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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650641

RESUMO

The synthetic tunability, flexibility, and rich spin physics of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) make them promising candidates for quantum information science applications. However, the rapid spin relaxation observed in colloidal quantum dots limits their functionality. In the current work, we demonstrate a method to harness photoexcited spin states in QDs to produce long-lived spin polarization on an appended organic ligand molecule. We present a system composed of CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs, covalently linked to naphthalenediimide (NDI) electron-accepting molecules. The electron transfer dynamics from photoexcited QDs to the appended NDI ligands is explored as a function of both shell thickness and number of NDIs per QD. Transient EPR spectroscopy shows that the photoexcited QDs strongly spin polarize the NDI radical anion, which is interpreted in the context of both the radical pair and the triplet mechanisms of spin polarization. This work serves as an initial step toward using photoexcited QDs to strongly spin polarize organic radicals having long spin relaxation times to serve as spin qubits in quantum information science applications.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(7): 3346-3350, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009396

RESUMO

Photoinduced electron transfer can produce radical pairs having two quantum entangled electron spins that can act as spin qubits in quantum information applications. Manipulation of these spin qubits requires selective addressing of each spin using microwave pulses. In this work, photogenerated spin qubit pairs are prepared within chromophore-modified DNA hairpins with varying spin qubit distances, and are probed using transient EPR spectroscopy. By performing pulse-EPR measurements on the shortest hairpin, selective addressing of each spin qubit comprising the pair is demonstrated. Furthermore, these spin qubit pairs have coherence times of more than 4 µs, which provides a comfortable time window for performing complex spin manipulations for quantum information applications. The applicability of these DNA-based photogenerated two-qubit systems is discussed in the context of quantum gate operations, specifically the controlled-NOT gate.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Radicais Livres/química , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/efeitos da radiação , DNA/genética , DNA/efeitos da radiação , Radicais Livres/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Modelos Químicos , Teoria Quântica
3.
ACS Nano ; 13(12): 13784-13796, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751115

RESUMO

A phase transition within the ligand shell of core/shell quantum dots is studied in the prototypical system of colloidal CdSe/CdS quantum dots with a ligand shell composed of bound oleate (OA) and octadecylphosphonate (ODPA). The ligand shell composition is tuned using a ligand exchange procedure and quantified through proton NMR spectroscopy. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a signature of a phase transition within the organic ligand shell. Surprisingly, the ligand order to disorder phase transition triggers an abrupt increase in the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) with increasing temperature. The temperature and width of the phase transition show a clear dependence on ligand shell composition, such that QDs with higher ODPA fractions have sharper phase transitions that occur at higher temperatures. In order to gain a molecular understanding of the changes in ligand ordering, Fourier transform infrared and vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopies are performed. These measurements confirm that an order/disorder transition in the ligand shell tracks with the photoluminescence changes that accompany the ligand phase transition. The phase transition is simulated through a lattice model that suggests that the ligand shell is well-mixed and does not have completely segregated domains of OA and ODPA. Furthermore, we show that the unsaturated chains of OA seed disorder within the ligand shell.

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(7): 1545-1553, 2019 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658529

RESUMO

Achieving high-yielding photoinduced charge separation through the π-stacked bases of DNA is a critical requirement for realizing numerous DNA-based technologies. In the current work, we combine two strategies for achieving high-yield charge separation. First, a chromophore with a high driving force for charge injection, naphthalenediimide (NDI), is used because it generates hot carriers that enhance charge-transfer rates. Second, a diblock DNA sequence is used with two or three adenines followed by a series of guanines to implement an energy landscape that accelerates charge separation while retarding charge recombination. The photoinduced dynamics of these NDI diblock oligomers with and without a terminal hole acceptor are probed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The measured rate constants for various charge separation and recombination processes are interpreted within the context of a full kinetic model of these systems. We find that the A2 and A3 oligomers achieve similar charge separation yields (as high as 20-25%) for a given length, yet the critical recombination process that determines these yields occurs at different distances from the NDI chromophore and on different time scales. This type of analysis could be used to predict charge separation efficiencies in candidate DNA structures.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(5): 2152-2160, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636401

