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1.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676871

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

2.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used in the management of patients with resected brain metastases (rBMs). A significant complication of this therapy can be radiation necrosis (RN). Despite radiation therapy dose de-escalation and the delivery of several rather than a single dose fraction, rates of RN after SRS for rBMs remain high. We evaluated the dosimetric parameters associated with radiographic RN for rBMs. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 2008 to 2016, 55 rBMs at a single institution that were treated postoperatively with 5-fraction linear accelerator-based SRS (25-35 Gy) with minimum 3 months follow-up were evaluated. For each lesion, variables recorded included radiation therapy dose to normal brain, location and magnitude of hotspots, clinical target volume (CTV), and margin size. Hotspot location was stratified as within the tumor bed alone (CTV) or within the planning target volume (PTV) expansion margin volume (PTV minus CTV). Cumulative incidence with competing risks was used to estimate rates of RN and local recurrence. Optimal cut-points predicting for RN for hotspot magnitude based on location were identified via maximization of the log-rank test statistic. RESULTS: Median age for all patients was 58.5 years. For all targets, the median CTV was 17.53 cm3, the median expansion margin to PTV was 2 mm, and the median max hotspot was 111%. At 1 year, cumulative incidence of radiographic RN was 18.2%. Univariate analysis showed that max hotspots with a hazard ratio of 3.28 (P = .045), hotspots within the PTV expansion margin with relative magnitudes of 105%, 110%, and 111%, and an absolute dose of 33.5 Gy predicted for RN (P = .029, P = .04, P = .038, and P = .0488, respectively), but hotspots within the CTV did not. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study that investigated dosimetric factors that predict for RN after 5-fraction hypofractionated SRS for rBM. Hotspot location and magnitude appear important for predicting RN risk, thus these parameters should be carefully considered during treatment planning.

3.
Oncogene ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582835

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant pediatric brain tumor for which new therapies are urgently needed. We demonstrate that treatment with EPZ-6438 (Tazemetostat), an enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) inhibitor approved for clinical trials, blocks MB cell growth in vitro and in vivo, and prolongs survival in orthotopic xenograft models. We show that the therapeutic effect is dependent on epigenetic reactivation of adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor B1 (BAI1/ADGRB1), a tumor suppressor that controls p53 stability by blocking Mdm2. Histone 3 trimethylated on lysine 27 (H3K27me3), a marker of silent chromatin conformation is present at the ADGRB1 promoter, and inhibition of EZH2, the catalytic component of the Polycomb Repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that methylates H3K27, switches the gene into an active chromatin status and reactivates BAI1 expression. Mechanistically, targeting EZH2 promotes transition from H3K27me3 to H3K27ac at the promoter, recruits the C/EBPß (CREB-binding protein) and CBP transcription factors and activates ADGRB1 gene transcription. Taken together, our results identify key molecular players that regulate ADGRB1 gene expression in MB, demonstrate that reactivation of BAI1 expression underlies EPZ-6438 antitumorigenic action, and provide preclinical proof-of-principle evidence for targeting EZH2 in patients with MB.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10861, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350461

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental neurotoxin with human exposure mainly from dietary intake of contaminated fish. Exposure to MeHg has been implicated in neurological damage, but research on its role in cancers, specifically glioma, is limited. In a glioma case-control study, we examined associations between toenail mercury (Hg) and glioma risk. We also examined genetic polymorphisms in 13 genes related to MeHg metabolism for association with glioma risk; genetic associations were also studied in the UK Biobank cohort. Median toenail Hg in cases and controls, respectively, was 0.066 µg/g and 0.069 µg/g (interquartile range (IQR): 0.032-0.161 and 0.031-0.150 µg/g). Toenail Hg was not found to be significantly associated with glioma risk (Odds Ratio: 1.02; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.91, 1.14; p = 0.70 in analysis for ordinal trend with increasing quartile of toenail MeHg). No genetic variant was statistically significant in both of the studies; one variant, rs11859163 (MMP2) had a combined p-value of 0.02 though it was no longer significant after adjustment for multiple testing (Bonferroni corrected p = 1). This study does not support the hypothesis that exposure to MeHg plays a role in the development of glioma at levels of exposure found in this study population.

