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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879606

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) and, in particular, microRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently been associated with MS. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of all classes of sncRNAs in matching samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells, and cell-free CSF from relapsing-remitting (RRMS, n = 12 in relapse and n = 11 in remission) patients, secondary progressive (SPMS, n = 6) MS patients, and noninflammatory and inflammatory neurological disease controls (NINDC, n = 11; INDC, n = 5). We show widespread changes in miRNAs and sncRNA-derived fragments of small nuclear, nucleolar, and transfer RNAs. In CSF cells, 133 out of 133 and 115 out of 117 differentially expressed sncRNAs were increased in RRMS relapse compared to remission and RRMS compared to NINDC, respectively. In contrast, 65 out of 67 differentially expressed PBMC sncRNAs were decreased in RRMS compared to NINDC. The striking contrast between the periphery and CNS suggests that sncRNA-mediated mechanisms, including alternative splicing, RNA degradation, and mRNA translation, regulate the transcriptome of pathogenic cells primarily in the CNS target organ.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the influence of environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS) in different genetic contexts, and study if interactions between environmental factors and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes differ in magnitude according to heterozygocity and homozygocity for HLA-DRB1*15:01. METHODS: Using population-based case-control studies (6985 cases, 6569 controls), subjects with different genotypes and smoking, EBNA-1 status and adolescent Body Mass status, were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating OR with 95% CI employing logistic regression. The interaction between different genotypes and each environmental factor was evaluated on the additive scale. RESULTS: The effect of each DRB1*15:01 allele on MS risk was additive on the log-odds scale for each additional allele. Interaction between DRB1*15:01 and each assessed environmental factor was of similar magnitude regardless of the number of DRB1*15:01 alleles, although ORs were affected. When any of the environmental factors were present in DRB1*15:01 carriers without the protective A*02:01 allele, a three-way interaction occurred and rendered high ORs, especially among DRB1*15:01 homozygotes (OR 20.0, 95% CI 13.1 to 30.5 among smokers, OR 21.9, 95% CI 15.0 to 31.8 among those with elevated EBNA-1 antibody levels, and OR 44.3, 95% CI 13.5 to 145 among those who reported adolescent overweight/obesity). CONCLUSIONS: The strikingly increased MS risk among DRB*15:01 homozygotes exposed to any of the environmental factors is a further argument in favour of these factors acting on immune-related mechanisms. The data further reinforce the importance of preventive measures, in particular for those with a genetic susceptibility to MS.

3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 618110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692792

RESUMO

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is secreted by a wide range of immune cells and its downstream effects are mediated by the IL-22 receptor, which is present on non-immune cells in many organs throughout the body. IL-22 is an inflammatory mediator that conditions the tissue compartment by upregulating innate immune responses and is also a homeostatic factor that promotes tissue integrity and regeneration. Interestingly, the IL-22 system has also been linked to many T cell driven inflammatory diseases. Despite this, the downstream effects of IL-22 on the adaptive immune system has received little attention. We have reviewed the literature for experimental data that suggest IL-22 mediated effects on T cells, either transduced directly or via mediators expressed by innate immune cells or non-immune cells in response to IL-22. Collectively, the reviewed data indicate that IL-22 has a hitherto unappreciated influence on T helper cell polarization, or the secretion of signature cytokines, that is context dependent but in many cases results in a reduction of the Th1 type response and to some extent promotion of regulatory T cells. Further studies are needed that specifically address these aspects of IL-22 signaling, which can benefit the understanding and treatment of a wide range of diseases.

