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2.
Gerontology ; : 1-13, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610336

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis - the pathophysiological mechanism shared by most cardiovascular diseases - can be directly or indirectly assessed by a variety of clinical tests including measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, -ankle-brachial index, pulse wave velocity, and coronary -artery calcium. The Prospective Studies of Atherosclerosis -(Proof-ATHERO) consortium (https://clinicalepi.i-med.ac.at/research/proof-athero/) collates de-identified individual-participant data of studies with information on atherosclerosis measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. It currently comprises 74 studies that involve 106,846 participants from 25 countries and over 40 cities. In summary, 21 studies recruited participants from the general population (n = 67,784), 16 from high-risk populations (n = 22,677), and 37 as part of clinical trials (n = 16,385). Baseline years of contributing studies range from April 1980 to July 2014; the latest follow-up was until June 2019. Mean age at baseline was 59 years (standard deviation: 10) and 50% were female. Over a total of 830,619 person-years of follow-up, 17,270 incident cardiovascular events (including coronary heart disease and stroke) and 13,270 deaths were recorded, corresponding to cumulative incidences of 2.1% and 1.6% per annum, respectively. The consortium is coordinated by the Clinical Epidemiology Team at the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria. Contributing studies undergo a detailed data cleaning and harmonisation procedure before being incorporated in the Proof-ATHERO central database. Statistical analyses are being conducted according to pre-defined analysis plans and use established methods for individual-participant data meta-analysis. Capitalising on its large sample size, the multi-institutional collaborative Proof-ATHERO consortium aims to better characterise, understand, and predict the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences.

3.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52467

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. La hipertensión arterial es una causa modificable muy prevalente de enfermedades cardiovasculares, accidentes cerebrovasculares y muerte. Medir con exactitud la presión arterial es fundamental, dado que un error de medición de 5 mmHg puede ser motivo para clasificar incorrectamente como hipertensas a 84 millones de personas en todo el mundo. En la presente declaración de posición se resumen los procedimientos para optimizar el desempeño del observador al medir la presión arterial en el consultorio, con atención especial a los entornos de ingresos bajos o medianos, donde esta medición se ve complicada por limitaciones de recursos y tiempo, sobrecarga de trabajo y falta de suministro eléctrico. Es posible reducir al mínimo muchos errores de medición con una preparación adecuada de los pacientes y el uso de técnicas estandarizadas. Para simplificar la medición y prevenir errores del observador, deben usarse tensiómetros semiautomáticos o automáticos de manguito validados, en lugar del método por auscultación. Pueden ayudar también la distribución de tareas, la creación de un área específica de medición y el uso de aparatos semiautomáticos o de carga solar. Es fundamental garantizar la capacitación inicial y periódica de los integrantes del equipo de salud. Debe considerarse la implementación de programas de certificación de bajo costo y fácilmente accesibles con el objetivo de mejorar la medición de la presión arterial.


[ABSTRACT]. High blood pressure (BP) is a highly prevalent modifiable cause of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and death. Accurate BP measurement is critical, given that a 5-mmHg measurement error may lead to incorrect hypertension status classification in 84 million individuals worldwide. This position statement summarizes procedures for optimizing observer performance in clinic BP measurement, with special attention given to low-to-middle-income settings, where resource limitations, heavy workloads, time constraints, and lack of electrical power make measurement more challenging. Many measurement errors can be minimized by appropriate patient preparation and standardized techniques. Validated semi-automated/automated upper arm cuff devices should be used instead of auscultation to simplify measurement and prevent observer error. Task sharing, creating a dedicated measurement workstation, and using semi-automated or solar-charged devices may help. Ensuring observer training, and periodic re-training, is critical. Low-cost, easily accessible certification programs should be considered to facilitate best BP measurement practice.


