagged cytbc1 complexes were retrieved from chromatophores partially solubilised by detergent; RC-LH1-PufX complexes tended to co-purify with cytbc1 whereas LH2 complexes became detached, consistent with clusters of cytbc1 complexes close to RC-LH1-PufX arrays, but not with a fixed, stoichiometric cytbc1-RC-LH1-PufX supercomplex. This information was combined with a quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of the RC, cytbc1, ATP synthase, cytaa3 and cytcbb3 membrane protein complexes, to construct an atomic-level model of a chromatophore vesicle comprising 67 LH2 complexes, 11 LH1-RC-PufX dimers & 2 RC-LH1-PufX monomers, 4 cytbc1 dimers and 2 ATP synthases. Simulation of the interconnected energy, electron and proton transfer processes showed a half-maximal ATP turnover rate for a light intensity equivalent to only 1% of bright sunlight. Thus, the photosystem architecture of the chromatophore is optimised for growth at low light intensities.


Assuntos
Transporte de Elétrons , Fotossíntese , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Espectrometria de Massas , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Modelos Moleculares , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
6.
Photosynth Res ; 120(1-2): 169-80, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23539360

RESUMO

Electron transfer pathways in photosynthesis involve interactions between membrane-bound complexes such as reaction centres with an extrinsic partner. In this study, the biological specificity of electron transfer between the reaction centre-light-harvesting 1-PufX complex and its extrinsic electron donor, cytochrome c 2, formed the basis for mapping the location of surface-attached RC-LH1-PufX complexes using atomic force microscopy (AFM). This nano-mechanical mapping method used an AFM probe functionalised with cyt c 2 molecules to quantify the interaction forces involved, at the single-molecule level under native conditions. With surface-bound RC-His12-LH1-PufX complexes in the photo-oxidised state, the mean interaction force with cyt c 2 is approximately 480 pN with an interaction frequency of around 66 %. The latter value lowered 5.5-fold when chemically reduced RC-His12-LH1-PufX complexes are imaged in the dark to abolish electron transfer from cyt c 2 to the RC. The correspondence between topographic and adhesion images recorded over the same area of the sample shows that affinity-based AFM methods are a useful tool when topology alone is insufficient for spatially locating proteins at the surface of photosynthetic membranes.


Assuntos
Citocromos c2/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo
7.
Resuscitation ; 85(2): 211-4, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24231569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time to awakening after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and post-resuscitation therapeutic hypothermia (TH) varies widely. We examined the time interval from when comatose OHCA patients were rewarmed to 37°C to when they showed definitive signs of neurological recovery and tried to identify potential predictors of awakening. METHODS: With IRB approval, a retrospective case study was performed in OHCA patients who were comatose upon presentation to a community hospital during 2006-2010. They were treated with TH (target of 33°C) for 24h, rewarmed, and discharged alive. Comatose patients were generally treated medically after TH for at least 48h before any decision to withdraw supportive care was made. Pre-hospital TH was not used. Data are expressed as medians and interquartile range. RESULTS: The 89 patients treated with TH in this analysis were divided into three groups based upon the time between rewarming to 37°C and regaining consciousness. The 69 patients that regained consciousness in ≤48h after rewarming were termed "early-awakeners". Ten patients regained consciousness 48-72h after rewarming and were termed "intermediate-awakeners". Ten patients remained comatose and apneic >72h after rewarming but eventually regained consciousness; they were termed "late-awakeners". The ages for the early, intermediate and late awakeners were 56 [49,65], 62 [48,74], and 58 [55,65] years, respectively. Nearly 67% were male. Following rewarming, the time required to regain consciousness for the early, intermediate and late awakeners was 9 [2,18] (range 0-47), 60.5 [56,64.5] (range 49-71), and 126 [104,151]h (range 73-259), respectively. Within 90 days of hospital admission, favorable neurological function based on a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score of 1 or 2 was reported in 67/69 early, 10/10 intermediate, and 8/10 late awakeners. CONCLUSION: Following OHCA and TH, arbitrary withdrawal of life support <48h after rewarming may prematurely terminate life in many patients with the potential for full neurological recovery. Additional clinical markers that correlate with late awakening are needed to better determine when withdrawal of support is appropriate in OHCA patients who remain comatose >48h after rewarming.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Vigília/fisiologia , Idoso , Coma/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reaquecimento , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Suspensão de Tratamento
8.
Biochemistry ; 52(43): 7575-85, 2013 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24131108