5.
J Neurooncol ; 143(3): 381-392, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gliosarcoma is a histologic variant of glioblastoma (GBM), and like GBM carries a poor prognosis. Median survival is less than one (1) year with less than 5% of patients alive after 5 years. Although there is no cure, standard treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. While very similar to GBM, gliosarcoma exhibits several distinct differences, morphologically and molecularly. Therefore, we report a comprehensive analysis of DNA copy number changes in gliosarcoma using a cytogenomic DNA copy number (CN) microarray (OncoScan®). METHODS: Cytogenomic DNA copy number microarray (OncoScan®) was performed on 18 cases of gliosarcoma. MetaCore™ enrichment was applied to the array results to detect associated molecular pathways. RESULTS: The most frequent alteration was copy number loss, comprising 57% of total copy number changes. The number of losses far exceeded the number of amplifications (***, < 0.001) and loss of heterozygosity events (***, < 0.001). Amplifications were infrequent (4.6%), particularly for EGFR. Chromosomes 9 and 10 had the highest number of losses; a large portion of which correlated to CDKN2A/B loss. Copy number gains were the second most common alteration (26.2%), with the majority occurring on chromosome 7. MetaCore™ enrichment detected notable pathways for copy number gains including: HOXA, Rho family of GTPases, and EGFR; copy number loss including: WNT, NF-kß, and CDKN2A; and copy number loss of heterozygosity including: WNT and p53. CONCLUSIONS: The pathways and copy number alterations detected in this study may represent key drivers in gliosarcoma oncogenesis and may provide a starting point toward targeted oncologic analysis with therapeutic potential.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963577

RESUMO

Glioma incidence is highest in non-Hispanic Whites, and to date, glioma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to date have only included European ancestry (EA) populations. African Americans and Hispanics in the US have varying proportions of EA, African (AA) and Native American ancestries (NAA). It is unknown if identified GWAS loci or increased EA is associated with increased glioma risk. We assessed whether EA was associated with glioma in African Americans and Hispanics. Data were obtained for 832 cases and 675 controls from the Glioma International Case-Control Study and GliomaSE Case-Control Study previously estimated to have <80% EA, or self-identify as non-White. We estimated global and local ancestry using fastStructure and RFMix, respectively, using 1,000 genomes project reference populations. Within groups with ≥40% AA (AFR≥0.4 ), and ≥15% NAA (AMR≥0.15 ), genome-wide association between local EA and glioma was evaluated using logistic regression conditioned on global EA for all gliomas. We identified two regions (7q21.11, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ; 11p11.12, p = 7.0 × 10-4 ) associated with increased EA, and one associated with decreased EA (20p12.13, p = 0.0026) in AFR≥0.4 . In addition, we identified a peak at rs1620291 (p = 4.36 × 10-6 ) in 7q21.3. Among AMR≥0.15 , we found an association between increased EA in one region (12q24.21, p = 8.38 × 10-4 ), and decreased EA in two regions (8q24.21, p = 0. 0010; 20q13.33, p = 6.36 × 10-4 ). No other significant associations were identified. This analysis identified an association between glioma and two regions previously identified in EA populations (8q24.21, 20q13.33) and four novel regions (7q21.11, 11p11.12, 12q24.21 and 20p12.13). The identifications of novel association with EA suggest regions to target for future genetic association studies.

7.
Tomography ; 5(1): 53-60, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854442

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases regulate a wide variety of cellular functions and have been implicated in redifferentiation of various tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are potential pharmacologic agents to improve outcomes for patients with gliomas. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy of belinostat (PXD-101), an HDACi with blood-brain barrier permeability. Belinostat was first tested in an orthotopic rat glioma model to assess in vivo tumoricidal effect. Our results showed that belinostat was effective in reducing tumor volume in the orthotopic rat glioma model in a dose-dependent manner. We also tested the antidepression activity of belinostat in 2 animal models of depression and found it to be effective. Furthermore, we confirmed that myo-inositol levels improved by belinostat treatment in vitro. In a human pilot study, it was observed that belinostat in combination with chemoradiation may delay initial recurrence of disease. Excitingly, belinostat significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients with glioblastoma compared with control subjects. Finally, spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging of 2 patient cases from this pilot study are presented to indicate how spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging can be used to monitor metabolite response and assess treatment effect on whole brain. This study highlights the potential of belinostat to be a synergistic therapeutic agent in the treatment of gliomas.

