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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150184, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517333

RESUMO

As an environmental toxicant, the damage of fluoride to the body has attracted global attention. Because liver is an essential organ for fluoride accumulation and damage. Our previous studies revealed fluoride-induced hepatic injury through interleukin 17A (IL-17A) pathway, but the underlying cellular mechanism remains unclear. Hence, this research explored the mechanism of IL-17A pathway and mitophagy in fluoride-induced liver injury through the use of the mice fluorosis model, IL-17A addition fluorosis cell model, IL-17A gene knockout mice fluorosis model, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence double staining, ELISA, western blotting, and other techniques. The results showed that fluoride reduced the bodyweight and liver coefficient, increased the bone fluoride content, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) levels, caspase 8 and caspase 9 activities, and induced liver morphology and ultrastructure damage. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of IL-17A pathway key proteins, IL-17A, IL-17R, and Act1 were increased, but IκB was decreased after fluoride exposure. In addition, fluoride exposure elevated the mitochondrial depolarization percent, the mitochondria damage, the fluorescent spots of mitophagy, and the LC3II/LC3I protein relative expression level. To further verify the role of the IL-17A pathway in fluoride-induced hepatocyte mitochondrial damage and mitophagy disorder, the IL-17A was added and knocked out in cells of animals. The results showed that the addition of IL-17A aggravated fluoride-induced liver morphology and functional damage, activation of the IL-17A pathway, mitochondrial injury, and mitophagy, but the IL-17A knockout mitigated fluoride-induced changes. These results suggested that fluoride exposure induced mitochondrial damage and mitophagy through the IL-17A pathway in hepatocytes.

2.
Toxicol Lett ; 349: 12-29, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089816

RESUMO

The cholestatic liver injury could occur in response to a variety of diseases or xenobiotics. Although cholestasis primarily affects liver function, it has been well-known that other organs such as the kidney could be influenced in cholestatic patients. Severe cholestasis could lead to tissue fibrosis and organ failure. Unfortunately, there is no specific therapeutic option against cholestasis-induced organ injury. Hence, finding the mechanism of organ injury during cholestasis could lead to therapeutic options against this complication. The accumulation of potentially cytotoxic compounds such as hydrophobic bile acids is the most suspected mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury. A plethora of evidence indicates a role for the inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Here, the role of nuclear factor-kB (NFkB)-mediated inflammatory response is investigated in an animal model of cholestasis. Bile duct ligated (BDL) animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SSLZ, 10 and 100 mg/kg, i.p) as a potent inhibitor of NFkB signaling. The NFkB proteins family activity in the liver and kidney, serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum markers of organ injury, and the liver and kidney histopathological alterations and fibrotic changes. The oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory-related indices were monitored in the kidney and liver at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL operation). Significant increase in serum and urine markers of organ injury, besides changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue histopathology, were evident in the liver and kidney of BDL animals. The activity of NFkB proteins (p65, p50, p52, c-Rel, and RelB) was significantly increased in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. Serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23, TNF-α, and INF-γ) were also higher than sham-operated animals. Moreover, TGF- ß, α-SMA, and tissue fibrosis (Trichrome stain) were evident in cholestatic animals' liver and kidneys. It was found that SSLZ (10 and 100 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated cholestasis-induced hepatic and renal injury. The effect of SSLZ on NFkB signaling and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines could play a significant role in its protective role in cholestasis. Based on these data, NFkB signaling could receive special attention to develop therapeutic options to blunt cholestasis-induced organ injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia , Animais , Colestase/metabolismo , Colestase/patologia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Ligadura , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
3.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(7): e22795, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973313

RESUMO

The world is currently facing an unprecedented pandemic caused by a newly recognized and highly pathogenic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; induced by SARS-CoV-2 virus), which is a severe and ongoing threat to global public health. Since COVID-19 was officially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, several drug regimens have rapidly undergone clinical trials for the management of COVID-19. However, one of the major issues is drug-induced organ injury, which is a prominent clinical challenge. Unfortunately, most drugs used against COVID-19 are associated with adverse effects in different organs, such as the kidney, heart, and liver. These side effects are dangerous and, in some cases, they can be lethal. More importantly, organ injury is also a clinical manifestation of COVID-19 infection. These adverse reactions are increasingly recognized as outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, the differential diagnosis of drug-induced adverse effects from COVID-19-induced organ injury is a clinical complication. This review highlights the importance of drug-induced organ injury, its known mechanisms, and the potential therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 pharmacotherapy. We review the potential strategies for the differential diagnosis of drug-induced organ injury. This information can facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies, not only against COVID-19 but also for future outbreaks of other emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/lesões , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Inflamação , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/lesões , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/lesões , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(6): 1191-1203, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527194