[RESUMO]. A hipertensão é uma causa altamente prevalente de doença cardiovascular, acidente vascular cerebral e morte. A medição precisa da pressão arterial (PA) é um aspecto crítico, uma vez que erros de mensuração da ordem de 5 mmHg podem levar a uma classificação incorreta do status de hipertensão em 84 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo. O presente posicionamento resume os procedimentos para otimizar o desempenho do observador (o indivíduo responsável pela mensuração da PA) na mensuração clínica da PA, com atenção especial para contextos de baixa a média renda, onde recursos limitados, cargas de trabalho pesadas, restrições de tempo e falta de energia elétrica tornam mais desafiadora a tarefa de medir a PA. Muitos erros de mensuração podem ser minimizados pela preparação adequada do paciente e pelo uso de técnicas padronizadas. Para simplificar a mensuração e evitar erros do observador, devem-se utilizar dispositivos semiautomatizados ou automatizados validados, com manguito para braço, ao invés de auscultação. O compartilhamento de tarefas, a criação de uma estação de trabalho dedicada à mensuração e o uso de dispositivos semiautomatizados ou com carga solar podem ajudar. É essencial que seja assegurado o treinamento e retreinamento periódico do observador. Programas de certificação de baixo custo e de fácil acesso devem ser considerados para facilitar a adoção das melhores práticas na mensuração da PA.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Equipamentos de Medição , Consenso , Saúde Global , Hipertensão , Oscilometria , Pressão Arterial , Equipamentos de Medição , Consenso , Saúde Global , Hipertensão , Oscilometria , Pressão Arterial , Equipamentos de Medição , Saúde Global , Hipertensão , Oscilometria
4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607592

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Genomic selection with a multiple-year training population dataset could accelerate early-stage testcross testing by skipping the first-stage yield testing, which significantly saves the time and cost of early-stage testcross testing. With the development of doubled haploid (DH) technology, the main task for a maize breeder is to estimate the breeding values of thousands of DH lines annually. In early-stage testcross testing, genomic selection (GS) offers the opportunity of replacing expensive multiple-environment phenotyping and phenotypic selection with lower-cost genotyping and genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV)-based selection. In the present study, a total of 1528 maize DH lines, phenotyped in multiple-environment trials in three consecutive years and genotyped with a low-cost per-sample genotyping platform of rAmpSeq, were used to explore how to implement GS to accelerate early-stage testcross testing. Results showed that the average prediction accuracy estimated from the cross-validation schemes was above 0.60 across all the scenarios. The average prediction accuracies estimated from the independent validation schemes ranged from 0.23 to 0.32 across all the scenarios, when the one-year datasets were used as training population (TRN) to predict the other year data as testing population (TST). The average prediction accuracies increased to a range from 0.31 to 0.42 across all the scenarios, when the two-years datasets were used as TRN. The prediction accuracies increased to a range from 0.50 to 0.56, when the TRN consisted of two-years of breeding data and 50% of third year's data converted from TST to TRN. This information showed that GS with a multiple-year TRN set offers the opportunity to accelerate early-stage testcross testing by skipping the first-stage yield testing, which significantly saves the time and cost of early-stage testcross testing.

5.
Trials ; 21(1): 415, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with beta-blockers is currently recommended after myocardial infarction (MI). The evidence relies on trials conducted decades ago before implementation of revascularization and contemporary medical therapy or in trials enrolling patients with heart failure or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 40%). Accordingly, the impact of beta-blockers on mortality and morbidity following acute MI in patients without reduced LVEF or heart failure is unclear. METHODS/DESIGN: The Danish trial of beta-blocker treatment after myocardial infarction without reduced ejection fraction (DANBLOCK) is a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, non-blinded endpoint clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of beta-blocker treatment in post-MI patients in the absence of reduced LVEF or heart failure. We will randomize 3570 patients will be randomized within 14 days of index MI to beta-blocker or control for a minimum of 2 years. The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent MI, acute decompensated heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, or stroke. The primary composite endpoint will be assessed through locally reported and adjudicated endpoints supplemented by linkage to the Danish national registers. A number of secondary endpoints will be investigated including patient reported outcomes and cardiovascular mortality. Data from similar ongoing trials in Norway and Sweden will be pooled to perform an individual patient data meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: DANBLOCK is a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of long-term beta-blocker therapy after myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure and reduced LVEF. Results from the trial will add important scientific evidence to inform future clinical guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03778554. Registered on 19 December 2018. European Clinical Trials Database, 2018-002699-42, registered on 28 September 2018.