8.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): E189-E191, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629207

RESUMO

QUESTION: Do steroids improve neurological symptoms and/or quality of life in patients with metastatic brain tumors compared to supportive care only or other treatment options? If steroids are given, what dose should be used? TARGET POPULATION: These recommendations apply to adults diagnosed with brain metastases. RECOMMENDATIONS: STEROID THERAPY VERSUS NO STEROID THERAPYAsymptomatic brain metastases patients without mass effectInsufficient evidence exists to make a treatment recommendation for this clinical scenario.Brain metastases patients with mild symptoms related to mass effect Level 3: Corticosteroids are recommended to provide temporary symptomatic relief of symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure and edema secondary to brain metastases. It is recommended for patients who are symptomatic from metastatic disease to the brain that a starting dose of 4 to 8 mg/d of dexamethasone be considered.Brain metastases patients with moderate to severe symptoms related to mass effect Level 3: Corticosteroids are recommended to provide temporary symptomatic relief of symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure and edema secondary to brain metastases. If patients exhibit severe symptoms consistent with increased intracranial pressure, it is recommended that higher doses such as 16 mg/d or more be considered. CHOICE OF STEROID: Level 3: If corticosteroids are given, dexamethasone is the best drug choice given the available evidence.Duration of Corticosteroid Administration Level 3: Corticosteroids, if given, should be tapered as rapidly as possible but no faster than clinically tolerated, based upon an individualized treatment regimen and a full understanding of the long-term sequelae of corticosteroid therapy.Given the very limited number of studies (2) which met the eligibility criteria for the systematic review, these are the only recommendations that can be offered based on this methodology.The full guideline can be found at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_7.

9.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): E159-E162, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629211

RESUMO

TARGET POPULATION: Adult patients (older than 18 yr of age) with newly diagnosed brain metastases. QUESTION: If whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is used, is there an optimal dose/fractionation schedule? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 1: A standard WBRT dose/fractionation schedule (ie, 30 Gy in 10 fractions or a biological equivalent dose [BED] of 39 Gy10) is recommended as altered dose/fractionation schedules do not result in significant differences in median survival or local control. Level 3: Due to concerns regarding neurocognitive effects, higher dose per fraction schedules (such as 20 Gy in 5 fractions) are recommended only for patients with poor performance status or short predicted survival. Level 3: WBRT can be recommended to improve progression-free survival for patients with more than 4 brain metastases. QUESTION: What impact does tumor histopathology or molecular status have on the decision to use WBRT, the dose fractionation scheme to be utilized, and its outcomes? RECOMMENDATIONS: There is insufficient evidence to support the choice of any particular dose/fractionation regimen based on histopathology. Molecular status may have an impact on the decision to delay WBRT in subgroups of patients, but there is not sufficient data to make a more definitive recommendation. QUESTION: Separate from survival outcomes, what are the neurocognitive consequences of WBRT, and what steps can be taken to minimize them? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 2: Due to neurocognitive toxicity, local therapy (surgery or SRS) without WBRT is recommended for patients with ≤4 brain metastases amenable to local therapy in terms of size and location. Level 2: Given the association of neurocognitive toxicity with increasing total dose and dose per fraction of WBRT, WBRT doses exceeding 30 Gy given in 10 fractions, or similar biologically equivalent doses, are not recommended, except in patients with poor performance status or short predicted survival. Level 2: If prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is given to prevent brain metastases for small cell lung cancer, the recommended WBRT dose/fractionation regimen is 25 Gy in 10 fractions, and because this can be associated with neurocognitive decline, patients should be told of this risk at the same time they are counseled about the possible survival benefits. Level 3: Patients having WBRT (given for either existing brain metastases or as PCI) should be offered 6 mo of memantine to potentially delay, lessen, or prevent the associated neurocognitive toxicity. QUESTION: Does the addition of WBRT after surgical resection or radiosurgery improve progression-free or overall survival outcomes when compared to surgical resection or radiosurgery alone? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 2: WBRT is not recommended in WHO performance status 0 to 2 patients with up to 4 brain metastases because, compared to surgical resection or radiosurgery alone, the addition of WBRT improves intracranial progression-free survival but not overall survival. Level 2: In WHO performance status 0 to 2 patients with up to 4 brain metastases where the goal is minimizing neurocognitive toxicity, as opposed to maximizing progression-free survival and overall survival, local therapy (surgery or radiosurgery) without WBRT is recommended. Level 3: Compared to surgical resection or radiosurgery alone, the addition of WBRT is not recommended for patients with more than 4 brain metastases unless the metastases' volume exceeds 7 cc, or there are more than 15 metastases, or the size or location of the metastases are not amenable to surgical resection or radiosurgery.The full guideline can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_3.

