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1.
Epilepsia ; 60(8): 1733-1742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The cyclin-dependent kinase like 5 (CDKL5) gene is a known cause of early onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, also known as CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). We sought to (1) provide a description of seizure types in patients with CDD, (2) provide an assessment of the frequency of seizure-free periods and cortical visual impairment (CVI), (3) correlate these features with genotype and gender, and (4) correlate these features with developmental milestones. METHODS: This is a cohort study of patients with CDD. Phenotypic features were explored and correlated with gene variant grouping and gender. A developmental score was created based on achieving seven primary milestones. Phenotypic variables were correlated with the developmental score to explore markers of better developmental outcomes. Multivariate linear regression was used to account for age at last visit. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with CDD were seen during the enrollment period. Eighteen were male (19%); median age at last visit was 5 years (interquartile range = 2.0-11.0). Eighty-one percent of patients developed epileptic spasms, but only 47% of those also had hypsarrhythmia. Previously described hypermotor-tonic-spasms sequence was seen in only 24% of patients, but 56% of patients had seizures with multiple phases (often tonic and spasms). Forty-three percent of patients experienced a seizure-free period ranging from 1 to >12 months, but only 6% were still seizure-free at the last visit. CVI was present in 75% of all CDD patients. None of these features was associated with genotype group or gender. CVI was correlated with reduced milestone achievement after adjusting for age at last visit and a history of hypsarrhythmia. SIGNIFICANCE: The most common seizure types in CDD are epileptic spasms (often without hypsarrhythmia) and tonic seizures that may cluster together. CVI is a common feature in CDD and is correlated with achieving fewer milestones.

2.
Pediatr Neurol ; 97: 38-42, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathologic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 cause CDKL5 deficiency disorder, a genetic syndrome associated with severe epilepsy and cognitive, motor, visual, and autonomic disturbances. This disorder is a relatively common genetic cause of early-life epilepsy. A specific severity assessment is lacking, required to monitor the clinical course and needed to define the natural history and for clinical trial readiness. METHODS: A severity assessment was developed based on clinical and research experience from the International Foundation for CDKL5 Research Centers of Excellence consortium and the National Institutes of Health Rett and Rett-Related Disorders Natural History Study consortium. An initial draft severity assessment was presented and reviewed at the annual CDKL5 Forum meeting (Boston, 2017). Subsequently it was iterated through four cycles of a modified Delphi process by a group of clinicians, researchers, industry, patient advisory groups, and parents familiar with this disorder until consensus was achieved. The revised version of the severity assessment was presented for review, comment, and piloting to families at the International Foundation for CDKL5 Research-sponsored family meeting (Colorado, 2018). Final revisions were based on this additional input. RESULTS: The final severity assessment comprised 51 items that comprehensively describe domains of epilepsy; motor; cognition, behavior, vision, and speech; and autonomic functions. Parental ratings of therapy effectiveness and child and family functioning are also included. CONCLUSIONS: A severity assessment was rapidly developed with input from multiple stakeholders. Refinement through ongoing validation is required for future clinical trials. The consensus methods employed for the development of severity assessment may be applicable to similar rare disorders.

3.
Pediatr Neurol ; 97: 18-25, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928302

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) deficiency disorder (CDD) is a developmental encephalopathy caused by pathogenic variants in the gene CDKL5. This unique disorder includes early infantile onset refractory epilepsy, hypotonia, developmental intellectual and motor disabilities, and cortical visual impairment. We review the clinical presentations and genetic variations in CDD based on a systematic literature review and experience in the CDKL5 Centers of Excellence. We propose minimum diagnostic criteria. Pathogenic variants include deletions, truncations, splice variants, and missense variants. Pathogenic missense variants occur exclusively within the kinase domain or affect splice sites. The CDKL5 protein is widely expressed in the brain, predominantly in neurons, with roles in cell proliferation, neuronal migration, axonal outgrowth, dendritic morphogenesis, and synapse development. The molecular biology of CDD is revealing opportunities in precision therapy, with phase 2 and 3 clinical trials underway or planned to assess disease specific and disease modifying treatments.