RESUMO

Reaction center-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) complexes are the fundamental units of bacterial photosynthesis, which use solar energy to power the reduction of quinone to quinol prior to the formation of the proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis. The dimeric RC-LH1-PufX complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is composed of 64 polypeptides and 128 cofactors, including 56 LH1 bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules that surround and donate energy to the two RCs. The 3D structure was determined to 8 Å by X-ray crystallography, and a model was built with constraints provided by electron microscopy (EM), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and site-directed mutagenesis. Each half of the dimer complex consists of a RC surrounded by an array of 14 LH1 αß subunits, with two BChls sandwiched between each αß pair of transmembrane helices. The N- and C-terminal extrinsic domains of PufX promote dimerization by interacting with the corresponding domains of an LH1 ß polypeptide from the other half of the RC-LH1-PufX complex. Close contacts between PufX, an LH1 αß subunit, and the cytoplasmic domain of the RC-H subunit prevent the LH1 complex from encircling the RC and create a channel connecting the RC QB site to an opening in the LH1 ring, allowing Q/QH2 exchange with the external quinone pool. We also identified a channel that connects the two halves of the dimer, potentially forming a long-range pathway for quinone migration along rows of RC-LH1-PufX complexes in the membrane. The structure of the RC-LH1-PufX complex explains the crucial role played by PufX in dimer formation, and it shows how quinone traffic traverses the LH1 complex as it shuttles between the RC and the cytochrome bc1 complex.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Modelos Moleculares , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacterioclorofila A/análise , Bacterioclorofila A/química , Bacterioclorofila A/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/química , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Difração de Raios X
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(22): 8570-5, 2012 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22586075

RESUMO

Carotenoids are known to offer protection against the potentially damaging combination of light and oxygen encountered by purple phototrophic bacteria, but the efficiency of such protection depends on the type of carotenoid. Rhodobacter sphaeroides synthesizes spheroidene as the main carotenoid under anaerobic conditions whereas, in the presence of oxygen, the enzyme spheroidene monooxygenase catalyses the incorporation of a keto group forming spheroidenone. We performed ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy on membranes containing reaction center-light-harvesting 1-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) complexes and showed that when oxygen is present the incorporation of the keto group into spheroidene, forming spheroidenone, reconfigures the energy transfer pathway in the LH1, but not the LH2, antenna. The spheroidene/spheroidenone transition acts as a molecular switch that is suggested to twist spheroidenone into an s-trans configuration increasing its conjugation length and lowering the energy of the lowest triplet state so it can act as an effective quencher of singlet oxygen. The other consequence of converting carotenoids in RC-LH1-PufX complexes is that S(2)/S(1)/triplet pathways for spheroidene is replaced with a new pathway for spheroidenone involving an activated intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state. This strategy for RC-LH1-PufX-spheroidenone complexes maintains the light-harvesting cross-section of the antenna by opening an active, ultrafast S(1)/ICT channel for energy transfer to LH1 Bchls while optimizing the triplet energy for singlet oxygen quenching. We propose that spheroidene/spheroidenone switching represents a simple and effective photoprotective mechanism of likely importance for phototrophic bacteria that encounter light and oxygen.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacterioclorofilas/química , Bacterioclorofilas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Proteobactérias/química , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/química , Espectrofotometria
10.
Biophys J ; 103(11): 2352-60, 2012 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23283234

RESUMO

The light-harvesting 1 (LH1) integral membrane complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides provides a convenient model system in which to examine the poorly understood role of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) as stabilizing factors in membrane protein complexes. We used noncovalently bound arrays of bacteriochlorophyll chromophores within native and genetically modified variants of LH1 complexes to monitor local changes in the chromophore binding sites induced by externally applied hydrostatic pressure. Whereas membrane-bound complexes demonstrated very high resilience to pressures reaching 2.1 GPa, characteristic discontinuous shifts and broadenings of the absorption spectra were observed around 1 GPa for detergent-solubilized proteins, in similarity to those observed when specific (α or ß) H-bonds between the chromophores and the surrounding protein were selectively removed by mutagenesis. These pressure effects, which were reversible upon decompression, allowed us to estimate the rupture energies of H-bonds to the chromophores in LH1 complexes. A quasi-independent, additive role of H-bonds in the α- and ß-sublattices in reinforcing the wild-type LH1 complex was established. A comparison of a reaction-center-deficient LH1 complex with complexes containing reaction centers also demonstrated a stabilizing effect of the reaction center. This study thus provides important insights into the design principles of natural photosynthetic complexes.


