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1.
Transl Oncol ; 14(4): 101029, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have previously shown an association with substantially improved survival in breast cancer and melanoma for desloratadine and loratadine users, and set out to find whether an improved survival can be seen in tumors with and without a known response to immune checkpoint therapy, such as anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1. METHODS: We investigated survival and use of six common H1-antihistamines (cetirizine, clemastine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine and loratadine) in a nation-wide cohort of all 429,198 Swedish patients with ten types of immunogenic (gastric, colorectal/anal, pancreatic, lung, breast, prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer, melanoma and Hodgkin lymphoma) and six non-immunogenic (liver, uterine, ovarian, brain/CNS, and thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) tumors diagnosed 2006-2017. Follow-up was until 2019-02-24. FINDINGS: Desloratadine use was associated with an improved survival for all immunogenic tumors, but not for the non-immunogenic ones. Loratadine use was associated with improved survival for some tumors. Use of the other antihistamines could not be shown to be consistently associated with improved survival to a statistically significant degree. INTERPRETATION: Our hypothesis is that our findings result from immune checkpoint inhibition, and we believe both desloratadine and loratadine should be tested in randomized clinical trials as treatment of immunogenic tumors, with priority given to trials of desloratadine as treatment of tumors with few therapy options and dismal prognoses, such as pancreatic cancer. If our results can be confirmed in a clinical setting, new, potentially curative, therapies could result for several tumors, including ones with dire prognoses and limited treatment options.

2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates. STUDY DESIGN: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use. RESULTS: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; Ptrend=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size. CONCLUSION: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2171-2179, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer risk among relatives of children with cancer beyond parents and siblings are limited. We have investigated the cancer risk up to the third degree of relation in families with pediatric cancer to reveal patterns of inheritance. METHODS: A single-center cohort of 757 patients with pediatric cancer was linked to the Swedish National Population Register, resulting in 16,137 relatives up to the third degree of relation. All relatives were matched to the Swedish Cancer Register, and standard incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated to define relatives at risk. RESULTS: Children and adults up to the third degree of relation had increased cancer risk, with SIRs of 1.48 (P = 0.01) and 1.07 (P < 0.01), respectively. The SIRs for first- and third-degree adult relatives were 1.22 and 1.10, respectively, but no increased risk was observed in second-degree relatives. Male relatives had a higher risk than females, especially when related to a girl and when the child had leukemia. The risk was mainly increased for lung, prostate, and gastrointestinal cancer. When excluding 29 families of children with known pathogenic germline variants, the increased risk remained. CONCLUSIONS: Relatives to children with cancer up to third degree of relation have an increased cancer risk. Known pathogenic germline variants do not explain this increased risk. IMPACT: The overall increased cancer risk among relatives of children with cancer in this population-based cohort strengthens the importance of surveillance programs for families with pediatric cancer.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of MBC identified two predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls, in three stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed SNPs with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1,380 cases and 3,620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1,026 controls was used to validate variants with P-values < 1 x 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using LD score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score (PRS) and MBC. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The GWAS identified three novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive FBC. Males in the top quintile of genetic risk had a four-fold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 x 10-30). CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic aetiology with FBC and identifying a four-fold high risk group of susceptible men.