5.
Brain Sci ; 8(8)2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087272

RESUMO

The TUBA1A gene encodes tubulin alpha-1A, a protein that is highly expressed in the fetal brain. Alpha- and beta-tubulin subunits form dimers, which then co-assemble into microtubule polymers: dynamic, scaffold-like structures that perform key functions during neurogenesis, neuronal migration, and cortical organisation. Mutations in TUBA1A have been reported to cause a range of brain malformations. We describe four unrelated patients with the same de novo missense mutation in TUBA1A, c.5G>A, p.(Arg2His), as found by next generation sequencing. Detailed comparison revealed similar brain phenotypes with mild variability. Shared features included developmental delay, microcephaly, hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, dysplasia or thinning of the corpus callosum, small pons, and dysmorphic basal ganglia. Two of the patients had bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria. We examined the effects of the p.(Arg2His) mutation by computer-based protein structure modelling and heterologous expression in HEK-293 cells. The results suggest the mutation subtly impairs microtubule function, potentially by affecting inter-dimer interaction. Based on its sequence context, c.5G>A is likely to be a common recurrent mutation. We propose that the subtle functional effects of p.(Arg2His) may allow for other factors (such as genetic background or environmental conditions) to influence phenotypic outcome, thus explaining the mild variability in clinical manifestations.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

7.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 23(3): 197-203, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426807

RESUMO

Neonatal epilepsy genetics is a rapidly expanding field with recent technological advances in genomics leading to an expanding list of genetic disorders associated with neonatal-onset epilepsy. The genetic causes of neonatal epilepsy can be grouped into the following categories: (i) malformations of cortical development, (ii) genetic-metabolic, (iii) genetic-vascular, (iv) genetic-syndromic, and (v) genetic-cellular. Clinically, epilepsy in the neonate shows phenotypic overlap with pathogenic variants in unrelated genes causing similar clinical presentation (locus heterogeneity) and variants in the same gene leading to a wide clinical spectrum ranging from benign familial neonatal seizures to more severe epileptic encephalopathies (variable expressivity). We suggest a diagnostic approach to obtaining a genetic diagnosis with emphasis on clinical features such as electro-clinical phenotype and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Rapid identification of genetic disorders with targeted treatments should be a clinical priority. Achieving a genetic diagnosis can be challenging in a rapidly changing genetic landscape, but is increasingly possible.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1099-1107, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944563

RESUMO

Treatment for Angelman syndrome (AS) is currently limited to symptomatic interventions. A mouse model of AS has reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II activity due to excessive phosphorylation of specific threonine residues, leading to diminished long-term potentiation. In a rat model of Parkinson disease, levodopa reduced phosphorylation of various proteins, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Further studies demonstrated that AS mice treated with levodopa performed better on rotarod testing than untreated AS mice. We conducted a multi-center double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 1-year trial of levodopa / carbidopa with either 10 or 15 mg/kg/day of levodopa in children with AS. The outcome of this intervention was assessed using either the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, as well as the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Of the 78 participants enrolled, 67 participants received study medication (33 on levodopa, 34 on placebo), and 55 participants (29 on levodopa, 26 on placebo) completed the 1-year study. There were no clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the outcome measures over a 1-year period comparing the levodopa and placebo groups. The number of adverse events reported, including the more serious adverse events, was similar in both groups, but none were related to treatment with levodopa. Our data demonstrate that levodopa is well-tolerated by children with AS. However, in the doses used in this study, it failed to improve their neurodevelopment or behavioral outcome.

9.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 10(5): 471-475, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Torcular dural sinus malformations (tDSMs) are described as slow flow dural arteriovenous fistulae with frequently poor outcomes in the neuroangiographic literature, but other etiologies have been proposed in the obstetric literature, where outcomes have been more favorable. OBJECTIVE: To review tDSMs reported in the literature of multiple specialties for features that support a common etiology, and to identify key prognostic factors, with an emphasis on tDSM trajectory highlighted in part I. METHODS: Analysis of imaging features and clinical outcome for 77 prenatal and 22 postnatal tDSMs reported in 37 papers from the literature. RESULTS: In addition to large venous lakes, 36% of prenatal and 96% of postnatal tDSMs had evidence of arterialization, where specifically assessed. For fetal cases, where there was an observable natural history, 97% underwent a spontaneous decrease-13% after an initial increase and only 1 case with subsequent enlargement after a decrease. Prenatal cases had 83% survival (62% with a favorable outcome) whereas postnatal cases had 59% survival (29% favorable). In addition to a postnatal diagnosis, unfavorable features included ventriculomegaly, parenchymal injury, arterialization, and need for intervention. Favorable features included decreasing tDSM size, presence of clot, and increasing clot percentage. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal and fetal tDSMs have overlapping imaging appearances, suggesting a common etiology, where neonatal tDSMs represent those rare fetal tDSMs that do not undergo spontaneous regression and have a propensity for worse outcomes. Decrease in tDSM size is a critical observation when managing a tDSM because it is generally irreversible and associated with a favorable outcome.