Assuntos
Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/ultraestrutura , Análise Espectral/métodos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Pressão , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1807(9): 1044-55, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21663730

RESUMO

In the model photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides domains of light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes surround and interconnect dimeric reaction centre-light-harvesting 1-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) 'core' complexes, forming extensive networks for energy transfer and trapping. These complexes are housed in spherical intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs), which are assembled in a stepwise process where biosynthesis of core complexes tends to dominate the early stages of membrane invagination. The kinetics of LH2 assembly were measured in PufX mutants that assemble monomeric core complexes, as a consequence of either a twelve-residue N-terminal truncation of PufX (PufXΔ12) or the complete removal of PufX (PufX(-)). Lower rates of LH2 assembly and retarded maturation of membrane invagination were observed for the larger and less curved ICM from the PufX(-) mutant, consistent with the proposition that local membrane curvature, initiated by arrays of bent RC-LH1-PufX dimers, creates a favourable environment for stable assembly of LH2 complexes. Transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution atomic force microscopy were used to examine ICM morphology and membrane protein organisation in these mutants. Some partitioning of core and LH2 complexes was observed in PufX(-) membranes, resulting in locally ordered clusters of monomeric RC-LH1 complexes. The distribution of core and LH2 complexes in the three types of membrane examined is consistent with previous models of membrane curvature and domain formation (Frese et al., 2008), which demonstrated that a combination of crowding and asymmetries in sizes and shapes of membrane protein complexes drives membrane organisation.


Assuntos
Citoplasma/metabolismo , Membranas Intracelulares/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/genética , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo
12.
Photochem Photobiol ; 87(5): 1050-7, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21668872

RESUMO

A prerequisite for any "lab on a chip" device that utilizes an electrical signal from the sensor protein is the ability to attach the protein in a specific orientation onto a conducting substrate. Here, we demonstrate the covalent attachment to a gold surface of light-harvesting membrane proteins, from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, via cysteine (Cys) residues engineered on either the cytoplasmic or periplasmic face. This simple directed attachment is superior in its ability to retain light-harvesting complex (LHC) function, when compared to a similar attachment procedure utilizing a self-assembled monolayer on gold. LH 1 has previously been observed to have superior photostability over LH 2 (Magis et al. [2010] Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1798, 637-645); this characteristic is maintained even with the introduction of Cys residues.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Cisteína/química , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Luz , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Processos Fotoquímicos/efeitos da radiação , Ligação Proteica
13.
Crit Care Med ; 39(1): 26-33, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20890185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival rates before and after implementation of the Take Heart America program (a community-based initiative that sequentially deployed all of the most highly recommended 2005 American Heart Association resuscitation guidelines in an effort to increase out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival). PATIENTS: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Anoka County, MN, and greater St. Cloud, MN, from November 2005 to June 2009. INTERVENTIONS: Two sites in Minnesota with a combined population of 439,692 people (greater St. Cloud and Anoka County) implemented: 1) widespread cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator skills training in schools and businesses; 2) retraining of all emergency medical services personnel in methods to enhance circulation, including minimizing cardiopulmonary resuscitation interruptions, performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation before and after single-shock defibrillation, and use of an impedance threshold device; 3) additional deployment of automated external defibrillators in schools and public places; and 4) protocols for transport to and treatment by cardiac arrest centers for therapeutic hypothermia, coronary artery evaluation and treatment, and electrophysiological evaluation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: More than 28,000 people were trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator use in the two sites. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation rates increased from 20% to 29% (p = .086, odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 0.96-2.89). Three cardiac arrest centers were established, and hypothermia therapy for admitted out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims increased from 0% to 45%. Survival to hospital discharge for all patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in these two sites improved from 8.5% (nine of 106, historical control) to 19% (48 of 247, intervention phase) (p = .011, odds ratio 2.60, confidence interval 1.19-6.26). A financial analysis revealed that the cardiac arrest centers concept was financially feasible, despite the costs associated with high-quality postresuscitation care. CONCLUSIONS: The Take Heart America program doubled cardiac arrest survival when compared with historical controls. Study of the feasibility of generalizing this approach to larger cities, states, and regions is underway.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , American Heart Association/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Desfibriladores/normas , Cardioversão Elétrica/normas , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Massagem Cardíaca/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
14.
Respir Care ; 55(8): 1014-9, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20667148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the 2005 American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines, including use of an impedance threshold device (ITD), on survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: Two community hospitals that tracked outcomes after in-hospital cardiac arrest pooled and compared their hospital discharge rate before and after implementing the 2005 American Heart Association CPR guidelines (including ITD) in standardized protocols. In CPR we used the proper ventilation rate, allowed full chest-wall recoil, conducted continuous CPR following intubation, and used an ITD. We compared historical control data from a 12-month period at St Cloud Hospital, St Cloud, Minnesota, to data from a subsequent 18-month intervention phase. We compared historical control data from a 12-month period at St Dominic Hospital, Jackson, Mississippi to a subsequent 12-month intervention phase. 507 patients received CPR during the study period. Patient age and sex were similar in the control and intervention groups. RESULTS: The combined hospital discharge rate for patients with an in-hospital cardiac arrest was 17.5% in the control group (n=246 patients), which is similar to the national average, versus 28% in the intervention group (n=261 patients) (P=.006, odds ratio 1.83, 95% CI 1.17-2.88). The greatest benefit of the intervention was in patients with an initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity: 14.4% versus 29.7% (P=.014, odds ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.15, 5.58). Neurological function (as measured with the Cerebral Performance Category scale) in survivors at hospital discharge was similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of improved ways to increase circulation during CPR increased the in-hospital discharge rate by 60%, compared to historical controls in 2 community hospitals. These data demonstrate that immediate care with improved means to circulate blood during CPR significantly reduces hospital mortality from inhospital sudden cardiac arrest.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Circulação Sanguínea , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/organização & administração , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais , Humanos , Máscaras , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Mol Microbiol ; 76(4): 833-47, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20444085