4.
Brain ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693538

RESUMO

The involvement of specific viral and bacterial infections as risk factors for multiple sclerosis has been studied extensively. However, whether this extends to infections in a broader sense is less clear and little is known about whether risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis is associated with other types and sites of infections, such as of the CNS. This study aims to assess if hospital-diagnosed infections by type and site before age 20 years are associated with risk of a subsequent multiple sclerosis diagnosis and whether this association is explained entirely by infectious mononucleosis, pneumonia, and CNS infections. Individuals born in Sweden between 1970-1994 were identified using the Swedish Total Population Register (n = 2,422,969). Multiple sclerosis diagnoses from age 20 years and hospital-diagnosed infections before age 20 years were identified using the Swedish National Patient Register. Risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis associated with various infections in adolescence (11-19 years) and earlier childhood (birth-10 years) was estimated using Cox regression, with adjustment for sex, parental socioeconomic position, and infection type. None of the infections by age 10 years were associated with risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis. Any infection in adolescence increased the risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.46) and remained statistically significant after exclusion of infectious mononucleosis, pneumonia, and CNS infection (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.30). CNS infection in adolescence (excluding encephalomyelitis to avoid including acute disseminated encephalitis) increased the risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.07). The increased risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis associated with viral infection in adolescence was largely explained by infectious mononucleosis. Bacterial infections in adolescence increased risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis, but the magnitude of risk reduced after excluding infectious mononucleosis, pneumonia and CNS infection (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.51). Respiratory infection in adolescence also increased risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.75), but was not statistically significant after excluding infectious mononucleosis and pneumonia. These findings suggest that a variety of serious infections in adolescence, including novel evidence for CNS infections, are risk factors for a subsequent multiple sclerosis diagnosis, further demonstrating adolescence is a critical period of susceptibility to environmental exposures that raise the risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis. Importantly, this increased risk cannot be entirely explained by infectious mononucleosis, pneumonia, or CNS infections.

5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 50: 102842, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natalizumab (NTZ) treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with increased risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of PML risk assessment on PML incidence in NTZ treated MS patients. METHODS: By using information from the population-based Swedish MS registry a retrospective cohort was established of patients treated with NTZ between 2006-2018. The effect on PML incidence before and after utilizing a risk management plan, including JC virus (JCV) serology, was analyzed. RESULTS: In December 2018, 804 PML cases associated with NTZ therapy of MS had been reported globally, including 9 cases from Sweden. The estimated PML incidence 2018 in Sweden and globally was 0.7 (0.3-1.4) and 4.15 (3.9-4.4) per 1,000 person years, respectively. In Sweden, JCV serology was introduced 2012 for PML risk assessment and the cumulative risk of PML was significantly lower 2012-2018 compared to the period 2006-2011 (p=0.042). The mean NTZ exposure time was 60.1 months (SD 37.2) in the first period (2006-2011) and 32.6 months (SD 22.0) in the second period (2012-2018). The number of patients treated with NTZ decreased, and the number of patients at increased risk of PML was 1.9 % at the end of the study period. CONCLUSION: Since 2006 the incidence of PML associated with NTZ treatment of MS has decreased in Sweden. Our findings suggest that this reduction is due to an effective adoptation and adherence to the established risk management plan that implies switching patients at increased PML risk from NTZ to other highly efficacious therapies. A less pronounced decline in PML incidence has recently been observed in France, but not globally.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Because obesity affects the cellular immune response to infections, we aimed to investigate whether high body mass index (BMI) in young adulthood and high Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) antibody levels interact with regard to MS risk. We also aimed at exploring potential 3-way interactions between BMI at age 20 years, aspects of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (high EBNA-1 antibody levels and infectious mononucleosis [IM] history, respectively) and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*15:01 allele. METHODS: Using Swedish population-based case-control studies (5,460 cases and 7,275 controls), we assessed MS risk in relation to interactions between overweight/obesity at age 20 years, IM history, EBNA-1 levels, and HLA-DRB1*15:01 status by calculating ORs with 95% CIs using logistic regression. Potential interactions were evaluated on the additive scale. RESULTS: Overweight/obesity, compared with normal weight, interacted significantly with high (>50th percentile) EBNA-1 antibody levels (attributable proportion due to interaction 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.4). The strength of the interaction increased with higher category of EBNA-1 antibody levels. Furthermore, 3-way interactions were present between HLA-DRB1*15:01, overweight/obesity at age 20 years, and each aspect of EBV infection. CONCLUSIONS: With regard to MS risk, overweight/obesity in young adulthood acts synergistically with both aspects of EBV infection, predominantly among those with a genetic susceptibility to the disease. The obese state both induces a chronic immune-mediated inflammation and affects the cellular immune response to infections, which may contribute to explain our findings.