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a clinical complication with different etiologies. The liver is the primary organ influenced in cholestasis. Renal injury is also a severe clinical complication in cholestatic/cirrhotic patients. Several studies mentioned the importance of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment as two mechanistically interrelated events in cholestasis-induced organ injury. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) is a flavoprotein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This molecule is involved in a distinct pathway of cell death. The current study aimed to evaluate the role of AIF in the pathophysiology of cholestasis-associated hepatic and renal injury. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used as an animal model of cholestasis. Serum, urine, and tissue samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, and 28 days after BDL surgery). Tissues' AIF mRNA levels, as well as serum, urine, and tissue activity of AIF, were measured. Moreover, markers of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were assessed in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. A significant increase in liver and kidney AIF mRNA levels, in addition to increased AIF activity in the liver, kidney, serum, and urine, was detected in BDL rats. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were raised in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals, especially at the early stage of the disease. The apoptotic mode of cell death in the liver and kidney was connected to a higher AIF level. These data mention the importance of AIF in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury, especially at the early stage of this disease. Mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) seems to play a pathogenic role in cholestasis-associated hepatic and renal injury. AIF release is directly connected to oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in cholestatic animals.

6.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(6): 1301-1314, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538845

RESUMO

Bile duct obstruction or cholestasis can occur by several diseases or xenobiotics. Cholestasis and the accumulation of the bile constituents in the liver primarily damage this organ. On the other hand, extrahepatic organs are also affected by cholestasis. The kidney is the most affected tissue during cholestatic liver injury. Cholestasis-associated renal injury is known as cholemic nephropathy (CN). Several lines of evidence specify the involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in the pathogenesis of CN. The current study aimed to assess the role of silymarin as a potent antioxidant on CN-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney. Bile duct ligated (BDL) rats were treated with silymarin (10 and 100 mg/kg, oral) for seven consecutive days. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were evident in the kidney of BDL animals. Moreover, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and total antioxidant capacity were significantly decreased in the kidney of cholestatic rats. Mitochondrial depolarization, decreased mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, mitochondrial permeabilization, and depleted ATP stores were detected in the kidney mitochondria isolated from BDL animals. Kidney histopathological alterations, as well as serum and urine levels of renal injury biomarkers, were also significantly different in the BDL group. It was found that silymarin treatment significantly ameliorated CN-induced renal injury. The antioxidant effects of silymarin and its positive impact on mitochondrial indices seem to play a significant role in its renoprotective effects during cholestasis.

8.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(5): 1908-1918, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712907

RESUMO

Lithium is abundantly administered against bipolar disorder. On the other hand, the lithium-induced renal injury is a clinical complication which commonly reveals as drug-induced diabetes insipidus. However, lithium-induced cytotoxicity might also play a role in the adverse effects of this drug on the kidney. There is no clear cellular and molecular mechanism(s) for lithium-induced nephrotoxicity. The current study was designed to assess the effect of lithium on kidney tissue oxidative stress biomarkers and mitochondrial function and its relevance to drug-induced nephrotoxicity and electrolyte imbalance. Rats were treated with lithium (lithium carbonate, 25 and 50 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 28 consecutive days). Kidney mitochondria were also isolated from rats and exposed to increasing concentrations of lithium (0.01-10 mM). Serum and urine biomarkers of kidney injury, kidney tissue markers of oxidative stress, and renal histopathological changes were assessed. Moreover, several mitochondrial indices were monitored. Lithium-induced renal injury revealed a significant increase in urine and serum biomarkers of renal impairment. Lithium caused an increase in the kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Renal glutathione (GSH) reservoirs were also depleted, and tissue antioxidant capacity decreased in lithium-treated animals. Significant tissue histopathological changes, including necrosis, Bowman capsule dilation, and interstitial inflammation, were evident in lithium-treated animals. On the other hand, significant alterations in kidney mitochondrial function were detected in lithium-treated groups. These data mention oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cellular energy crisis as the potential primary mechanisms for lithium-induced renal injury.