10.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): E201-E203, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629215

RESUMO

QUESTION: What evidence is available regarding emerging and investigational treatment options for metastatic brain tumors? TARGET POPULATION: Adult patients with brain metastases. INTERSTITIAL MODALITIES: There is insufficient evidence to make a recommendation regarding the routine use of existing local therapies, such as interstitial chemotherapy, brachytherapy, or other local modalities, aside from their use in approved clinical trials. IMMUNE MODULATORS: There is insufficient evidence to make a recommendation regarding the use of immune therapy for brain metastases. MOLECULAR TARGETED AGENTS: Level 1: The use of afatinib is not recommended in patients with brain metastasis due to breast cancer.There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations regarding: the use of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib in patients with brain metastasis due to nonsmall cell lung cancerthe use of BRAF inhibitors dabrafenib and vemurafenib in the treatment of patients with brain metastases due to metastatic melanomathe use of HER2 agents trastuzumab and lapatinib to treat patients with brain metastases due to metastatic breast cancerthe use of vascular endothelial growth factor agents bevacizumab, sunitinib, and sorafenib in the treatment of patients with solid tumor brain metastases.The full guideline can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_9.

11.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): 550-552, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Congress of Neurological Surgeons systematic review and evidence-based clinical practice parameter guidelines for the treatment of adults with metastatic brain tumors was first published in 2010. Because of the time elapsed since that publication, an update of this set of guidelines based on literature published since is now indicated. OBJECTIVE: To establish the best evidence-based management of metastatic brain tumors over all commonly used diagnostic and treatment modalities in regularly encountered clinical situations. METHODS: Literature searches regarding management of metastatic brain tumors with whole brain radiation therapy, surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy, prophylactic anticonvulsants, steroids, instances of multiple brain metastases, and emerging and investigational therapies were carried out to answer questions designed by consensus of a multidisciplinary writing group. RESULTS: Recommendations were created and their strength linked to the quality of the literature data available thus creating an evidence-based guideline. Importantly, shortcomings and biases to the literature data are brought out so as to provide guidance for future investigation and improvements in the management of patients with metastatic brain tumors. CONCLUSION: This series of guidelines was constructed to assess the most current and clinically relevant evidence for management of metastatic brain tumors. They set a benchmark regarding the current evidence base for this management while also highlighting important key areas for future basic and clinical research, particularly on those topics for which no recommendations could be formulated.The full guideline can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_1.

12.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): E180-E182, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629219

RESUMO

TARGET POPULATION: These recommendations apply to adult patients newly diagnosed with multiple (more than 1) brain metastases. QUESTION 1: In what circumstances should whole brain radiation therapy be recommended to improve tumor control and survival in patients with multiple brain metastases? RECOMMENDATION: Level 2: It is recommended that whole brain radiation therapy can be added to stereotactic radiosurgery to improve local and distant control keeping in mind the potential for worsened neurocognitive outcomes and that there is unlikely to be a significant impact on overall survival. QUESTION 2: In what circumstances should stereotactic radiosurgery be recommended to improve tumor control and survival in patients with multiple brain metastases? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 1: In patients with 2 to 3 brain metastases not amenable to surgery, the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery to whole brain radiation therapy is not recommended to improve survival beyond that obtained with whole brain radiation therapy alone. Level 3: The use of stereotactic radiosurgery alone is recommended to improve median overall survival for patients with more than 4 metastases having a cumulative volume < 7 cc. QUESTION 3: In what circumstances should surgery be recommended to improve tumor control and survival in patients with multiple brain metastases? RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: In patients with multiple brain metastases, tumor resection is recommended in patients with lesions inducing symptoms from mass effect that can be reached without inducing new neurological deficit and who have control of their cancer outside the nervous system.The full guideline can be found at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_6.

13.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): E175-E177, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629221

RESUMO

QUESTION 1: Should patients with brain metastases receive chemotherapy in addition to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for the treatment of their brain metastases? TARGET POPULATION: This recommendation applies to adult patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases amenable to both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 1: Routine use of chemotherapy following WBRT for brain metastases is not recommended. Level 3: Routine use of WBRT plus temozolomide is recommended as a treatment for patients with triple negative breast cancer. QUESTION 2: Should patients with brain metastases receive chemotherapy in addition to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of their brain metastases? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 1: Routine use of chemotherapy following SRS is not recommended. Level 2: SRS is recommended in combination with chemotherapy to improve overall survival and progression free survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. QUESTION 3: Should patients with brain metastases receive chemotherapy alone? RECOMMENDATION: Level 1: Routine use of cytotoxic chemotherapy alone for brain metastases is not recommended as it has not been shown to increase overall survival.Please see the full-text version of this guideline (https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_5) for the target population of each recommendation.