Assuntos
Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidades Cranianas/anormalidades , Cavidades Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Gerenciamento Clínico , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Malformações Vasculares do Sistema Nervoso Central/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/terapia , Masculino , Gravidez , Prognóstico
10.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 10(5): 467-470, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28965107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even for the most common dural sinus malformation (DSM), the torcular DSM (tDSM), generalizable statements about etiology and prognosis are difficult because neurosurgeons/neuroradiologists and obstetrical imagers have focused on different patient age groups, have reported different outcomes, and have offered differing pathophysiologic explanations. OBJECTIVE: To examine the imaging features and outcomes of a local cohort of tDSMs across fetal-neonatal life for commonalities. METHODS: Review of imaging and clinical outcome for a local cohort of 12 tDSM patients (9 fetal, 3 postnatal). RESULTS: All 12 tDSMs had similar imaging characteristics, including enlargement of the torcular and intraluminal thrombus early on, later evolving to peripheral scar tissue after treatment or spontaneous regression. Spontaneous decrease in size of the tDSM was observed in 6 prenatal and 1 postnatal case, and this decrease appeared to be irreversible once it occurred. One of 9 prenatal tDSMs was demonstrated to have arteriovenous fistulae in utero, while 2 of 3 postnatal diagnoses had arteriovenous fisutlae. All 6 prenatal tDSM diagnoses followed to term and all 3 postnatal diagnoses had a grossly normal neurologic outcome after a median of 12 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal and postnatal tDSMs have overlapping imaging features suggesting a common etiology, and involution of a tDSM is a key imaging biomarker for a favorable outcome. While there is reason for concern with postnatally diagnosed tDSMs, good outcomes may still be achieved across the fetal-neonatal age spectrum of presentations. These findings are generalized in part II of this article.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidades Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hospitais Pediátricos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Fístula Arteriovenosa/epidemiologia , Boston/epidemiologia , Cavidades Cranianas/anormalidades , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prognóstico
11.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(3): 317-325, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279279

RESUMO

Asparagine Synthetase Deficiency (ASD) is a recently described inborn error of metabolism caused by bi-allelic pathogenic variants in the asparagine synthetase (ASNS) gene. ASD typically presents congenitally with microcephaly and severe, often medically refractory, epilepsy. Development is generally severely affected at birth. Tone is abnormal with axial hypotonia and progressive appendicular spasticity. Hyperekplexia has been reported. Neuroimaging typically demonstrates gyral simplification, abnormal myelination, and progressive cerebral atrophy. The present report describes two siblings from consanguineous parents with a homozygous Arg49Gln variant associated with a milder form of ASD that is characterized by later onset of symptoms. Both siblings had a period of normal development before onset of seizures, and development regression. Primary fibroblast studies of the siblings and their parents document that homozygosity for Arg49Gln blocks cell growth in the absence of extracellular asparagine. Functional studies with these cells suggest no impact of the Arg49Gln variant on basal ASNS mRNA or protein levels, nor on regulation of the gene itself. Molecular modelling of the ASNS protein structure indicates that the Arg49Gln variant lies near the substrate binding site for glutamine. Collectively, the results suggest that the Arg49Gln variant affects the enzymatic function of ASNS. The clinical, cellular, and molecular observations from these siblings expand the known phenotypic spectrum of ASD.