Assuntos
Lítio , Mitocôndrias , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lítio/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Stress ; 24(2): 213-228, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510264

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a multifaceted clinical complication. Obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) is known as an animal model to investigate cholestasis and its associated complications. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant, radical scavenger, and thiol reductant widely investigated for its cytoprotective properties. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of NAC treatment on biomarkers of oxidative stress and organ histopathological alterations in a rat model of cholestasis/cirrhosis. BDL animals were supplemented with NAC (100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p, 42 consecutive days). Biomarkers of oxidative stress in the liver, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, serum, and kidney tissue, as well as organ histopathological changes, were monitored. A significant increase in reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were detected in different tissues of BDL rats. Moreover, tissue antioxidant capacity was hampered, glutathione (GSH) reservoirs were depleted, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were significantly increased in the BDL group. Significant tissue histopathological alterations were evident in cirrhotic animals. It was found that NAC treatment (100 and 300 mg/kg, i.p) significantly mitigated biomarkers of oxidative stress and alleviated tissue histopathological changes in cirrhotic rats. These data represent NAC as a potential protective agent with therapeutic capability in cirrhosis and its associated complications.HIGHLIGHTSCholestasis is a multifaceted clinical complication that affects different organsOxidative stress plays a pivotal role in cholestasis-associated complicationsTissue antioxidant capacity is hampered in different tissues of cholestatic animalsAntioxidant therapy might play a role in the management of cholestasis-induced organ injuryNAC alleviated biomarkers of oxidative stress in cholestatic animalsNAC significantly improved tissues histopathological alterations in cholestatic rats.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Estresse Psicológico , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5487659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299871

RESUMO

Background: Treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered one of the public health priorities in the past decade. So far, probiotics have represented promising results in controlling the signs and symptoms of NAFLD. However, attempts to find the ideal probiotic strain are still ongoing. The present study is designed to find the best strain amongst suitable probiotic strains according to their ability to ameliorate histopathological and oxidative stress biomarkers in hepatic steatosis-induced rats. Methods: Initially, four probiotics species, including Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus, L. casei, L. reuteri, and Bacillus coagulans, were cultured and prepared as a lyophilized powder for animals. The experiment lasted for fifty days. Initially, hepatic steatosis was induced by excessive ingestion of D-fructose in rats for eight weeks, followed by eight weeks of administering probiotics and D-fructose concurrently. Forty-two six-week-old male rats were alienated to different groups and were supplemented with different probiotics (1∗109 CFU in 500 mL drinking water). After eight weeks, blood and liver samples were taken for further evaluation, and plasma and oxidative stress markers corresponding to liver injuries were examined. Results: Administration of probiotics over eight weeks reversed hepatic and blood triglyceride concentration and blood glucose levels. Also, probiotics significantly suppressed markers of oxidative stress in the liver tissue. Conclusions: Although some of the single probiotic formulations were able to mitigate oxidative stress markers, mixtures of probiotics significantly ameliorated more symptoms in the NAFLD animals. This enhanced effect might be due to probiotics' cumulative potential to maintain oxidative stress and deliver improved lipid profiles, liver function markers, and inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Bacillus coagulans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus reuteri , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Ração Animal , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/microbiologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Estresse Oxidativo , Pós , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Iogurte
11.
Clin Exp Hepatol ; 6(3): 207-219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145427

RESUMO

Cirrhosis-induced heart injury and cardiomyopathy is a serious consequence of this disease. It has been shown that bile duct ligated (BDL) animals could serve as an appropriate experimental model to investigate heart tissue injury in cirrhosis. The accumulation of cytotoxic chemicals (e.g., bile acids) could also adversely affect the heart tissue. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment are the most prominent mechanisms of bile acid cytotoxicity. Taurine (Tau) is the most abundant non-protein amino acid in the human body. The cardioprotective effects of this amino acid have repeatedly been investigated. In the current study, it was examined whether mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis-induced heart injury. Rats underwent BDL surgery. BDL animals received Tau (50, 100, and 500 mg/kg, i.p.) for 42 consecutive days. A significant increase in oxidative stress biomarkers was detected in the heart tissue of BDL animals. Moreover, it was found that heart tissue mitochondrial indices of functionality were deteriorated in the BDL group. Tau treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress and improved mitochondrial function in the heart tissue of cirrhotic animals. These data provide clues for the involvement of mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of heart injury in BDL rats. On the other hand, Tau supplementation could serve as an effective ancillary treatment against BDL-associated heart injury. Mitochondrial regulating and antioxidative properties of Tau might play a fundamental role in its mechanism of protective effects in the heart tissue of BDL animals.