7.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(1): 56-59, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350470

RESUMO

MS is a multifactorial disease in which a series of genetic and non-genetic, environmental factors plays a role in its etiology. In particular, HLA class II alleles, mainly HLADRB1*15:01 (HLA-DR15), increase the risk for this disease. Out of several environmental factors, and with regard to infections, EBV remains to be a strong candidate, and may synergize with HLA-DR15 thus increasing the risk for MS. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Zdimerova et al. present highly interesting experimental data using EBV infection in immune-deficient mice engrafted with human immune cells, either HLA-DR15+ or HLA-DRB1*04:01 (HLA DR4), here after denoted as HLA-DR15- . As a result of EBV infection, the viral load and CD8+ cell expansion were conspicuously higher in mice engrafted with HLA-DR15+ compared to HLA-DR15- mice; and myelin basic protein specific T cells emerged in mice engrafted with HLA-DR15 bearing cells. This study sheds light on how EBV and the class II DR15 haplotype may jointly predispose and synergize in the etiology of MS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Esclerose Múltipla , Animais , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 207, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256847

RESUMO

Autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) comprise a broad spectrum of clinical entities. The stratification of patients based on the recognized autoantigen is of great importance for therapy optimization and for concepts of pathogenicity, but for most of these patients, the actual target of their autoimmune response is unknown. Here we investigated oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMGP) as autoimmune target, because OMGP is expressed specifically in the CNS and there on oligodendrocytes and neurons. Using a stringent cell-based assay, we detected autoantibodies to OMGP in serum of 8/352 patients with multiple sclerosis, 1/28 children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and unexpectedly, also in one patient with psychosis, but in none of 114 healthy controls. Since OMGP is GPI-anchored, we validated its recognition also in GPI-anchored form. The autoantibodies to OMGP were largely IgG1 with a contribution of IgG4, indicating cognate T cell help. We found high levels of soluble OMGP in human spinal fluid, presumably due to shedding of the GPI-linked OMGP. Analyzing the pathogenic relevance of autoimmunity to OMGP in an animal model, we found that OMGP-specific T cells induce a novel type of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis dominated by meningitis above the cortical convexities. This unusual localization may be directed by intrathecal uptake and presentation of OMGP by meningeal phagocytes. Together, OMGP-directed autoimmunity provides a new element of heterogeneity, helping to improve the stratification of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

9.
Front Neurol ; 11: 600401, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304315

RESUMO

An increasing body of evidence associates low vitamin D levels with increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), suggesting the possibility of a gene-environment interaction for this environmental factor in MS pathogenesis. Moreover, it has been shown that vitamin D downregulates major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. We here report about the impact of a dietary vitamin D supplementation on EAE in the rat strains having functionally relevant allelic variations in the CIITA (Mhc2ta) gene, a master regulator of MHC class II expression. Full length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-EAE was induced in DA.PVGav1-Vra4 congenic rats harboring the Vra4 locus from PVG strain in the EAE- susceptible DA background, and compared to the parental strains. The congenic rats fed with either vitamin D supplemented, deprived or regular diet developed an intermediate clinical EAE phenotype, in contrast to DA and PVG strains. Immunopathological studies revealed vitamin D dose-dependent effect on demyelination and inflammatory infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS), expression of MHC class II and CIITA, as well as downregulation of a range of pro-inflammatory genes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate an impact of vitamin D on the target tissue pathology and peripheral immune response during EAE in DA.PVGav1-Vra4 congenic strain. Thereby, our data provide evidence of a modulatory effect of vitamin D in context of genetic variances in the Vra4 locus/Mhc2ta gene in MS-like neuroinflammation, with potential relevance for the human demyelinating disease.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22383, 2020 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361796

RESUMO

Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is a feature of various neurological disorders. Here we found that the BBB is differently affected during the preclinical, progression and remission phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We have identified an upregulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors in the BBB transcriptome and down-regulation of endothelial tight junction members coinciding with elevated BBB leakage specifically during the progression phase. These changes were antagonized by blocking PDGFRα signaling with the small tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib. Moreover, targeting the PDGFRα ligand PDGF-CC using a neutralizing antibody, facilitated recovery of BBB integrity and improvement of EAE symptoms. Intracerebroventricular injection of PDGF-CC induced upregulation, whereas blocking PDGF-CC during EAE led to downregulation of Tnfa and Il1a at the BBB. Our findings suggest that blocking PDGF-CC counteracts fundamental aspects of endothelial cell activation and disruption of the BBB by decreasing Tnfa and Il1a expression. We also demonstrate that both PDGF-CC and its receptor PDGFRα were upregulated in MS lesions indicating that blocking PDGF-CC may be considered a novel treatment for MS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Linfocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1alfa/genética , Interleucina-1alfa/imunologia , Linfocinas/genética , Linfocinas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215319