5.
Public Health Genomics ; 23(3-4): 100-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640451

RESUMO

Swedish national breast cancer guidelines recommend that all women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) at the age of 35 years or younger should be referred to their regional oncogenetic clinic for genetic counseling and testing, regardless of family history of cancer. The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether place of residence at BC diagnosis and treating hospital were associated with the fact that not all BC patients diagnosed at ≤35 years in the southern part of Sweden have attended genetic counseling and testing. Between 2000 and 2013, 279 women in the South Swedish Health Care Region were diagnosed with BC at ≤35 years. Information regarding place of residence at BC diagnosis, treating hospital, time of registration and first meeting at the Oncogenetic Clinic in Lund, and genetic testing was collected. With a follow-up period until August 2018, 64% were registered at the clinic (60% underwent genetic testing) and 36% were not. BC patients from 2 counties and from rural settings with a population of <10,000 inhabitants were significantly less likely to be registered at the clinic. Our results suggest that place of residence at BC diagnosis and treating hospital were associated with the probability of referral for genetic counseling and testing for women diagnosed with BC at ≤35 years in the South Swedish Health Care Region. We propose, as a generalizable finding, that further educational and outreach activities within the health care system and the community may be needed to ensure that all women diagnosed with early-onset BC receive proper genetic counseling.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past decades many regions have experienced a steady increase in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Here, we report on incidence trends for subsequent primary melanoma. METHODS: In this nationwide population-based study, patients diagnosed with a first primary cutaneous melanoma reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry, were followed for up to ten years for a diagnosis of subsequent primary melanoma. Patients were grouped with patients diagnosed with first melanoma in the same decade (1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, respectively). Frequencies, incidence rates (IRs), standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for second melanomas were calculated. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. RESULTS: 54,884 patients with melanoma were included and 2,469 were diagnosed, within ten years, with subsequent melanomas. Over the five decades there was a statistically significant steady increase in the frequency, IR and SIR for second primary melanoma. For example, in the 1960s cohort, <1% (1.0 (95% CI = 0.5-1.7) and 1.1 (95% CI = 0.5-1.9) per 1,000 person-years in women and men, respectively) had second primary melanoma and this rose to 6.4% (7.5 (95% CI = 6.8-8.3) per 1,000 person-years) in the women and 7.9% (10.3 (95% CI = 9.3-11.2) per 1,000 person-years) in the men in the 2000s cohort. This rise was seen, independent of age, sex, invasiveness or site of the melanoma. Further, in patients diagnosed with a second melanoma, the frequency of those having >2 melanomas increased statistically significantly and was 0.0% in the 1960s and rose to 18.0% in the 2000s (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate and report on a rising trend for subsequent primary melanoma. Additional primary melanomas worsen the patients' survival and precautions are needed to turn this steep upgoing trend.

7.
Acta Oncol ; 59(9): 1103-1109, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As tumors maintain an inflammatory microenvironment, anti-inflammatory medication can be useful in cancer therapy. We have previously shown an association with improved survival in melanoma for use of the H1-antihistamines desloratadine and loratadine, and here we examine use of H1-antihistamines and breast cancer mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated use of the six major H1-antihistamines (cetirizine, clemastine, desloratadine, ebastine, fexofenadine and loratadine) and breast cancer-specific and overall mortality in a nation-wide register-based study of all 61,627 Swedish women diagnosed with breast cancer 2006-2013. Both peri- and post-diagnostic antihistamine use was analyzed using Cox regression models. Analyses were stratified for age and subgroup analyses based on estrogen receptor status and menopausal status were performed. RESULTS: We found a consistently improved survival of desloratadine users (HR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.81, p < .001), as well as of loratadine users (HR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.67-0.95, p = .012), relative to nonusers, regardless of patient age, menopause, estrogen receptor status or stage of the tumor, or whether breast cancer-specific or overall survival was analyzed. The survival of users of other antihistamines varied relative to non-users. CONCLUSION: Based on their safety and current use within the patient population, together with our observations, we suggest the initiation of trials of desloratadine and loratadine as treatment of breast cancer as well as studies of the mechanism behind their possible effect. Further studies on any effects of other H1-antihistamines may also be merited, as well as of H1-antihistamine use and survival in other malignancies.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245160

RESUMO

Checkpoint blockade therapies have changed the clinical management of metastatic melanoma patients considerably, showing survival benefits. Despite the clinical success, not all patients respond to treatment or they develop resistance. Although there are several treatment predictive biomarkers, understanding therapy resistance and the mechanisms of tumor immune evasion is crucial to increase the frequency of patients benefiting from treatment. The PTEN gene is thought to promote immune evasion and is frequently mutated in cancer and melanoma. Another feature of melanoma tumors that may affect the capacity of escaping T-cell recognition is melanoma cell dedifferentiation characterized by decreased expression of the microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. In this study, we have explored the role of PTEN in prognosis, therapy response, and immune escape in the context of MITF expression using immunostaining and genomic data from a large cohort of metastatic melanoma. We confirmed in our cohort that PTEN alterations promote immune evasion highlighted by decreased frequency of T-cell infiltration in such tumors, resulting in a worse patient survival. More importantly, our results suggest that dedifferentiated PTEN negative melanoma tumors have poor patient outcome, no T-cell infiltration, and transcriptional properties rendering them resistant to targeted- and immuno-therapy.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213878