12.
Epilepsia ; 58(8): 1415-1422, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants involving the CDKL5 gene result in a severe epileptic encephalopathy, often later presenting with features similar to Rett syndrome. Cardinal features of epilepsy in the CDKL5 disorder include early onset at a median age of 6 weeks and poor response to antiepileptic drugs. The ketogenic diet (KD) was first introduced in the 1920s as a treatment option for refractory epilepsy in children. This study investigated use of the KD in the CDKL5 disorder and its influences on seizures. METHODS: The International CDKL5 Disorder Database, established in 2012, collects information on individuals with the CDKL5 disorder. Families have provided information regarding seizure characteristics, use, and side effects of the KD treatment. Descriptive statistics and time to event analyses were performed. Clinical vignettes were also provided on patients attending Boston Children's Hospital. RESULTS: Data regarding KD use were available for 204 individuals with a pathogenic CDKL5 variant. Median age of inclusion in the database was 4.8 years (range = 0.3-33.9 years), with median age of 6 weeks (range = 1 day-65 weeks) at seizure onset. History of KD use was reported for 51% (104 of 204) of individuals, with a median duration of use of 17 months (95% confidence interval = 9-24). Changes in seizure activity after commencing KD were reported for two-thirds (69 of 104), with improvements in 88% (61 of 69). Nearly one-third (31.7%) experienced side effects during the diet. At ascertainment, only one-third (32%) remained on the diet, with lack of long-term efficacy as the main reason for diet cessation (51%, 36 of 70). SIGNIFICANCE: Benefits of KD in the CDKL5 disorder are in keeping with previous trials on refractory epilepsies. However, poor long-term efficacy remains as a significant barrier. In view of its side effect profile, KD administration should be supervised by a pediatric neurologist and specialist dietician.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/dietoterapia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/etiologia , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndromes Epilépticas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Rett/dietoterapia , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Espasmos Infantis/dietoterapia , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Child Neurol ; 32(4): 429-436, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056630

RESUMO

Recent technological advances in gene sequencing have led to a rapid increase in gene discovery in epilepsy. However, the ability to assess pathogenicity of variants, provide functional analysis, and develop targeted therapies has not kept pace with rapid advances in sequencing technology. Thus, although clinical genetic testing may lead to a specific molecular diagnosis for some patients, test results often lead to more questions than answers. As the field begins to focus on therapeutic applications of genetic diagnoses using precision medicine, developing processes that offer more than equivocal test results is essential. The success of precision medicine in epilepsy relies on establishing a correct genetic diagnosis, analyzing functional consequences of genetic variants, screening potential therapeutics in the preclinical laboratory setting, and initiating targeted therapy trials for patients. The authors describe the structure of a comprehensive, pediatric Epilepsy Genetics Program that can serve as a model for translational medicine in epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
14.
Ann Neurol ; 81(3): 419-429, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28133863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify genetic causes of early onset epileptic encephalopathies with burst suppression (Ohtahara syndrome and early myoclonic encephalopathy) and evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: We enrolled 33 patients with a referral diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome or early myoclonic encephalopathy without malformations of cortical development. We performed detailed phenotypic assessment including seizure presentation, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. We confirmed burst suppression in 28 of 33 patients. Research-based exome sequencing was performed for patients without a previously identified molecular diagnosis from clinical evaluation or a research-based epilepsy gene panel. RESULTS: In 17 of 28 (61%) patients with confirmed early burst suppression, we identified variants predicted to be pathogenic in KCNQ2 (n = 10), STXBP1 (n = 2), SCN2A (n = 2), PNPO (n = 1), PIGA (n = 1), and SEPSECS (n = 1). In 3 of 5 (60%) patients without confirmed early burst suppression, we identified variants predicted to be pathogenic in STXBP1 (n = 2) and SCN2A (n = 1). The patient with the homozygous PNPO variant had a low cerebrospinal fluid pyridoxal-5-phosphate level. Otherwise, no early laboratory or clinical features distinguished the cases associated with pathogenic variants in specific genes from each other or from those with no prior genetic cause identified. INTERPRETATION: We characterize the genetic landscape of epileptic encephalopathy with burst suppression, without brain malformations, and demonstrate feasibility of genetic diagnosis with clinically available testing in >60% of our cohort, with KCNQ2 implicated in one-third. This electroclinical syndrome is associated with pathogenic variation in SEPSECS. Ann Neurol 2017;81:419-429.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espasmos Infantis/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Exoma , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenótipo
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(9): 2265-73, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27282546