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A substantial proportion of amyloid-ß (Aß)+ patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are tau PET-negative, while some clinically diagnosed non-AD neurodegenerative disorder (non-AD) patients or cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects are tau PET-positive. We investigated which demographic, clinical, genetic, and imaging variables contributed to tau PET status. METHODS: We included 2338 participants (430 Aß+ AD dementia, 381 Aß+ MCI, 370 non-AD, and 1157 CU) who underwent [18F]flortaucipir (n = 1944) or [18F]RO948 (n = 719) PET. Tau PET positivity was determined in the entorhinal cortex, temporal meta-ROI, and Braak V-VI regions using previously established cutoffs. We performed bivariate binary logistic regression models with tau PET status (positive/negative) as dependent variable and age, sex, APOEε4, Aß status (only in CU and non-AD analyses), MMSE, global white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and AD-signature cortical thickness as predictors. Additionally, we performed multivariable binary logistic regression models to account for all other predictors in the same model. RESULTS: Tau PET positivity in the temporal meta-ROI was 88.6% for AD dementia, 46.5% for MCI, 9.5% for non-AD, and 6.1% for CU. Among Aß+ participants with AD dementia and MCI, lower age, MMSE score, and AD-signature cortical thickness showed the strongest associations with tau PET positivity. In non-AD and CU participants, presence of Aß was the strongest predictor of a positive tau PET scan. CONCLUSION: We identified several demographic, clinical, and neurobiological factors that are important to explain the variance in tau PET retention observed across the AD pathological continuum, non-AD neurodegenerative disorders, and cognitively unimpaired persons.

12.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 298, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upon treatment with biopharmaceuticals, the immune system may produce anti-drug antibodies (ADA) that inhibit the therapy. Up to 40% of multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon ß (IFNß) develop ADA, for which a genetic predisposition exists. Here, we present a genome-wide association study on ADA and predict the occurrence of antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients treated with different interferon ß preparations. METHODS: We analyzed a large sample of 2757 genotyped and imputed patients from two cohorts (Sweden and Germany), split between a discovery and a replication dataset. Binding ADA (bADA) levels were measured by capture-ELISA, neutralizing ADA (nADA) titers using a bioassay. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted stratified by cohort and treatment preparation, followed by fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Binding ADA levels and nADA titers were correlated and showed a significant heritability (47% and 50%, respectively). The risk factors differed strongly by treatment preparation: The top-associated and replicated variants for nADA presence were the HLA-associated variants rs77278603 in IFNß-1a s.c.- (odds ratio (OR) = 3.55 (95% confidence interval = 2.81-4.48), p = 2.1 × 10-26) and rs28366299 in IFNß-1b s.c.-treated patients (OR = 3.56 (2.69-4.72), p = 6.6 × 10-19). The rs77278603-correlated HLA haplotype DR15-DQ6 conferred risk specifically for IFNß-1a s.c. (OR = 2.88 (2.29-3.61), p = 7.4 × 10-20) while DR3-DQ2 was protective (OR = 0.37 (0.27-0.52), p = 3.7 × 10-09). The haplotype DR4-DQ3 was the major risk haplotype for IFNß-1b s.c. (OR = 7.35 (4.33-12.47), p = 1.5 × 10-13). These haplotypes exhibit large population-specific frequency differences. The best prediction models were achieved for ADA in IFNß-1a s.c.-treated patients. Here, the prediction in the Swedish cohort showed AUC = 0.91 (0.85-0.95), sensitivity = 0.78, and specificity = 0.90; patients with the top 30% of genetic risk had, compared to patients in the bottom 30%, an OR = 73.9 (11.8-463.6, p = 4.4 × 10-6) of developing nADA. In the German cohort, the AUC of the same model was 0.83 (0.71-0.92), sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.76, with an OR = 13.8 (3.0-63.3, p = 7.5 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: We identified several HLA-associated genetic risk factors for ADA against interferon ß, which were specific for treatment preparations and population backgrounds. Genetic prediction models could robustly identify patients at risk for developing ADA and might be used for personalized therapy recommendations and stratified ADA screening in clinical practice. These analyses serve as a roadmap for genetic characterizations of ADA against other biopharmaceutical compounds.

