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1.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(28): 2820-2825, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Among Nigerian women, breast cancer is diagnosed at later stages, is more frequently triple-negative disease, and is far more frequently fatal than in Europe or the United States. We evaluated the contribution of an inherited predisposition to breast cancer in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases were 1,136 women with invasive breast cancer (mean age at diagnosis, 47.5 ± 11.5 years) ascertained in Ibadan, Nigeria. Patients were selected regardless of age at diagnosis, family history, or prior genetic testing. Controls were 997 women without cancer (mean age at interview, 47.0 ± 12.4 years) from the same communities. BROCA panel sequencing was used to identify loss-of-function mutations in known and candidate breast cancer genes. RESULTS: Of 577 patients with information on tumor stage, 86.1% (497) were diagnosed at stage III (241) or IV (256). Of 290 patients with information on tumor hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, 45.9% (133) had triple-negative breast cancer. Among all cases, 14.7% (167 of 1,136) carried a loss-of-function mutation in a breast cancer gene: 7.0% in BRCA1, 4.1% in BRCA2, 1.0% in PALB2, 0.4% in TP53, and 2.1% in any of 10 other genes. Odds ratios were 23.4 (95% CI, 7.4 to 73.9) for BRCA1 and 10.3 (95% CI, 3.7 to 28.5) for BRCA2. Risks were also significantly associated with PALB2 (11 cases, zero controls; P = .002) and TP53 (five cases, zero controls; P = .036). Compared with other patients, BRCA1 mutation carriers were younger ( P < .001) and more likely to have triple-negative breast cancer ( P = .028). CONCLUSION: Among Nigerian women, one in eight cases of invasive breast cancer is a result of inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, or TP53, and breast cancer risks associated with these genes are extremely high. Given limited resources, prevention and early detection services should be especially focused on these highest-risk women.

2.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 17(6): 526-30, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24095629

RESUMO

The importance of hormone receptor status in assigning treatment and the potential use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have made it beneficial for laboratories to improve detection techniques. Because interlaboratory variability in immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests may also affect studies of breast cancer subtypes in different countries, we undertook a Web-based quality improvement training and a comparative study of accuracy of immunohistochemical tests of breast cancer biomarkers between a well-established laboratory in the United States (University of Chicago) and a field laboratory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty-two breast tumor blocks were evaluated for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and HER2 status at both laboratories using tissue microarray technique. Initially, concordance analysis revealed κ scores of 0.42 (moderate agreement) for ER, 0.41 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.39 (fair agreement) for HER2 between the 2 laboratories. Antigen retrieval techniques and scoring methods were identified as important reasons for discrepancy. Web-based conferences using Web conferencing tools such as Skype and WebEx were then held periodically to discuss IHC staining protocols and standard scoring systems and to resolve discrepant cases. After quality assurance and training, the agreement improved to 0.64 (substantial agreement) for ER, 0.60 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.75 (substantial agreement) for HER2. We found Web-based conferences and digital microscopy useful and cost-effective tools for quality assurance of IHC, consultation, and collaboration between distant laboratories. Quality improvement exercises in testing of tumor biomarkers will reduce misclassification in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer subtypes and provide much needed capacity building in resource-poor countries.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Patologia/educação , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Internet , Laboratórios/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Patologia/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Estados Unidos
3.
Niger Med J ; 54(2): 123-8, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23798799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases (BM) occur in up to one-fifth of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Imaging plays a key role in diagnosis. The pattern and distribution of these changes are also crucial to their management. These patterns have not been fully studied in Nigerian women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the findings on the cranial Computed Tomography (CT) scans performed in 59 breast cancer patients with suspected BM treated at the University Teaching Hospital in Ibadan, between 2005 and 2010. The imaging features were evaluated in relation to their clinical characteristics. RESULTS: In the 59 patients studied (mean age 50.9 years ± 11.75 SD), headache (40.7%) and hemiparesis/hemiplegia (16.9%) were the commonest clinical presentation. Lytic skull lesions were seen in 15 patients (25.4%), most commonly in the parietal bones. Thirty-nine patients (66.1%), had parenchymal brain lesions, and only 8 (20.5%) of these were single lesions. Most of the lesions were isodense (19/39; 51.4%) the parietal lobe was the most common site with 50.8% (30/59) occurrence and the leptomeninges the least with 13.6% (8/59). Orbital or sellar region involvement occurred in only two patients. The size of the lesions, was <2 cm in 17 (28.8%), 2-5 cm in 14 (23.7%) and >5 cm in 5 patients. Sixteen (27.1%) patients were free of any lesion either in the skull or brain. Patient presenting with multiple brain lesions were more likely to have skull lesions though this was not statistically significant (P = 0.584). CONCLUSION: The brain continues to be a sanctuary site for breast cancer metastases and CT imaging remains an invaluable tool in the clinical evaluation and therapeutic management of Nigerian women with BM from MBC. It also appears that the demographic and imaging findings in these patients are similar to other racial groups.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 13: 40, 2013 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23324312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammography has been used in developed countries with considerable success but very little is known about this imaging modality in low resource settings. This study examined the level of awareness of mammography and determined factors influencing the level of awareness. METHODS: We conducted a hospital based cross sectional study to investigate the level of awareness of mammography among 818 randomly selected women attending the General Outpatient clinics (GOP) of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Independent predictors of level of awareness of mammography were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The proportion of women who ever heard of mammography was 5%, and they demonstrated poor knowledge of the procedure. Those with primary or secondary levels of education were about three times less likely to be aware of mammography when compared with those with tertiary level of education (OR = 0.3, 95% CI, 0.12 - 0.73). Also, participation in community breast cancer prevention activities (OR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.39 - 8.36), and previous clinical breast examination (OR = 2.34, 95% CI, 1.10 - 4.96) independently predicted mammography awareness. Newspapers and magazines appeared to be the most important sources of information about mammography screening. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of mammography is poor among women attending outpatient clinics in the studied population. Interventions promoting awareness of this screening procedure should give particular attention to the illiterate and older women while clinicians performing breast examinations should utilize the opportunity to inform women about the mammography procedure. Promotion of educational articles on breast cancer and its screening methods via media remains vital for the literate.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Conscientização , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Autoexame de Mama , Meios de Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Oral Maxillofac Pathol ; 17(3): 329-33, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24574647