RESUMO

The ability to prepare physical qubits in specific initial quantum states is a critical requirement for their use in quantum information science (QIS). Subnanosecond photoinduced electron transfer in a structurally well-defined donor-acceptor system can be used to produce an entangled spin qubit (radical) pair in a pure initial singlet state fulfilling this criterion. Synthetic DNA is a promising platform on which to build spin qubit arrays with fixed spatial relationships; therefore, we have prepared a series of DNA hairpins in which naphthalenediimide (NDI) is the chromophore/acceptor hairpin linker, variable-length diblock A- and G-tracts are intermediate donors, and a stilbenediether (Sd) is the terminal donor. Photoexcitation of NDI in these DNA hairpins generates high-yield, long-lived, entangled spin qubit pairs at 85 K, and time-resolved and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies are used to probe their spin dynamics. Specifically, measurements of the distance-dependent dipolar coupling between the two spins are used to obtain the average spin qubit pair distance in the absence of the terminal Sd donor and reveal that one of the spins is fully delocalized across up to five adjacent guanines in a G-tract on the EPR time scale. We have recently shown that extensive spin hopping between degenerate sites accessible to one spin of the pair may result in spin decoherence. However, we observe a strong out-of-phase electron spin echo envelope modulation (OOP-ESEEM) signal from the NDI•--Sd•+ spin qubit pair in DNA hairpins showing that spin coherence is maintained across a 2 adenine A-tract followed by a 2-4 guanine G-tract as a result of rapid spin transport to Sd. These results demonstrate that pulse-EPR can manipulate coherent spin states in DNA hairpins, which is essential for quantum gate operations relevant to QIS applications.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(50): 17760-17772, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501174

RESUMO

We introduce a general surface passivation mechanism for cesium lead halide perovskite materials (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) that is supported by a combined experimental and theoretical study of the nanocrystal surface chemistry. A variety of spectroscopic methods are employed together with ab initio calculations to identify surface halide vacancies as the predominant source of charge trapping. The number of surface traps per nanocrystal is quantified by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and that number is consistent with a simple trapping model in which surface halide vacancies create deleterious under-coordinated lead atoms. These halide vacancies exhibit trapping behavior that differs among CsPbCl3, CsPbBr3, and CsPbI3. Ab initio calculations suggest that introduction of anionic X-type ligands can produce trap-free band gaps by altering the energetics of lead-based defect levels. General rules for selecting effective passivating ligand pairs are introduced by considering established principles of coordination chemistry. Introducing softer, anionic, X-type Lewis bases that target under-coordinated lead atoms results in absolute quantum yields approaching unity and monoexponential luminescence decay kinetics, thereby indicating full trap passivation. This work provides a systematic framework for preparing highly luminescent CsPbX3 nanocrystals with variable compositions and dimensionalities, thereby improving the fundamental understanding of these materials and informing future synthetic and post-synthetic efforts toward trap-free CsPbX3 nanocrystals.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(7): 1933-1938, 2018 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29285845

RESUMO

The first dysprosium complexes with a terminal fluoride ligand are obtained as air-stable compounds. The strong, highly electrostatic dysprosium-fluoride bond generates a large axial crystal-field splitting of the J=15/2 ground state, as evidenced by high-resolution luminescence spectroscopy and correlated with the single-molecule magnet behavior through experimental magnetic susceptibility data and ab initio calculations.

8.
ACS Nano ; 11(8): 8346-8355, 2017 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759718

RESUMO

The effect of temperature on the rate of hole transfer from photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) is investigated by measuring the driving force dependence of the charge transfer rate for different sized QDs across a range of temperatures from 78 to 300 K. Spherical CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs were used with a series of ferrocene-derived molecular hole acceptors with an 800 meV range in electrochemical potential. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements and photoluminescence quantum yield measurements in an integrating sphere were both performed from 78 to 300 K to obtain temperature-dependent rates for a series of driving forces as dictated by the nature of the molecular acceptor. For both QD sizes studied and all ligands, the Arrhenius plot of hole transfer exhibited an activated (linear) regime at higher temperatures and a temperature-independent regime at low temperatures. The extracted activation energies in the high-temperature regime were consistent across all ligands for a given QD size. This observation is not consistent with direct charge transfer from the QD valence band to the ferrocene acceptor. Instead, a model in which charge transfer is mediated by a shallow and reversible trap more accurately fits the experimental results. Implications for this observed trap-mediated transfer are discussed including as a strategy to more efficiently extract charge from QDs.

9.
Nano Lett ; 17(3): 1629-1636, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28183177

RESUMO

The effect of lattice fluctuations and electronic excitations on the radiative rate is demonstrated in CdSe/CdS core/shell spherical quantum dots (QDs). Using a combination of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy and atomistic simulations, we show that lattice fluctuations can change the radiative rate over the temperature range from 78 to 300 K. We posit that the presence of the core/shell interface plays a significant role in dictating this behavior. We show that the other major factor that underpins the change in radiative rate with temperature is the presence of higher energy states corresponding to electron excitation into the shell. These effects should be present in other core/shell samples and should also affect other excited state rates, such as the rate of Auger recombination or the rate of charge transfer.