6.
Hypertension ; 75(6): 1420-1428, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275189

RESUMO

The Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness Collaboration has derived an equation using age and mean blood pressure to estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV), which predicted cardiovascular events independently of Systematic COoronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) and Framingham Risk Score. The study aim was to investigate the independent association between ePWV and clinical outcomes in 107 599 apparently healthy subjects (53% men) aged 19 to 97 years from the MORGAM Project who were included between 1982 and 2002 in 38 cohorts from 11 countries. Using multiple Cox-regression analyses, the predictive value of ePWV was calculated adjusting for country of inclusion and either SCORE, Framingham Risk Score, or traditional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index [BMI], total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Cardiovascular mortality consisted of fatal stroke, fatal myocardial infarction, or coronary death, and the composite cardiovascular end point consisted of stroke, myocardial infarction, or coronary death. Model discrimination was assessed using Harrell's C-statistic. Adjusting for country and logSCORE or Framingham Risk Score, ePWV was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23 [95% CI 1.20-1.25] per m/s or 1.32 [1.29-1.34]), cardiovascular mortality (1.26 [1.21-1.32] or 1.35 [1.31-1.40]), and composite cardiovascular end point (1.19 [1.16-1.22] or 1.23 [1.20-1.25]; all P<0.001). However, after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, ePWV was only associated with all-cause mortality (1.15 [1.08-1.22], P<0.001) and not with cardiovascular mortality (0.97 [0.91-1.03]) nor composite cardiovascular end point (1.10 [0.97-1.26]). The areas under the last 3 receiver operator characteristic curves remained unchanged when adding ePWV. Elevated ePWV was associated with subsequent mortality and cardiovascular morbidity independently of systematic coronary risk evaluation and Framingham Risk Score but not independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

7.
Hypertension ; 75(6): 1593-1599, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275193

RESUMO

Self-home blood pressure (BP) monitoring is recommended to guide clinical decisions on hypertension and is used worldwide for cardiovascular risk management. People usually make their own decisions when purchasing BP devices, which can be made online. If patients purchase nonvalidated devices (those not proven accurate according to internationally accepted standards), hypertension management may be based on inaccurate readings resulting in under- or over-diagnosis or treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the number, type, percentage validated, and cost of home BP devices available online. A search of online businesses selling devices for home BP monitoring was conducted. Multinational companies make worldwide deliveries, so searches were restricted to BP devices available for one nation (Australia) as an example of device availability through the global online marketplace. Validation status of BP devices was determined according to established protocols. Fifty nine online businesses, selling 972 unique BP devices were identified. These included 278 upper-arm cuff devices (18.3% validated), 162 wrist-cuff devices (8.0% validated), and 532 wrist-band wearables (0% validated). Most BP devices (92.4%) were stocked by international e-commerce businesses (eg, eBay, Amazon), but only 5.5% were validated. Validated cuff BP devices were more expensive than nonvalidated devices: median (interquartile range) of 101.1 (75.0-151.5) versus 67.4 (30.4-112.8) Australian Dollars. Nonvalidated BP devices dominate the online marketplace and are sold at lower cost than validated ones, which is a major barrier to accurate home BP monitoring and cardiovascular risk management. Before purchasing a BP device, people should check it has been validated at https://www.stridebp.org.

8.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276322

RESUMO

Prior knowledge on heterosis and quantitative genetic parameters on maize lethal necrosis (MLN) can help the breeders to develop numerous resistant or tolerant hybrids with optimum resources. Our objectives were to (1) estimate the quantitative genetic parameters for MLN disease severity, (2) investigate the efficiency of the prediction of hybrid performance based on parental per se and general combining ability (GCA) effects, and (3) examine the potential of hybrid prediction for MLN resistance or tolerance based on markers. Fifty elite maize inbred lines were selected based on their response to MLN under artificial inoculation. Crosses were made in a half diallel mating design to produce 307 F1 hybrids. All hybrids were evaluated in MLN quarantine facility in Naivasha, Kenya for two seasons under artificial inoculation. All 50 inbreds were genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) SNPs. The phenotypic variation was significant for all traits and the heritability was moderate to high. We observed that hybrids were superior to the mean performance of the parents for disease severity (-14.57%) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) (14.9%). Correlations were significant and moderate between line per se and GCA; and mean of parental value with hybrid performance for both disease severity and AUDPC value. Very low and negative correlation was observed between parental lines marker based genetic distance and heterosis. Nevertheless, the correlation of GCA effects was very high with hybrid performance which can suggests as a good predictor of MLN resistance. Genomic prediction of hybrid performance for MLN is high for both traits. We therefore conclude that there is potential for prediction of hybrid performance for MLN. Overall, the estimated quantitative genetic parameters suggest that through targeted approach, it is possible to develop outstanding lines and hybrids for MLN resistance.