RESUMO

Mutations in BRAT1, encoding BRCA1-associated ATM activator 1, are associated with a severe phenotype known as rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome, lethal neonatal (RMFSL; OMIM # 614498), characterized by intractable seizures, hypertonia, autonomic instability, and early death. We expand the phenotypic spectrum of BRAT1 related disorders by reporting on four individuals with various BRAT1 mutations resulting in clinical severity that is either mild or moderate compared to the severe phenotype seen in RMFSL. Representing mild severity are three individuals (Patients 1-3), who are girls (including two sisters, Patients 1-2) between 4 and 10 years old, with subtle dysmorphisms, intellectual disability, ataxia or dyspraxia, and cerebellar atrophy on brain MRI; additionally, Patient 3 has well-controlled epilepsy and microcephaly. Representing moderate severity is a 15-month-old boy (Patient 4) with severe global developmental delay, refractory epilepsy, microcephaly, spasticity, hyperkinetic movements, dysautonomia, and chronic lung disease. In contrast to RMFSL, his seizure onset occurred later at 4 months of age, and he is still alive. All four of the individuals have compound heterozygous BRAT1 mutations discovered via whole exome sequencing: c.638dupA (p.Val214Glyfs*189); c.803+1G>C (splice site mutation) in Patients 1-2; c.638dupA (p.Val214Glyfs*189); c.419T>C (p.Leu140Pro) in Patient 3; and c.171delG (p.Glu57Aspfs*7); c.419T>C (p.Leu140Pro) in Patient 4. Only the c.638dupA (p.Val214Glyfs*189) mutation has been previously reported in association with RMFSL. These patients illustrate that, compared with RMFSL, BRAT1 mutations can result in both moderately severe presentations evident by later-onset epilepsy and survival past infancy, as well as milder presentations that include intellectual disability, ataxia/dyspraxia, and cerebellar atrophy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Encéfalo/patologia , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Exoma , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Linhagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Neurology ; 85(11): 958-66, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26291284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: De novo SCN2A mutations have recently been associated with severe infantile-onset epilepsies. Herein, we define the phenotypic spectrum of SCN2A encephalopathy. METHODS: Twelve patients with an SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy underwent electroclinical phenotyping. RESULTS: Patients were aged 0.7 to 22 years; 3 were deceased. Seizures commenced on day 1-4 in 8, week 2-6 in 2, and after 1 year in 2. Characteristic features included clusters of brief focal seizures with multiple hourly (9 patients), multiple daily (2), or multiple weekly (1) seizures, peaking at maximal frequency within 3 months of onset. Multifocal interictal epileptiform discharges were seen in all. Three of 12 patients had infantile spasms. The epileptic syndrome at presentation was epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) in 7 and Ohtahara syndrome in 2. Nine patients had improved seizure control with sodium channel blockers including supratherapeutic or high therapeutic phenytoin levels in 5. Eight had severe to profound developmental impairment. Other features included movement disorders (10), axial hypotonia (11) with intermittent or persistent appendicular spasticity, early handedness, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Mutations arose de novo in 11 patients; paternal DNA was unavailable in one. CONCLUSIONS: Review of our 12 and 34 other reported cases of SCN2A encephalopathy suggests 3 phenotypes: neonatal-infantile-onset groups with severe and intermediate outcomes, and a childhood-onset group. Here, we show that SCN2A is the second most common cause of EIMFS and, importantly, does not always have a poor developmental outcome. Sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin, may improve seizure control.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Convulsões/genética , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Convulsões/complicações , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 15(7): 39, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26008807

RESUMO

While genetic causes of epilepsy have been hypothesized from the time of Hippocrates, the advent of new genetic technologies has played a tremendous role in elucidating a growing number of specific genetic causes for the epilepsies. This progress has contributed vastly to our recognition of the epilepsies as a diverse group of disorders, the genetic mechanisms of which are heterogeneous. Genotype-phenotype correlation, however, is not always clear. Nonetheless, the developments in genetic diagnosis raise the promise of a future of personalized medicine. Multiple genetic tests are now available, but there is no one test for all possible genetic mutations, and the balance between cost and benefit must be weighed. A genetic diagnosis, however, can provide valuable information regarding comorbidities, prognosis, and even treatment, as well as allow for genetic counseling. In this review, we will discuss the genetic mechanisms of the epilepsies as well as the specifics of particular genetic epilepsy syndromes. We will include an overview of the available genetic testing methods, the application of clinical knowledge into the selection of genetic testing, genotype-phenotype correlations of epileptic disorders, and therapeutic advances as well as a discussion of the importance of genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Animais , Canalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Mutação
18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(9): 2017-25, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25914188