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma is among the most aggressive skin cancers and it has among the highest metastatic potentials. Although surgery to remove the primary tumor is the gold standard treatment, once melanoma progresses and metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distal organs, i.e., metastatic melanoma (MM), the usual outcome is decreased survival. To improve survival rates and life span, advanced treatments have focused on the success of targeted therapies in the MAPK pathway that are based on BRAF (BRAF V600E) and MEK. The majority of patients with tumors that have higher expression of BRAF V600E show poorer prognosis than patients with a lower level of the mutated protein. Based on the molecular basis of melanoma, these findings are supported by distinct tumor phenotypes determined from differences in tumor heterogeneity and protein expression profiles. With these aspects in mind, continued challenges are to: (1) deconvolute the complexity and heterogeneity of MM; (2) identify the signaling pathways involved; and (3) determine protein expression to develop targeted therapies. Here, we provide an overview of the results from protein expression in MM and the link to disease presentation in a variety of tumor phenotypes and how these will overcome the challenges of clinical problems and suggest new promising approaches in metastatic melanoma and cancer therapy.

12.
Mol Oncol ; 14(5): 933-950, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147909

RESUMO

The presence of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment has been associated with response to immunotherapies across several cancer types, including melanoma. Despite its therapeutic relevance, characterization of the melanoma immune microenvironments remains insufficiently explored. To distinguish the immune microenvironment in a cohort of 180 metastatic melanoma clinical specimens, we developed a method using promoter CpG methylation of immune cell type-specific genes extracted from genome-wide methylation arrays. Unsupervised clustering identified three immune methylation clusters with varying levels of immune CpG methylation that are related to patient survival. Matching protein and gene expression data further corroborated the identified epigenetic characterization. Exploration of the possible immune exclusion mechanisms at play revealed likely dependency on MITF protein level and PTEN loss-of-function events for melanomas unresponsive to immunotherapies (immune-low). To understand whether melanoma tumors resemble other solid tumors in terms of immune methylation characteristics, we explored 15 different solid tumor cohorts from TCGA. Low-dimensional projection based on immune cell type-specific methylation revealed grouping of the solid tumors in line with melanoma immune methylation clusters rather than tumor types. Association of survival outcome with immune cell type-specific methylation differed across tumor and cell types. However, in melanomas immune cell type-specific methylation was associated with inferior patient survival. Exploration of the immune methylation patterns in a pan-cancer context suggested that specific immune microenvironments might occur across the cancer spectrum. Together, our findings underscore the existence of diverse immune microenvironments, which may be informative for future immunotherapeutic applications.

13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 74, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and gestational diabetes are risk factors for pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that the metabolic impact of overweight on pregnancy outcome, would be different if it was combined with a predisposition for diabetes. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of pregnancies in women with diabetes diagnosed later in life, to the outcome of pregnancies of women who did not develop diabetes. METHODS: Women in a population-based cohort who also were registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (n = 4738) were included. A predisposition for diabetes (GDM or diabetes after pregnancy) was found in 455 pregnancies. The number of pregnancies with maternal BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and without diabetes were 2466, and in 10,405 pregnancies the mother had a BMI < 25 kg/m2 without diabetes at any time. Maternal BMI, gestational length, gestational weight gain, frequency of caesarean section, infant birth weight, frequency of large for gestational age (LGA) and Apgar score were retrospectively compared. RESULTS: Pregnancies with normal maternal BMI ≤25 kg/m2, with predisposition for diabetes had a higher frequency of LGA (11.6% vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001), a higher frequency of macrosomia (28.6% vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001), and a shorter gestational length (39.7 vs. 40 weeks; p = 0.08) when compared to pregnancies in women without a predisposition for diabetes. In addition, pregnancies with both maternal predisposition for diabetes and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 there was a higher frequency of LGA (23.3% vs. 7.1%; p < 0.001), caesarean section (24.0% vs. 14.9%, p = 0.031) compared to pregnancies in women who were only overweight. A predisposition for diabetes significantly increases the risk of macrosomia (OR1.5; 95% CI 1.07-2.15; p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In pregnancy, there is an increased frequency of LGA, macrosomia and caesarean section if the woman has a predisposition for diabetes. The frequency of overweight young women is increasing, and it is urgent to identify pregnant women with a predisposition to diabetes. How to distinguish the women with the highest risk for adverse pregnancy outcome and the highest risk of future disease, remains to be studied.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 21, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038990