12.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 34(12): e22594, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770858

RESUMO

The new coronavirus (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan in China, on 31 December 2019. COVID-19 is a new virus from the family of coronaviruses that can cause symptoms ranging from a simple cold to pneumonia. The virus is thought to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, as a well-known mechanism to enter the cell. It then transfers its DNA to the host in which the virus replicates the DNA. The viral infection leads to severe lack of oxygen, lung oxidative stress because of reactive oxygen species generation, and overactivation of the immune system by activating immune mediators. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the more precise mechanism(s) to manage the treatment of the disease. Regarding the mechanisms of the virus action, the suggested pharmacological and nutritional regimens have been described.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 110973, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781346

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) exerts a wide range of adverse effects on biological systems, including the reproductive organs in males and females. However, the mechanisms of As-induced reproductive toxicity are mostly obscure. Recently, we showed that autophagy is an essential route for As2O3-induced reprotoxicity through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-sperm (HPG-S) axis in pubertal and matured F1-male mice. However, the role of autophagy in As2O3- induced ovarian toxicity is mostly unknown. Hence, this study aimed to elucidate the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, and autophagic processes in the ovary of As-exposed female mice. For this purpose, mature female mice were challenged with 0, low (0.2), medium (2), and high (20 ppm) As2O3 from 35-days before mating till weaning their pups, and the F1- females from weaning until maturity. Then, all the mice were sacrificed, and oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial indices, electron microscopic evaluation of the ovaries, expression of autophagic-related genes and proteins, and autophagosome formation were assessed. It was shown that medium and high As2O3 doses were a potent inducer of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy in the ovary of F1-generation. A dose-dependent increment in the gene expression of PDK1, PI3K, TSC2, AMPK, ULK1, ATG13, Beclin1, ATG12, ATG5, LC3, P62, ATG3, ATG7, and p62, as well as protein expression of Beclin1, and LC3- I, II, was evident in the ovaries of the As-treated animals. Moreover, a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of mTOR and Bcl-2 genes, and mTOR protein was detected with increasing doses of As, suggesting that As treatment-induced autophagy. Along with a dose-dependent increase in the number of MDC-labeled autophagic vacuoles, transmission electron microscopy also confirmed more autophagosomes and injured mitochondria in medium and high As2O3 doses groups. As2O3 also negatively affected the mean body weight, litter size, organ coefficient, and stereological indices in female mice. Finally, in physiological conditions, arsenic trioxide (As2O3) leads to an increased level of autophagy in the oocyte when many oocytes were being lost. These findings indicated that an imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant system, mitochondrial impairment, and the autophagic process, through inhibition of mTOR, dependent and independent pathways, and Bcl-2, as well as activation of AMPK/PI3K/Beclin1/LC3 routes, could play a pivotal role in As-induced reproductive toxicity through ovarian dysfunction in females.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Toxicol Lett ; 326: 83-98, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112876

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) has been implicated in causing reproductive toxicity, but the precise cellular pathway through which the As toxicity in mature F1- male mice hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal- sperm (HPG-S) axis is induced has not well been documented. Hence, parental mice were treated to As2O3 (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 ppm in deionized water) from five weeks before mating until weaning, and the male pups from weaning to maturity. Afterward, the markers of oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, and autophagy as fundamental mechanisms of cytotoxicity and organ injury were evaluated. Higher As2O3 doses (2 and 20 ppm) were a potent inducer of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy in HPG-S axis. Concomitant with a dose-dependent increase in the number of MDC-labeled autophagic vacuoles in the HPG axis, an adverse dose-dependent effect was observed on the mean body weight, litter size, organ coefficient, and spermatogenesis. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed more autophagosomes at high As2O3 dosage. Concomitant with a dose-dependent increment in gene expression of PI3K, Atg5, Atg12, as well as protein expression of Beclin1, LC3- I, II, P62 in HPG axis tissues and Atg12 in the pituitary; a dose-dependent decrease in mTOR gene expression was recorded in the HPG tissues of mature F1-males. These observations provide direct evidence that oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial impairments and autophagic cell death, through AMPK/TSC/mTOR and LC3 related pathways, are fundamental mechanisms for As2O3- induced toxicity on the reproductive system in mature male mice offspring.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos
15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 198(1): 216-223, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016826

RESUMO

Fluoride exposure is associated with lowered cognitive function ability, intelligence quotient, and mental decline, especially in children. The brain insulin receptor (IR) signaling system is related to neuronal plasticity and consequent cognitive ability. In our previous study, NaF exposure decreased IR expressions in olfactory bulb (OB) and hippocampus after Y-maze test in male mice. In order to further explore whether the Y-maze test affected IR gene and protein expression levels in the OB and hippocampus under the NaF exposure, healthy male mice were randomly allotted into four groups and challenged with 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg/L NaF for three continuous months. The results showed that femur fluorine content of the NaF-exposed groups increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. NaF significantly decreased brain protein content and organ coefficient of the treated male mice. The protein and mRNA expression levels of the IR were significantly decreased in the OB and hippocampus of the NaF-treated mice. Interestingly, indicators (brain protein content and organ coefficient) measured in the present study were significantly lower than our previous study indicators (mice tested Y-maze test), especially the expression levels of IR protein and mRNA in the same concentration groups. Taken together, these results indicated that Y-maze test could promote the expression levels of IR protein and mRNA in the OB and hippocampus, while NaF had a stronger inhibitory effect, which resulted in adverse effects on the expression levels of IR in the OB and hippocampus of male mice.