9.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201587

RESUMO

Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its increasing prevalence calls for novel biomarkers to identify underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as patients at risk. Methods: Plasma samples from 1694 individuals from the Swedish population-based Malmö Preventive Project (mean age 69.5 years; 29.3% female; mean follow-up time 9.7±3.1 years) were analysed with the Olink proximity extension assay CVD III panel consisting of 92 proteins to identify proteins associated with incident AF or atrial flutter, referred to as incident AF. Incident cases of AF (n=278) were retrieved by linkage to the registers. Participants were followed until the first episode of AF or until censoring by death or emigration. Bonferroni-corrected multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for known risk factors were used to explore possible associations of the 92 proteins and incidence of AF. Results: Multivariable Cox regression analyses of 11 proteins associated with incident AF (mean follow-up time 9.7±3.1 years) after Bonferroni correction confirmed N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (HR per 1 SD increment (95% CI) 1.80 (1.58 to 2.04); p=1.2×10-19) as risk marker of incident AF. Further, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (1.22 (1.07 to 1.39); p=0.002) and osteopontin (1.27 (1.12 to 1.44); p=2.7×10-4) were associated with incident AF at follow-up independently of traditional risk markers and NT-proBNP. Conclusion: In a general Swedish population, we confirmed the well-known association of NT-proBNP with incident AF and also identified matrix metalloproteinase-2 and osteopontin as novel risk markers for incident AF, independently of traditional risk factors and NT-proBNP.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Flutter Atrial/sangue , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Osteopontina/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteômica , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Flutter Atrial/epidemiologia , Flutter Atrial/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Blood Press ; 29(4): 232-240, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157916

RESUMO

Purpose: The objective of this study was to test if combining antecedent systolic blood pressure (SBP) with traditional risk factors and hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) improves risk stratification for subsequent cardiovascular disease.Materials and methods: 1910 subjects participated in this study. Antecedent SBP was defined as the average of measurements obtained in 1982 and in 1987. Current SBP was obtained in 1993. HMOD were examined in 1993. HMOD was defined as either atherosclerotic plaque(s), increased pulse wave velocity, increased urine albumin creatinine ratio (above the 90th percentile) or left ventricular hypertrophy. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, heart failure and arrhythmia were obtained from national registries.Results: Subjects were divided into two age categories: a middle-aged group (aged 41 or 51) and an older group (aged 61 or 71). From 1993 to 2010, 425 events were observed. In multivariable analysis with both current and antecedent SBP adjusted for traditional risk factors, current SBP was associated with each measure of HMOD whilst antecedent SBP was not significantly associated with urine albumin creatinine ratio in the older group, LVMI in the middle-aged group, or the presence of plaque in any of the age groups (all p > 0.15). When current and antecedent SBP were evaluated together, current SBP was not associated with MACE in the middle-aged subgroup [HR = 1.09 (0.96-1.22), p = 0.18] but remained associated with MACE in the older subgroup [HR = 1.21 (1.10-1.34), p < 0.01]. Contrariwise, antecedent SBP was only associated with MACE in the middle-aged subgroup [HR = 1.24 (1.04-1.48), p = 0.02]. Adding antecedent SBP to traditional risk factors did not improve the predictive accuracy of the survival model.Conclusion: In healthy non-medicated middle-aged subjects, antecedent SBP is associated with cardiovascular outcome independently of current BP, traditional risk factors and HMOD. However, improvement in risk stratification seems to be limited.