13.
Front Neurol ; 11: 993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013655

RESUMO

Murine models have demonstrated that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is associated with pain-like behavior in peripheral nerve injury, however, the same association has not been shown when considering injury to the central nervous system (CNS), which more closely mimics the damage to the CNS experienced by MS patients. Previous research has indicated the DQB1*03:02 allele of the class II HLA genes as being associated with development of neuropathic pain in persons undergoing inguinal hernia surgery or with lumbar spinal disk herniation. Whether this HLA allele plays a part in susceptibility to pain, has not, as far as we are aware, been previously investigated. This study utilizes information on DQB1*03:02 alleles as part of the EIMS, GEMS, and IMSE studies in Sweden. It also uses register data for 3,877 MS patients, and 4,548 matched comparators without MS, to assess whether the DQB1*03:02 allele is associated with prescribed pain medication use, and whether associations with this genotype differ depending on MS status. Our results showed no association between the DQB1*03:02 genotype and pain medication in MS patients, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.02 (95% CI 0.85-1.24). In contrast, there was a statistically significant association of low magnitude in individuals without MS [adjusted OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03-1.35)], which provides support for HLA influence on susceptibility to pain in the general population. Additionally, the effect of zygosity was evident for the non-MS cohort, but not among MS patients, suggesting the DQB1*03:02 allele effect is modified by the presence of MS.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use the case-only gene-environment (G [Formula: see text] E) interaction study design to estimate interaction between pregnancy before onset of MS symptoms and established genetic risk factors for MS among White adult females. METHODS: We studied 2,497 female MS cases from 4 cohorts in the United States, Sweden, and Norway with clinical, reproductive, and genetic data. Pregnancy exposure was defined in 2 ways: (1) [Formula: see text] live birth pregnancy before onset of MS symptoms and (2) parity before onset of MS symptoms. We estimated interaction between pregnancy exposure and established genetic risk variants, including a weighted genetic risk score and both HLA and non-HLA variants, using logistic regression and proportional odds regression within each cohort. Within-cohort associations were combined using inverse variance meta-analyses with random effects. The case-only G × E independence assumption was tested in 7,067 individuals without MS. RESULTS: Evidence for interaction between pregnancy exposure and established genetic risk variants, including the strongly associated HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele and a weighted genetic risk score, was not observed. Results from sensitivity analyses were consistent with observed results. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that pregnancy before symptom onset does not modify the risk of MS in genetically susceptible White females.

15.
Sci Immunol ; 5(52)2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067381

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of incurable progressive disability in young adults caused by inflammation and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). The capacity of microglia to clear tissue debris is essential for maintaining and restoring CNS homeostasis. This capacity diminishes with age, and age strongly associates with MS disease progression, although the underlying mechanisms are still largely elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the recovery from CNS inflammation in a murine model of MS is dependent on the ability of microglia to clear tissue debris. Microglia-specific deletion of the autophagy regulator Atg7, but not the canonical macroautophagy protein Ulk1, led to increased intracellular accumulation of phagocytosed myelin and progressive MS-like disease. This impairment correlated with a microglial phenotype previously associated with neurodegenerative pathologies. Moreover, Atg7-deficient microglia showed notable transcriptional and functional similarities to microglia from aged wild-type mice that were also unable to clear myelin and recover from disease. In contrast, induction of autophagy in aged mice using the disaccharide trehalose found in plants and fungi led to functional myelin clearance and disease remission. Our results demonstrate that a noncanonical form of autophagy in microglia is responsible for myelin degradation and clearance leading to recovery from MS-like disease and that boosting this process has a therapeutic potential for age-related neuroinflammatory conditions.

16.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1009199, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104735

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are central to the host defence against viruses and other microorganisms. If not properly regulated, IFNs may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune, or infectious diseases. To identify genetic polymorphisms regulating the IFN system we performed an unbiased genome-wide protein-quantitative trait loci (pQTL) mapping of cell-type specific type I and type II IFN receptor levels and their responses in immune cells from 303 healthy individuals. Seven genome-wide significant (p < 5.0E-8) pQTLs were identified. Two independent SNPs that tagged the multiple sclerosis (MS)-protective HLA class I alleles A*02/A*68 and B*44, respectively, were associated with increased levels of IFNAR2 in B and T cells, with the most prominent effect in IgD-CD27+ memory B cells. The increased IFNAR2 levels in B cells were replicated in cells from an independent set of healthy individuals and in MS patients. Despite increased IFNAR2 levels, B and T cells carrying the MS-protective alleles displayed a reduced response to type I IFN stimulation. Expression and methylation-QTL analysis demonstrated increased mRNA expression of the pseudogene HLA-J in B cells carrying the MS-protective class I alleles, possibly driven via methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation. Together these data suggest that the MS-protective effects of HLA class I alleles are unrelated to their antigen-presenting function, and propose a previously unappreciated function of type I IFN signalling in B and T cells in MS immune-pathogenesis.