10.
ACS Nano ; 11(2): 2075-2084, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110520

RESUMO

The reabsorption of photoluminescence within a medium, an effect known as the inner filter effect (IFE), has been well studied in solutions, but has garnered less attention in regards to solid-state nanocomposites. Photoluminescence from a quantum dot (QD) can selectively excite larger QDs around it resulting in a net red-shift in the reemitted photon. In CdSe/CdS core/shell QD-polymer nanocomposites, we observe a large spectral red-shift of over a third of the line width of the photoluminescence of the nanocomposites over a distance of 100 µm resulting from the IFE. Unlike fluorescent dyes, which do not show a large IFE red-shift, QDs have a component of inhomogeneous broadening that originates from their size distribution and quantum confinement. By controlling the photoluminescence broadening as well as the sample dispersion and concentration, we show that the magnitude of the IFE within the nanocomposite can be tuned. We further demonstrate that this shift can be exploited in order to spectroscopically monitor the vertical displacement of a nanocomposite in a fluorescence microscope. Large energetic shifts in the measured emission with displacement can be maximized, resulting in a displacement sensor with submicrometer resolution. We further show that the composite can be easily attached to biological samples and is able to measure deformations with high temporal and spatial precision.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(37): 12065-8, 2016 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27606934

RESUMO

Ion-exchange transformations allow access to nanocrystalline materials with compositions that are inaccessible via direct synthetic routes. However, additional mechanistic insight into the processes that govern these reactions is needed. We present evidence for the presence of two distinct mechanisms of exchange during anion exchange in CsPbX3 nanocrystals (NCs), ranging in size from 6.5 to 11.5 nm, for transformations from CsPbBr3 to CsPbCl3 or CsPbI3. These NCs exhibit bright luminescence throughout the exchange, allowing their optical properties to be observed in real time, in situ. The iodine exchange presents surface-reaction-limited exchanges allowing all anionic sites within the NC to appear chemically identical, whereas the chlorine exchange presents diffusion-limited exchanges proceeding through a more complicated exchange mechanism. Our results represent the first steps toward developing a microkinetic description of the anion exchange, with implications not only for understanding the lead halide perovskites but also for nanoscale ion exchange in general.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(49): 15567-75, 2015 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26597761

RESUMO

We have investigated the relationship between driving force and rate for interfacial hole transfer from quantum dots (QDs). This relationship is experimentally explored by using six distinct molecular hole acceptors with an 800 meV range in driving force. Specifically, we have investigated ferrocene derivatives with alkyl thiol moieties that strongly bind to the surface of cadmium chalcogenide QDs. The redox potentials of these ligands are controlled by functionalization of the cyclopentadiene rings on ferrocene with electron withdrawing and donating substituents, thus providing an avenue for tuning the driving force for hole transfer while holding all other system parameters constant. The relative hole transfer rate constant from photoexcited CdSe/CdS core/shell QDs to tethered ferrocene derivatives is determined by measuring the photoluminescence quantum yield of these QD-molecular conjugates at varying ferrocene coverage, as determined via quantitative NMR. The resulting relationship between rate and energetic driving force for hole transfer is not well modeled by the standard two-state Marcus model, since no inverted region is observed. Alternative mechanisms for charge transfer are posited, including an Auger-assisted mechanism that provides a successful fit to the results. The observed relationship can be used to design QD-molecular systems that maximize interfacial charge transfer rates while minimizing energetic losses associated with the driving force.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(5): 2021-9, 2015 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25591013

RESUMO

Hole transfer from high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) CdSe-core CdS-shell semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) to covalently linked molecular hole acceptors is investigated. (1)H NMR is used to independently calibrate the average number of hole acceptor molecules per QD, N, allowing us to measure PLQY as a function of N, and to extract the hole transfer rate constant per acceptor, kht. This value allows for reliable comparisons between nine different donor-acceptor systems with variant shell thicknesses and acceptor ligands, with kht spanning over 4 orders of magnitude, from single acceptor time constants as fast as 16 ns to as slow as 0.13 ms. The PLQY variation with acceptor coverage for all kht follows a universal equation, and the shape of this curve depends critically on the ratio of the total hole transfer rate to the sum of the native recombination rates in the QD. The dependence of kht on the CdS thickness and the chain length of the acceptor is investigated, with damping coefficients ß measured to be (0.24 ± 0.025) Å(-1) and (0.85 ± 0.1) Å(-1) for CdS and the alkyl chain, respectively. We observe that QDs with high intrinsic PLQYs (>79%) can donate holes to surface-bound molecular acceptors with efficiencies up to 99% and total hole transfer time constants as fast as 170 ps. We demonstrate the merits of a system where ill-defined nonradiative channels are suppressed and well-defined nonradiative channels are engineered and quantified. These results show the potential of QD systems to drive desirable oxidative chemistry without undergoing oxidative photodegradation.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 53(22): 12027-35, 2014 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365238