14.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): E168-E170, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629225

RESUMO

TARGET POPULATION: These recommendations apply to adult patients with new or recurrent solitary or multiple brain metastases from solid tumors as detailed in each section. QUESTION 1: Should patients with newly diagnosed metastatic brain tumors undergo stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) compared with other treatment modalities? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 3: SRS is recommended as an alternative to surgical resection in solitary metastases when surgical resection is likely to induce new neurological deficits, and tumor volume and location are not likely to be associated with radiation-induced injury to surrounding structures. Level 3: SRS should be considered as a valid adjunctive therapy to supportive palliative care for some patients with brain metastases when it might be reasonably expected to relieve focal symptoms and improve functional quality of life in the short term if this is consistent with the overall goals of the patient. QUESTION 2: What is the role of SRS after open surgical resection of brain metastasis? RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: After open surgical resection of a solitary brain metastasis, SRS should be used to decrease local recurrence rates. QUESTION 3: What is the role of SRS alone in the management of patients with 1 to 4 brain metastases? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 3: For patients with solitary brain metastasis, SRS should be given to decrease the risk of local progression. Level 3: For patients with 2 to 4 brain metastases, SRS is recommended for local tumor control, instead of whole brain radiotherapy, when their cumulative volume is < 7 mL. QUESTION 4: What is the role of SRS alone in the management of patients with more than 4 brain metastases? RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: The use of stereotactic radiosurgery alone is recommended to improve median overall survival for patients with more than 4 metastases having a cumulative volume < 7 mL. The full guideline can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_4.

15.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): E152-E155, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629227

RESUMO

Please see the full-text version of this guideline https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_2) for the target population of each recommendation listed below. SURGERY FOR METASTATIC BRAIN TUMORS AT NEW DIAGNOSIS QUESTION: Should patients with newly diagnosed metastatic brain tumors undergo surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT)? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 1: Surgery + WBRT is recommended as first-line treatment in patients with single brain metastases with favorable performance status and limited extracranial disease to extend overall survival, median survival, and local control. Level 3: Surgery plus SRS is recommended to provide survival benefit in patients with metastatic brain tumors Level 3: Multimodal treatments including either surgery + WBRT + SRS boost or surgery + WBRT are recommended as alternatives to WBRT + SRS in terms of providing overall survival and local control benefits. SURGERY AND RADIATION FOR METASTATIC BRAIN TUMORS QUESTION: Should patients with newly diagnosed metastatic brain tumors undergo surgical resection followed by WBRT, SRS, or another combination of these modalities? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 1: Surgery + WBRT is recommended as superior treatment to WBRT alone in patients with single brain metastases. Level 3: Surgery + SRS is recommended as an alternative to treatment with SRS alone to benefit overall survival. Level 3: It is recommended that SRS alone be considered equivalent to surgery + WBRT. SURGERY FOR RECURRENT METASTATIC BRAIN TUMORS QUESTION: Should patients with recurrent metastatic brain tumors undergo surgical resection? RECOMMENDATIONS: Level 3: Craniotomy is recommended as a treatment for intracranial recurrence after initial surgery or SRS. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE AND RECURRENCE QUESTION A: Does the surgical technique (en bloc resection or piecemeal resection) affect recurrence? RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: En bloc tumor resection, as opposed to piecemeal resection, is recommended to decrease the risk of postoperative leptomeningeal disease when resecting single brain metastases. QUESTION B: Does the extent of surgical resection (gross total resection or subtotal resection) affect recurrence? RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: Gross total resection is recommended over subtotal resection in recursive partitioning analysis class I patients to improve overall survival and prolong time to recurrence. The full guideline can be found at https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_2.

16.
Neurosurgery ; 84(3): E195-E197, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629248

RESUMO

TARGET POPULATIONS: Adults with solid brain metastases who have not experienced a seizure. QUESTION 1: Do prophylactic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) decrease the risk of seizures in nonsurgical patients with brain metastases who are otherwise seizure-free? RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: Prophylactic AEDs are not recommended for patients with brain metastases who did not undergo surgical resection and are otherwise seizure-free. QUESTION 2: Do prophylactic AEDs decrease the risk of seizures in patients with brain metastases and no prior history of seizures in the postoperative setting? RECOMMENDATION: Level 3: Routine postcraniotomy AED use for seizure-free patients with brain metastases is not recommended.The full guideline can be found at: https://www.cns.org/guidelines/guidelines-treatment-adults-metastatic-brain-tumors/chapter_8.