12.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico
13.
J Huntingtons Dis ; 9(1): 13-31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that prominently affects the basal ganglia, leading to affective, cognitive, behavioral, and motor decline. The primary site of neuron loss in HD is the striatal part of the basal ganglia, with GABAergic medium size spiny neurons (MSNs) being nearly completely lost in advanced HD. OBJECTIVE: Based on the hypothesis that mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein injures neurons via transcriptional dysregulation, we set out to establish a transcriptional profile of HD disease progression in the well characterized transgenic mouse model, R6/2, and two Knock-in models (KI); zQ175KI (expressing mutant mouse/human chimeric Htt protein) and HdhQ200 HET KI (carrying one allele of expanded mouse CAG repeats). METHODS: In this study, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to evaluate striatal mRNA levels of markers of neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, and energy metabolism. RESULTS: After analyzing and comparing transcripts from pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages, markers expressed in the basal ganglia MSNs, which are typically involved in maintaining normal neurotransmission, showed a genotype-specific decrease in mRNA expression in a pattern consistent with human studies. In contrast, transcripts associated with neuroinflammation and energy metabolism were mostly unaffected in these animal models of HD. CONCLUSION: Our results show that transcripts linked to neurotransmission are significantly reduced and are consistent with disease progression in both zQ175KI and R6/2 transgenic mouse models.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952130

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic basis of maize grain yield and other traits under low-nitrogen (N) stressed environments could improve selection efficiency. In this study, five doubled haploid (DH) populations were evaluated under optimum and N-stressed conditions, during the main rainy season and off-season in Kenya and Rwanda, from 2014 to 2015. Identifying the genomic regions associated with grain yield (GY), anthesis date (AD), anthesis-silking interval (ASI), plant height (PH), ear height (EH), ear position (EPO), and leaf senescence (SEN) under optimum and N-stressed environments could facilitate the use of marker-assisted selection to develop N-use-efficient maize varieties. DH lines were genotyped with genotyping by sequencing. A total of 13, 43, 13, 25, 30, 21, and 10 QTL were identified for GY, AD ASI, PH, EH, EPO, and SEN, respectively. For GY, PH, EH, and SEN, the highest number of QTL was found under low-N environments. No common QTL between optimum and low-N stressed conditions were identified for GY and ASI. For secondary traits, there were some common QTL for optimum and low-N conditions. Most QTL conferring tolerance to N stress was on a different chromosome position under optimum conditions.

15.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(2): 273-279, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967732

RESUMO

High salt (sodium chloride) intake raises blood pressure and increases the risk of developing hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Little is known about salt intake in Nepal, and no study has estimated salt consumption from 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Participants (n = 451) were recruited from the Community-Based Management of Non-Communicable Diseases in Nepal (COBIN) cohort in 2018. Salt intake was estimated by analyzing 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate differences in salt intake. The mean (±SD) age and salt intake were 49.6 (±9.8) years and 13.3 (±4.7) g/person/d, respectively. Higher salt intake was significantly associated with male gender (ß for female = -2.4; 95% CI: -3.3, -1.4) and younger age (ß10 years  = -1.4; 95% CI: -1.4, -0.5) and higher BMI (ß = 0.1; 95% CI: 0.0, 0.2). A significant association was also found between increase in systolic blood pressure and higher salt intake (ß = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.0, 0.7). While 55% reported that they consumed just the right amount of salt, 98% were consuming more than the WHO recommended salt amount (<5 g/person/d). Daily salt intake in this population was over twice the limit recommended by the WHO, suggesting a substantial need to reduce salt intake in this population. It also supports the need of global initiatives such as WHO's Global Hearts Initiative SHAKE technical package and Resolves to Save Lives for sodium reduction in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal.