RESUMO

A series of organically templated vanadium selenites has been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions. Single crystals of [C5H14N2][(VO)3(SeO3)2(HSeO3)4], [C5H14N2][VO(SeO3)2], [(R)-C5H14N2][(VO)3(SeO3)2(HSeO3)4], and [(S)-C5H14N2][(VO)3(SeO3)2(HSeO3)4] were grown from VOSO4, SeO2, and 2-methylpiperazine. Controlling the initial pH of the reaction mixture allows for one to select between the compounds found in the VOSO4/SeO2/2-methylpiperazine system, as the solution pH directly affects the relative ratio of the HSeO3(-) and SeO3(2-) concentrations. Moreover, partial resolution of racemic 2-methylpiperazine is observed in [C5H14N2][(VO)3(SeO3)2(HSeO3)4], which is understood through the use of a one-dimensional Ising model. The use of enantiomerically pure 2-methylpiperazine results in fully ordered and fully resolved structures.


Assuntos
Compostos Organometálicos/química , Compostos Organometálicos/síntese química , Piperidinas/química , Ácido Selenioso/química , Compostos de Vanádio/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(13): 5121-31, 2014 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24654595

RESUMO

Hole transfer between a CdSe/CdS core/shell semiconductor nanorod and a surface-ligated alkyl ferrocene is investigated by a combination of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations and electrochemical and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The calculated driving force for hole transfer corresponds well with electrochemical measurements of nanorods partially ligated by 6-ferrocenylhexanethiolate. The calculations and the experiments suggest that single step hole transfer from the valence band to ferrocene is in the Marcus inverted region. Additionally, time-resolved photoluminescence data suggest that two-step hole transfer to ferrocene mediated by a deep trap state is unlikely. However, the calculations also suggest that shallow surface states of the CdS shell could play a significant role in mediating hole transfer as long as their energies are close enough to the nanorod highest occupied molecular orbital energy. Regardless of the detailed mechanism of hole transfer, our results suggest that holes may be extracted more efficiently from well-passivated nanocrystals by reducing the energetic driving force for hole transfer, thus minimizing energetic losses.

16.
Inorg Chem ; 51(20): 11040-8, 2012 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23003324

RESUMO

A series of organically templated vanadium selenites have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions. Single crystals were grown from mixtures of VOSO(4), SeO(2), and either 1,4-dimethylpiperazine, 2,5-dimethylpiperazine, or 2-methylpiperazine in H(2)O. Each compound contains one-dimensional [VO(SeO(3))(HSeO(3))](n)(n-) secondary building units, which connect to form three-dimensional frameworks in the presence of 2,5-dimethylpiperazine or 2-methylpiperazine. Differences in composition and both intra-secondary building unit and organic-inorganic hydrogen-bonding between compounds dictate the dimensionality of the resulting inorganic structures. [1,4-dimethylpiperazineH(2)][VO(SeO(3))(HSeO(3))](2) contains one-dimensional [VO(SeO(3))(HSeO(3))](n)(n-) chains, while [2,5-dimethylpiperazineH(2)][VO(SeO(3))(HSeO(3))](2)·2H(2)O contains a three-dimensional [VO(SeO(3))(HSeO(3))](n)(n-) framework. The use of racemic 2-methylpiperazine also results in a compound containing a three-dimensional [VO(SeO(3))(HSeO(3))](n)(n-) framework, crystallizing in the noncentrosymmetric polar, achiral space group Pca2(1) (no. 29), while analogous reactions containing either (R)-2-methylpiperazine or (S)-2-methylpiperazine result in noncentrosymmetric, nonpolar chiral frameworks that crystallize in P2(1)2(1)2 (no. 18). The formation of these noncentrosymmetric framework materials is dictated by the structure, symmetry, and hydrogen-bonding properties of the [2-methylpiperazineH(2)](2+) cations.

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