RESUMO

The purple phototrophic bacteria synthesize an extensive system of intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM) in order to increase the surface area for absorbing and utilizing solar energy. Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells contain curved membrane invaginations. In order to study the biogenesis of ICM in this bacterium mature (ICM) and precursor (upper pigmented band - UPB) membranes were purified and compared at the single membrane level using electron, atomic force and fluorescence microscopy, revealing fundamental differences in their morphology, protein organization and function. Cryo-electron tomography demonstrates the complexity of the ICM of Rba. sphaeroides. Some ICM vesicles have no connection with other structures, others are found nearer to the cytoplasmic membrane (CM), often forming interconnected structures that retain a connection to the CM, and possibly having access to the periplasmic space. Near-spherical single invaginations are also observed, still attached to the CM by a 'neck'. Small indents of the CM are also seen, which are proposed to give rise to the UPB precursor membranes upon cell disruption. 'Free-living' ICM vesicles, which possess all the machinery for converting light energy into ATP, can be regarded as bacterial membrane organelles.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia de Fluorescência
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1798(3): 637-45, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20036635

RESUMO

Photosynthetic membranes comprise a network of light harvesting and reaction center pigment-protein complexes responsible for the primary photoconversion reactions: light absorption, energy transfer and electron cycling. The structural organization of membranes of the purple bacterial species Rb. sphaeroides has been elucidated in most detail by means of polarized light spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Here we report a functional characterization of native and untreated membranes of the same species adsorbed onto a gold surface. Employing fluorescence confocal spectroscopy and light-induced electrochemistry we show that adsorbed membranes maintain their energy and electron transferring functionality. Gold-adsorbed membranes are shown to generate a steady high photocurrent of 10 microA/cm(2) for several minutes and to maintain activity for up to three days while continuously illuminated. The surface-adsorbed membranes exhibit a remarkable functionality under aerobic conditions, even when exposed to light intensities well above that of direct solar irradiation. The component at the interface of light harvesting and electron cycling, the LH1 complex, displays exceptional stability, likely contributing to the robustness of the membranes. Peripheral light harvesting LH2 complexes show a light intensity dependent decoupling from photoconversion. LH2 can act as a reversible switch at low-light, an increased emitter at medium light and photobleaches at high light.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/efeitos da radiação , Transferência de Energia/efeitos da radiação , Ouro/química , Luz , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/citologia , Adsorção/efeitos da radiação , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Eletrodos , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos da radiação , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/efeitos da radiação , Soluções , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos da radiação
17.
Biochemistry ; 48(17): 3679-98, 2009 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19265434