16.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(6): 570-578, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718257

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) carried incremental prognostic value in predicting cardiovascular morbidity and mortality beyond traditional risk factors in apparently healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective population-based cohort study comprising 1951 subjects included in the 10-year follow-up of the MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) study, between 1993 and 1994. The principal endpoint was death from cardiovascular causes. Secondary endpoints were death from any cause, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and cerebrovascular disease. Predictive capabilities of each of the three biomarkers were tested using Cox proportional-hazards regression, Harrell's concordance index (C-index), and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Study participants were aged 41, 51, 61, or 71 years, and equally distributed between the two sexes. During a median follow-up of 18.5 years (interquartile range: 18.1-19.0), 177 (9.1%) subjects died from a cardiovascular cause. Hs-CRP (adjusted standardized hazard ratio (HR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.60), NT-proBNP (HR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.58-2.29), and suPAR (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17-1.57) were all significantly associated with cardiovascular deaths after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol (p < 0.001 for all). Furthermore, all three biomarkers were significantly associated with significant NRI. However, only NT-proBNP significantly raised the C-index in predicting death from cardiovascular causes when added to the risk factors (C-index 0.860 versus 0.847; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Hs-CRP, suPAR, and particularly NT-proBNP predicted cardiovascular death and may enhance prognostication beyond traditional risk factors in apparently healthy individuals.

17.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 27(3): 234-243, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619084

RESUMO

AIMS: Averaged measurements, but not the progression based on multiple assessments of carotid intima-media thickness, (cIMT) are predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in individuals. Whether this is true for conventional risk factors is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: An individual participant meta-analysis was used to associate the annualised progression of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with future cardiovascular disease risk in 13 prospective cohort studies of the PROG-IMT collaboration (n = 34,072). Follow-up data included information on a combined cardiovascular disease endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke, or vascular death. In secondary analyses, annualised progression was replaced with average. Log hazard ratios per standard deviation difference were pooled across studies by a random effects meta-analysis. In primary analysis, the annualised progression of total cholesterol was marginally related to a higher cardiovascular disease risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 1.07). The annualised progression of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was not associated with future cardiovascular disease risk. In secondary analysis, average systolic blood pressure (HR 1.20 95% CI 1.11 to 1.29) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16) were related to a greater, while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97) was related to a lower risk of future cardiovascular disease events. CONCLUSION: Averaged measurements of systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol displayed significant linear relationships with the risk of future cardiovascular disease events. However, there was no clear association between the annualised progression of these conventional risk factors in individuals with the risk of future clinical endpoints.

18.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMO

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMO

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ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1502, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824533

RESUMO

Genomic selection predicts the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of individuals not previously phenotyped. Several studies have investigated the accuracy of genomic predictions in maize but there is little empirical evidence on the practical performance of lines selected based on phenotype in comparison with those selected solely on GEBVs in advanced testcross yield trials. The main objectives of this study were to (1) empirically compare the performance of tropical maize hybrids selected through phenotypic selection (PS) and genomic selection (GS) under well-watered (WW) and managed drought stress (WS) conditions in Kenya, and (2) compare the cost-benefit analysis of GS and PS. For this study, we used two experimental maize data sets (stage I and stage II yield trials). The stage I data set consisted of 1492 doubled haploid (DH) lines genotyped with rAmpSeq SNPs. A subset of these lines (855) representing various DH populations within the stage I cohort was crossed with an individual single-cross tester chosen to complement each population. These testcross hybrids were evaluated in replicated trials under WW and WS conditions for grain yield and other agronomic traits, while the remaining 637 DH lines were predicted using the 855 lines as a training set. The second data set (stage II) consists of 348 DH lines from the first data set. Among these 348 best DH lines, 172 lines selected were solely based on GEBVs, and 176 lines were selected based on phenotypic performance. Each of the 348 DH lines were crossed with three common testers from complementary heterotic groups, and the resulting 1042 testcross hybrids and six commercial checks were evaluated in four to five WW locations and one WS condition in Kenya. For stage I trials, the cross-validated prediction accuracy for grain yield was 0.67 and 0.65 under WW and WS conditions, respectively. We found similar responses to selection using PS and GS for grain yield other agronomic traits under WW and WS conditions. The top 15% of hybrids advanced through GS and PS gave 21%-23% higher grain yield under WW and 51%-52% more grain yield under WS than the mean of the checks. The GS reduced the cost by 32% over the PS with similar selection gains. We concluded that the use of GS for yield under WW and WS conditions in maize can produce selection candidates with similar performance as those generated from conventional PS, but at a lower cost, and therefore, should be incorporated into maize breeding pipelines to increase breeding program efficiency.

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