RESUMO

Rett syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders with features overlapping this syndrome frequently remain unexplained in patients without clinically identified MECP2 mutations. We recruited a cohort of 11 patients with features of Rett syndrome and negative initial clinical testing for mutations in MECP2. We analyzed their phenotypes to determine whether patients met formal criteria for Rett syndrome, reviewed repeat clinical genetic testing, and performed exome sequencing of the probands. Using 2010 diagnostic criteria, three patients had classical Rett syndrome, including two for whom repeat MECP2 gene testing had identified mutations. In a patient with neonatal onset epilepsy with atypical Rett syndrome, we identified a frameshift deletion in STXBP1. Among seven patients with features of Rett syndrome not fulfilling formal diagnostic criteria, four had suspected pathogenic mutations, one each in MECP2, FOXG1, SCN8A, and IQSEC2. MECP2 mutations are highly correlated with classical Rett syndrome. Genes associated with atypical Rett syndrome, epilepsy, or intellectual disability should be considered in patients with features overlapping with Rett syndrome and negative MECP2 testing. While most of the identified mutations were apparently de novo, the SCN8A variant was inherited from an unaffected parent mosaic for the mutation, which is important to note for counseling regarding recurrence risks.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Semin Neurol ; 34(3): 266-79, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25192505

RESUMO

Genetic mechanisms explain the pathophysiology of many forms of epilepsy and other paroxysmal disorders, such as alternating hemiplegia of childhood, familial hemiplegic migraine, and paroxysmal dyskinesias. Epilepsy is a key feature of well-defined genetic syndromes including tuberous sclerosis complex, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and others. There is an increasing number of single-gene causes or susceptibility factors associated with several epilepsy syndromes, including the early-onset epileptic encephalopathies, benign neonatal/infantile seizures, progressive myoclonus epilepsies, genetic generalized and benign focal epilepsies, epileptic aphasias, and familial focal epilepsies. Molecular mechanisms are diverse, and a single gene can be associated with a broad range of phenotypes. Additional features, such as dysmorphisms, head size, movement disorders, and family history may provide clues to a genetic diagnosis. Genetic testing can impact medical care and counseling. We discuss genetic mechanisms of epilepsy and other paroxysmal disorders, tools and indications for genetic testing, known genotype-phenotype associations, the importance of genetic counseling, and a look toward the future of epilepsy genetics.


Assuntos
Coreia/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemiplegia/genética , Fenótipo , Animais , Coreia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hemiplegia/diagnóstico , Humanos
20.
Epilepsia ; 54(10): 1753-60, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23980696

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 2005 diagnostic criteria for Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) are based on seizures, clinical deficits, electroencephalography (EEG), neuroimaging, and pathology (Brain, 128, 2005, 451). We applied these criteria to patients evaluated for RE and epilepsy surgery controls to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs, NPVs) using pathology as the gold standard. METHODS: We identified patients evaluated for RE based on medical records from 1993 to 2011. Fifty-two control patients with refractory epilepsy, unilateral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes, and biopsies were selected from an epilepsy surgery database from matching years. Patients meeting all three of group A and/or two of three group B criteria were classified as meeting full criteria (positive). Patients not meeting full criteria were classified as negative. When available, pathology findings were re-reviewed with neuropathologists, and MRI imaging was re-reviewed with a neuroradiologist. KEY FINDINGS: RE was considered in the differential diagnosis for 82 patients, of whom 35 had biopsies. Twenty patients met full criteria (positive) without another explanation, including seven for whom biopsy was required to meet criteria and one in whom another etiology was identified. Two patients met full criteria but had another explanation. Thirty-five met partial criteria (negative), of whom 14 had another etiology identified. Twenty-five met no criteria (negative). The diagnostic criteria had a sensitivity of 81% with four false negatives (criteria-negative, biopsy-positive) when compared to pathology as a gold standard. Five false positives (criteria positive, biopsy negative) had identifiable alternate diagnoses. SIGNIFICANCE: The 2005 Bien clinical diagnostic criteria for RE have reasonably high sensitivity and specificity and good clinical-pathologic correlation in most cases. We suggest modification of the criteria to allow inclusion of cases with well-described but less common features. Specifically we suggest making the diagnosis in the absence of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) or clear progression of focal cortical deficits or MRI findings if biopsy is positive and two of the A criteria are met (B3 plus two of three A criteria). This would improve the sensitivity of the criteria.


Assuntos
Encefalite/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletroencefalografia , Encefalite/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalite/patologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
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