17.
Acad Radiol ; 26(7): 974-980, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661977

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Analyze the impact of implementing a structured reporting system for primary brain tumors, the Brain Tumor Reporting and Data System, on attitudes toward radiology reports at a single institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following Institutional Review Board approval, an initial 22 question, 5 point (1-worst to 5-best), survey was sent to faculty members, house staff members, and nonphysician providers at our institution who participate in the direct care of brain tumor patients. Results were used to develop a structured reporting strategy for brain tumors which was implemented across an entire neuroradiology section in a staged approach. Nine months following structured reporting implementation, a follow-up 27 question survey was sent to the same group of providers. Keyword search of radiology reports was used to assess usage of Brain Tumor Reporting and Data System over time. RESULTS: Fifty-three brain tumor care providers responded to the initial survey and 38 to the follow-up survey. After implementing BT-RADS, respondents reported improved attitudes across multiple areas including: report consistency (4.3 vs. 3.4; p < 0.001), report ambiguity (4.2 vs. 3.2, p < 0.001), radiologist/physician communication (4.5 vs. 3.8; p < 0.001), facilitation of patient management (4.2 vs. 3.6; p = 0.003), and confidence in reports (4.3 vs. 3.5; p < 0.001). Providers were more satisfied with the BT-RADS structured reporting system (4.3 vs. 3.7; p = 0.04). Use of the reporting template progressively increased with 81% of brain tumor reports dictated using the new template by 9 months. CONCLUSION: Implementing a structured template for brain tumor imaging improves perception of radiology reports among radiologists and referring providers involved in the care of brain tumor patients.

18.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2018(12): omy095, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410775

RESUMO

The standard treatment for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma is surgical resection of tumor followed by high dose radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide. For patients who experience allergic reactions to temozolomide despite desensitization protocols, alternative therapies must be considered. In this report, we present such a patient who then received treatment with an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, erlotinib, concurrent with a tumor-treating field device, Optune. Through this combination of a targeted molecular therapy and the Optune device, the patient has been able to achieve stable disease 9 months after completing radiation.

19.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 2: 24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417117

RESUMO

Oligodendrogliomas are diffusely infiltrative gliomas defined by IDH-mutation and co-deletion of 1p/19q. They have highly variable clinical courses, with survivals ranging from 6 months to over 20 years, but little is known regarding the pathways involved with their progression or optimal markers for stratifying risk. We utilized machine-learning approaches with genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas to objectively identify molecular factors associated with clinical outcomes of oligodendroglioma and extended these findings to study signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis and clinical endpoints associated with glioma progression. Our multi-faceted computational approach uncovered key genetic alterations associated with disease progression and shorter survival in oligodendroglioma and specifically identified Notch pathway inactivation and PI3K pathway activation as the most strongly associated with MRI and pathology findings of advanced disease and poor clinical outcome. Our findings that Notch pathway inactivation and PI3K pathway activation are associated with advanced disease and survival risk will pave the way for clinically relevant markers of disease progression and therapeutic targets to improve clinical outcomes. Furthermore, our approach demonstrates the strength of machine learning and computational methods for identifying genetic events critical to disease progression in the era of big data and precision medicine.

20.
Neurosurgery ; 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) treated with surgical resection and focal postoperative radiotherapy have been associated with an increased risk of subsequent leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD). BMs with hemorrhagic and/or cystic features contain less solid components and may therefore be at higher risk for tumor spillage during resection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between hemorrhagic and cystic BMs treated with surgical resection and stereotactic radiosurgery and the risk of LMD. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four consecutive patients with a single resected BM treated with adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery from 2008 to 2016 were identified. Intracranial outcomes including LMD were calculated using the cumulative incidence model with death as a competing risk. Univariable analysis and multivariable analysis were assessed using the Fine & Gray model. Overall survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Median imaging follow-up was 14.2 mo (range 2.5-132 mo). Hemorrhagic and cystic features were present in 46 (34%) and 32 (24%) patients, respectively. The overall 12- and 24-mo cumulative incidence of LMD with death as a competing risk was 11.0 and 22.4%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, hemorrhagic features (hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, P = .015), cystic features (HR 2.34, P = .013), breast histology (HR 3.23, P = .016), and number of brain metastases >1 (HR 2.09, P = .032) were independently associated with increased risk of LMD. CONCLUSION: Hemorrhagic and cystic features were independently associated with increased risk for postoperative LMD. Patients with BMs containing these intralesion features may benefit from alternative treatment strategies to mitigate this risk.

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