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1.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216901, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining mycobacterial burden is important in assessing severity of disease, evaluating infectiousness and predicting patient treatment outcomes. Mycobacterial burden assessed by smear microscopy grade and time to culture positivity is clearly interpretable by most physicians. GeneXpert (Xpert) has been recommended by WHO as a first line tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic test as an alternative to smear microscopy. Xpert gives cycle threshold (Ct) values as a potential measure for mycobacterial burden. For physicians to clearly interpret Ct values as measures of mycobacterial burden, this study compared the Xpert quantification capabilities with those of smear microscopy and culture. The study also determined a linear relationship between Xpert Ct values and MGIT culture time to positivity (MGIT-TTP) and associated factors. A cut off Ct value which best predicts smear positivity was also determined using the Receiver Operator Curve analysis method. RESULTS: Excluding missing results and rifampicin resistant TB cases, a moderately strong correlation of 0.55 between Xpert Ct value and smear grade was obtained. A weak correlation of 0.37 was obtained between Xpert Ct values and MGIT time to positivity while that between Xpert Ct values and LJ culture was 0.34. The Xpert Ct values were found to increase by 2.57 for every unit increase in days to positive and HIV status was significantly associated with this relationship. A cut off Ct value of 23.62 was found to best predict smear positivity regardless of HIV status. CONCLUSION: Our study findings show that GeneXpert Ct values are comparable to smear microscopy as a measure of M. tuberculosis burden and can be used to replace smear microscopy. However, given the low correlation between Xpert Ct value and culture positivity, Xpert Ct values cannot replace culture as a measure of M. tuberculosis burden among TB patients.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e022338, 2018 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with dyslipidaemias in women using hormonal contraceptives. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and eighty-four consenting women, aged 18-49 years, who had used hormonal contraceptives for at least 3 months prior to the study. STUDY OUTCOME: Dyslipidaemias (defined as derangements in lipid profile levels which included total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL, triglyceride >150 mg/dL or low-density lipoprotein ≥160 mg/dL) for which the prevalence and associated factors were obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of dyslipidaemias was 63.3% (95% CI: 58.4 to 68.1). Body mass index (BMI) (PR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.54, p<0.001) and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (PR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.42, p=0.020) were the factors significantly associated with dyslipidaemias. CONCLUSION: Dyslipidaemias were present in more than half the participants, and this puts them at risk for cardiovascular diseases. The high-risk groups were women with a BMI greater than 25 Kg/m2 and those who were on ART. Therefore, lipid profiles should be assessed in women using hormonal contraceptives in order to manage them better.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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