RESUMO

Cyclic hormonal stimulation of the breast tissue plays a significant role in breast carcinogenesis. Current risk factor models do not include direct measures of cycle characteristics although the effects of possible surrogates of cycle activity such as age at menarche and menopause, parity, and nursing time have been investigated. Future risk models should also include menstrual cycle length, regularity, number of cycles before first full-term pregnancy, and life-time number of cycles. New risk factor models for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer are proposed here. Furthermore, there is a need for more long-term, prospective studies investigating menstrual cycle characteristics as data currently available are primarily retrospective and collected at one time-point only.

15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 116, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075589

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified by the author that the age of women from the Result section was incorrectly tagged as references.

17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
18.
Nature ; 577(7791): 561-565, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942071

RESUMO

Checkpoint blockade therapies that reactivate tumour-associated T cells can induce durable tumour control and result in the long-term survival of patients with advanced cancers1. Current predictive biomarkers for therapy response include high levels of intratumour immunological activity, a high tumour mutational burden and specific characteristics of the gut microbiota2,3. Although the role of T cells in antitumour responses has thoroughly been studied, other immune cells remain insufficiently explored. Here we use clinical samples of metastatic melanomas to investigate the role of B cells in antitumour responses, and find that the co-occurrence of tumour-associated CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells is associated with improved survival, independently of other clinical variables. Immunofluorescence staining of CXCR5 and CXCL13 in combination with CD20 reveals the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures in these CD8+CD20+ tumours. We derived a gene signature associated with tertiary lymphoid structures, which predicted clinical outcomes in cohorts of patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade. Furthermore, B-cell-rich tumours were accompanied by increased levels of TCF7+ naive and/or memory T cells. This was corroborated by digital spatial-profiling data, in which T cells in tumours without tertiary lymphoid structures had a dysfunctional molecular phenotype. Our results indicate that tertiary lymphoid structures have a key role in the immune microenvironment in melanoma, by conferring distinct T cell phenotypes. Therapeutic strategies to induce the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures should be explored to improve responses to cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/imunologia , Antígenos CD20/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL13/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteômica , RNA-Seq , Receptores CXCR5/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fator 1 de Transcrição de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228582, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sun exposure in combination with skin pigmentation is the main determinant for vitamin D status. Human skin color seems to be adapted and optimized for regional sun ultraviolet (UV) intensity. However, we do not know if fair, UV-sensitive skin is a survival advantage in regions with low UV radiation. METHODS: A population-based nested case-control study of 29,518 Caucasian women, ages 25 to 64 years from Southern Sweden who responded to a questionnaire regarding risk-factors for malignant melanoma in 1990 and followed for 25 years. For each fair woman, defined as having red hair or freckles (n = 11,993), a control was randomly selected from all non-fair women from within the cohort of similar age, smoking habits, education, marital status, income, and comorbidity, i.e., 11,993 pairs. The main outcome was the difference in all-cause mortality between fair and non-fair women in a low UV milieu, defined as living in Sweden and having low-to-moderate sun exposure habits. Secondary outcomes were mortality by sun exposure, and among those non-overweight. RESULTS: In a low UV milieu, fair women were at a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk as compared to non-fair women (log rank test p = 0.04) with an 8% lower all-cause mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.92, 95% CI 0.84‒1.0), including a 59% greater risk of dying from skin cancer among fair women (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.26‒2.0). Thus, it seem that the beneficial health effect from low skin coloration outweigh the risk of skin cancer at high latitudes. CONCLUSION: In a region with low UV milieu, evolution seems to improve all-cause survival by selecting a fair skin phenotype, i.e., comprising fair women with a survival advantage.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 295-304, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Using a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (n = 883). We applied these models to genomewide association study (GWAS) data of 122 977 breast cancer patients and 105 974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpG sites (CpGs) are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62 938 CpG sites CpGs investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P less than 7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions, that have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation, and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco , Transcriptoma
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