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Langerhans cells (LCs) are a unique population of antigen processing cells in the epidermis and mucous membrane, which may play a role in the defence mechanism against epithelial tumors. AIMS: To compare the distribution of LCs in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium; and to determine whether the population of LCs in OSCC has any correlation with histological grading of these malignancies. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional immunohistochemical analysis of OSCC cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight randomly selected paraffin tissue blocks of OSCC cases and 30 cases of normal oral epithelium were included. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the OSCC cases were reviewed and categorized as high-grade malignant tumors or low-grade malignant tumors. Tissue sections were analyzed for density of LCs using CD1a antibody expression. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data are expressed as percentages compared by Chi-square statistics; mean ± standard deviation, compared by Mann-Whitney-U test and Spearman's correlation tests. RESULTS: LCs population was significantly higher in normal oral epithelium when compared with OSCC cases (P = 0.001). There was also a significant difference in the number of LCs per millimetre square area of tissue section between well-differentiated tumors and poorly-differentiated tumours (P = 0.03). There was a negative correlation between the population density of LCs and the grade of OSCC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that oral mucosal LCs are involved in immune-surveillance and immunologic impairment may characterize invasive OSCC. In addition, LCs density characterizes histological grades of OSCC, which may be of a prognostic value.

6.
Head Face Med ; 7: 9, 2011 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21569492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This retrospective study analysed head and neck malignancies seen over a 19-year period at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. METHODOLOGY: One thousand, one hundred and ninety two patients with head and neck malignancies were analysed according to age, gender, topography and histology. RESULTS: There was an annual hospital frequency of 62 cases per year. The overall mean age for these malignancies was 43.9 (SD ± 19.3) years. The lesions from the respiratory tract were the most frequent (43.2%) of all cases. The palate was the most frequent intra-oral site (13.8%). Epithelial malignancies constituted 73.4% of all cases with a male: female ratio of 2:1, a mean age of 48.1 (SD ± 17.5) years and were mostly located in the larynx (19.7%). Lymphomas constituted 17.5% of all head and neck cancers with a male: female ratio of 1.6:1, a mean age of 35.1 (SD ± 20.6) years and nodal involvement (39.7%) was most common. Sarcomas constituted 8.9% of all malignancies with a male: female ratio of 1.5:1, mean age of 27.1 (SD ± 16.7) years and the maxillofacial bones (42.5%) were most commonly involved. Neuroendocrine malignancies accounted for 0.2% of head and neck malignancies with a male: female ratio of 1:1, a mean age of 28.5 (SD ± 6.4) years and both cases involved the nose. CONCLUSION: This study has further confirmed that carcinomas remain the most frequent cancers of the head and neck region in south-western Nigeria.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Head Neck Oncol ; 2: 33, 2010 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21044352

RESUMO

This is a retrospective analysis of poorly-differentiated head and neck malignancies at University College Hospital, Ibadan. Eighty-six poorly-differentiated neoplasms were categorized as carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas or neuroendocrine cancers with a panel of 7 antibodies (cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin, desmin, myogenin, leukocyte common antigen and neuron-specific enolase). Immunohistochemical and original hematoxylin-eosin diagnoses were contrasted.The male: female ratio was 2.5:1, with mean age of 38.9 years. Nasopharynx, nose and maxillofacial bones were the most common locations. Immunohistochemistry confirmed 54.8% of carcinomas, 70.6% of sarcomas and 80% of lymphomas.Hematoxylin-eosin was able to distinguish between sarcoma and lymphoma but differentiation between a carcinoma and neuroendocrine lesion was poor. Further studies are required to maximize the role of immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool in the West African sub-region.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfoma/metabolismo , Sarcoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Carcinoma/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Masculino , Nigéria , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Indian J Dent Res ; 21(2): 292-4, 2010 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20657103

RESUMO

Congenital epulis of the newborn is a very rare and unique tumor first described in 1871 by Neuman. It has a female predilection. It is a tumor with no tendency to recur after excision. The histogenesis of the lesion is unknown, but it is believed to be of mesenchymal origin. We report a 2-day-old female with tumor mass on the anterior mandibular alveolar ridge, which demonstrated immunoreactivity for vimentin, S-100 and neuron-specific enolase; thus, suggesting a similar histogenesis with granular cell tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gengivais/química , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Neoplasias Gengivais/patologia , Neoplasias Gengivais/cirurgia , Tumor de Células Granulares/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Recém-Nascido , Mandíbula , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/análise , Proteínas S100/análise , Vimentina/análise
9.
J Med Case Rep ; 4: 31, 2010 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20205879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lymphocytic colitis is an uncommon intestinal disorder that presents with chronic diarrhoea. It is treatable, but in the developing world, its diagnosis may often prove difficult. Data and reports of this condition in Africa are scarce because most medical centres lack a functional gastrointestinal endoscopy unit that would aid in the diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 53-year-old Nigerian woman with pathogen-negative chronic diarrhoea and a family history of chronic diarrhoea. She responded well to treatment after colonoscopy and colonic biopsy successfully diagnosed her illness. CONCLUSION: Referral of patients with pathogen-negative chronic diarrhoea to medical centres that have facilities for colonoscopy and biopsy is important in the developing world.

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