RESUMO

In addition to providing the earliest surface images of a native photosynthetic membrane at submolecular resolution, examination of the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) of purple bacteria by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revealed a wide diversity of species-dependent arrangements of closely packed light-harvesting (LH) antennae, capable of fulfilling the basic requirements for efficient collection, transmission, and trapping of radiant energy. A highly organized architecture was observed with fused preparations of the pseudocrystalline ICM of Blastochloris viridis, consiting of hexagonally packed monomeric reaction center light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complexes. Among strains which also form a peripheral LH2 antenna, images of ICM patches from Rhodobacter sphaeroides exhibited well-ordered, interconnected networks of dimeric RC-LH1 core complexes intercalated by rows of LH2, coexisting with LH2-only domains. Other peripheral antenna-containing species, notably Rhodospirillum photometricum and Rhodopseudomonas palustris, showed a less regular organization, with mixed regions of LH2 and RC-LH1 cores, intermingled with large, paracrystalline domains. The ATP synthase and cytochrome bc(1) complex were not observed in any of these topographs and are thought to be localized in the adjacent cytoplasmic membrane or in inaccessible ICM regions separated from the flat regions imaged by AFM. The AFM images have served as a basis for atomic-resolution modeling of the ICM vesicle surface, as well as forces driving segregation of photosynthetic complexes into distinct domains. Docking of atomic-resolution molecular structures into AFM topographs of Rsp. photometricum membranes generated precise in situ structural models of the core complex surrounded by LH2 rings and a region of tightly packed LH2 complexes. A similar approach has generated a model of the highly curved LH2-only membranes of Rba. sphaeroides which predicts that sufficient space exists between LH2 complexes for quinones to diffuse freely. Measurement of the intercomplex distances between adjacent LH2 rings of Phaeospirillum molischianum has permitted the first calculation of the separation of bacteriochlorophyll a molecules in the native ICM. A recent AFM analysis of the organization of green plant photosystem II (PSII) in grana thylakoids revealed the protruding oxygen-evolving complex, crowded together in parallel alignment at three distinct levels of stacked membranes over the lumenal surface. The results also confirmed that PSII-LHCII supercomplexes are displaced relative to one another in opposing grana membranes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/ultraestrutura , Tilacoides/química , Tilacoides/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Microscopia de Força Atômica/tendências , Fotoquímica/métodos , Fotoquímica/tendências , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/ultraestrutura , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/ultraestrutura , Proteobactérias/química , Proteobactérias/enzimologia , Proteobactérias/ultraestrutura , Tilacoides/enzimologia
18.
J Biol Chem ; 283(45): 30772-9, 2008 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18723509

RESUMO

The mapping of the photosynthetic membrane of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a unique organization of arrays of dimeric reaction center-light harvesting I-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) core complexes surrounded and interconnected by light-harvesting LH2 complexes (Bahatyrova, S., Frese, R. N., Siebert, C. A., Olsen, J. D., van der Werf, K. O., van Grondelle, R., Niederman, R. A., Bullough, P. A., Otto, C., and Hunter, C. N. (2004) Nature 430, 1058-1062). However, membrane regions consisting solely of LH2 complexes were under-represented in these images because these small, highly curved areas of membrane rendered them difficult to image even using gentle tapping mode AFM and impossible with contact mode AFM. We report AFM imaging of membranes prepared from a mutant of R. sphaeroides, DPF2G, that synthesizes only the LH2 complexes, which assembles spherical intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles of approximately 53 nm diameter in vivo. By opening these vesicles and adsorbing them onto mica to form small, < or =120 nm, largely flat sheets we have been able to visualize the organization of these LH2-only membranes for the first time. The transition from highly curved vesicle to the planar sheet is accompanied by a change in the packing of the LH2 complexes such that approximately half of the complexes are raised off the mica surface by approximately 1 nm relative to the rest. This vertical displacement produces a very regular corrugated appearance of the planar membrane sheets. Analysis of the topographs was used to measure the distances and angles between the complexes. These data are used to model the organization of LH2 complexes in the original, curved membrane. The implications of this architecture for the light harvesting function and diffusion of quinones in native membranes of R. sphaeroides are discussed.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Modelos Moleculares , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Mutação , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/enzimologia , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/genética
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 130(28): 8892-3, 2008 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18570413

RESUMO

We show an approach based on a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, NIL and multivalent host-guest interactions for the realization of engineered ordered functional arrays of purified components of the photosynthetic system, the membrane-bound LH2 complex. In addition to micrometer-scale patterned structures, we demonstrated the use of nanometer-scale hard NIL stamps to generate functional protein arrays approaching molecular dimensions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Glucosídeos/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
20.
Nanotechnology ; 19(2): 025101, 2008 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21817532

RESUMO

We report the directed assembly of the photosynthetic membrane proteins LH1 and LH2 isolated from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides onto chemically patterned substrates. Nanoimprint lithography was used to pattern discrete regions of amino- and fluoro-terminated or poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers onto a glass substrate. Densely packed layers of assembled protein complexes were observed with atomic force microscopy. The protein complexes attached selectively to the amino-terminated regions by electrostatic interactions. Spectral images generated with a hybrid scanning probe and fluorescence microscope confirmed that the patterned proteins retained their native optical signatures.

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