17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 46: 102438, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 TOWER core study (NCT00751881), the efficacy and safety of teriflunomide compared with placebo were demonstrated in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). Here, the long-term safety and efficacy outcomes from the TOWER extension study (NCT00751881) are reported. METHODS: All patients who entered the extension (N = 751) were assigned to teriflunomide 14 mg and assessed for long-term safety and efficacy. RESULTS: Of 751 patients in the TOWER extension study, 253, 265, and 233 patients received placebo/teriflunomide 14 mg, teriflunomide 7 mg/14 mg, and teriflunomide 14 mg/14 mg, respectively. Median teriflunomide exposure was 4.25 years (maximum 6.3 years). The overall frequency of adverse events (AEs) was comparable across treatment groups, but a higher proportion of patients in the teriflunomide 7 mg/14 mg (12.4%) and 14 mg/14 mg (12.4%) groups had serious AEs compared with the placebo/teriflunomide 14 mg group (6.4%). Alanine aminotransferase increase and hair thinning occurred at a higher frequency in the placebo/teriflunomide 14 mg group (11.2% and 14.3%, respectively) compared with the teriflunomide 7 mg/14 mg (3.0% and 4.5%, respectively) and 14 mg/14 mg groups (5.2% and 4.3%, respectively). The incidences of AEs of interest (hematologic and hepatic effects, peripheral neuropathy, hypertension, and malignancy) were low and comparable across treatment arms. Disability worsening and adjusted annualized relapse rates were low and stable over time, and mean Expanded Disability Status Scale scores were unchanged over time, for all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: In the TOWER extension study, the efficacy of teriflunomide 14 mg was maintained in patients with RMS. No new or unexpected AEs were observed with teriflunomide treatment, supporting a safety profile in the extension that was consistent with the core trial. These findings support the positive benefit:risk profile of teriflunomide as a long-term immunomodulatory therapy.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10960, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620875

RESUMO

It is unclear whether smoking interacts with different aspects of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with regard to multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We aimed to investigate whether smoking acts synergistically with elevated EBNA-1 antibody levels or infectious mononucleosis (IM) history regarding MS risk. Two Swedish population-based case-control studies were used (6,340 cases and 6,219 matched controls). Subjects with different smoking, EBNA-1 and IM status were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) employing logistic regression. Potential interaction on the additive scale was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). Current and past smokers had higher EBNA-1 antibody levels than never smokers (p < 0.0001). There was an additive interaction between current smoking and high EBNA-1 antibody levels (AP 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4), but not between past smoking and high EBNA-1 antibody levels (AP 0.01, 95% CI - 0.1 to 0.1), with regard to MS risk. An interaction also occurred between current smoking and IM history (AP 0.2, 95% CI 0.004-0.4), but not between past smoking and IM history (AP - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.4 to 0.3). Current smoking increases EBNA-1 antibody levels and acts synergistically with both aspects of EBV infection to increase MS risk, indicating that there is at least one pathway to disease in which both risk factors are involved.

20.
Nature ; 584(7822): 619-623, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581359

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common autoimmune disease and is highly heritable1. Here, by using a genome-wide association study of 30,234 cases and 725,172 controls from Iceland and the UK Biobank, we find 99 sequence variants at 93 loci, of which 84 variants are previously unreported2-7. A low-frequency (1.36%) intronic variant in FLT3 (rs76428106-C) has the largest effect on risk of autoimmune thyroid disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, P = 2.37 × 10-24). rs76428106-C is also associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 1.90, P = 6.46 × 10-4), rheumatoid factor and/or anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.41, P = 4.31 × 10-4) and coeliac disease (OR = 1.62, P = 1.20 × 10-4). FLT3 encodes fms-related tyrosine kinase 3, a receptor that regulates haematopoietic progenitor and dendritic cells. RNA sequencing revealed that rs76428106-C generates a cryptic splice site, which introduces a stop codon in 30% of transcripts that are predicted to encode a truncated protein, which lacks its tyrosine kinase domains. Each copy of rs76428106-C doubles the plasma levels of the FTL3 ligand. Activating somatic mutations in FLT3 are associated with acute myeloid leukaemia8 with a poor prognosis and rs76428106-C also predisposes individuals to acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.90, P = 5.40 × 10-3). Thus, a predicted loss-of-function germline mutation in FLT3 causes a reduction in full-length FLT3, with a compensatory increase in the levels of its ligand and an increased disease risk, similar to that of a gain-of-function mutation.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Ligantes , Mutação , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo , Alelos , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Islândia , Íntrons/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação com Perda de Função , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Reino Unido
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