Assuntos
Receptor de Insulina , Fluoreto de Sódio , Animais , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Fluoreto de Sódio/toxicidade
16.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125791, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927375

RESUMO

The gut microbial compositions are easily affected by the environmental chemicals like arsenic (As) leading to dysbiosis. The dysbiosis of gut microbiome has associated with numerous diseases; among which cancer is one of the major diseases. The meticulous mechanism underlying As- altered gut microbiome, Nucleotide domine containing protein 2 (NOD2) and how altered gut microbiome disturbs the intestinal homeostasis to regulate colon cancer markers remains unclear. For this, one hundred twenty 8-week old age male mice were divided into two exposure periods (3 and 6 months), and each exposure group animals were further divided into four groups as control (received only distilled H2O), low (0.15 mg As2O3/L), medium (1.5 mg As2O3/L) and high (15 mg As2O3/L) dose (each group containing 15 mice) administrated for 3 and 6 months. The results showed that As exposure highly altered gut microbiome with a significant depletion in NOD2 in contrast to control groups. Moreover, the dendritic cells (CD11a, CD103, CX3CR1) and macrophages (F4/80) were significantly increased by As exposure. Interestingly, increased trend of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17) and depleted anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) was observed in As exposed mice. Furthermore, the colon cancer markers ß-catenin has increased while APC was arrested by As both in 3 and 6 months treated animals. Many studies reported that As altered gut microbial compositions, in this study, our results suggested that altered gut microbiome indirectly regulates colon cancer marker through immune system destruction mediated by inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Arsênio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Animais , Arsênio/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
17.
Nutr Neurosci ; 23(9): 731-743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856059

RESUMO

Objective(s): Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element physiologically incorporated in the structure of several vital enzymes. Despite its essentiality, excessive Mn exposure is toxic with brain tissue as the primary target organ. There is no specific and clinically available therapeutic/preventive option against Mn neurotoxicity. Carnosine is a neuropeptide with several physiological roles. The neuroprotective properties of this peptide have been evaluated in different experimental models. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of carnosine supplementation and its potential mechanisms of action in an animal model of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice received Mn (100 mg/kg, s.c) alone and/or in combination with carnosine (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p). Several locomotor activity indices were monitored. Moreover, biomarkers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were assessed in the brain tissue of Mn-exposed animals. Results: Significant locomotor dysfunction was revealed in Mn-exposed animals. Furthermore, brain tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress were significantly increased, and mitochondrial indices of functionality were impaired in Mn-treated animals. It was found that carnosine supplementation (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, i.p) alleviated the Mn-induced locomotor deficit. Moreover, this peptide mitigated oxidative stress biomarkers and preserved brain tissue mitochondrial functionality in the animal model of manganism. Conclusion: These data indicate that carnosine is a potential neuroprotective agent against Mn neurotoxicity. Antioxidative and mitochondria protecting effects of carnosine might play a fundamental role in its neuroprotective properties against Mn toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Manganês/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 195(1): 125-134, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313246

RESUMO

Exposure to arsenic (AS) causes abnormalities in the reproductive system; however, the precise cellular pathway of AS toxicity on steroidogenesis in developing F1-male mice has not been clearly defined. In this study, paternal mice were treated with arsenic trioxide (As2O3; 0, 0.2, 2, and 20 ppm in drinking water) from 5 weeks before mating until weaning and continued for male offspring from weaning until maturity (in vivo). Additionally, Leydig cells (LCs) were isolated from the testes of sacrificed F1-intact mature male mice and incubated with As2O3 (0, 1, 10, and 100 µM) for 48 h (in vitro). Biomarkers of mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress, and several steroidogenic genes, including the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, cytochrome P450 side-chain cleaving enzyme (P450scc; Cyp11a), 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD), and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ß-HSD), were evaluated. High doses of As2O3 interrupted testosterone (T) biosynthesis and T-related gene expression in these experimental models. Altogether, overconsumption of As2O3 can cause testicular and LC toxicity through mitochondrial-related pathways and oxidative stress indices as well as downregulation of androgenic-related genes in mice and isolated LCs. These results could lead to the development of preventive/therapeutic procedures against As2O3-induced reproductive toxicity. Graphical Abstract Mohammad Mehdi Ommati and Reza Heidari contributed equally to this study.


Assuntos
17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/antagonistas & inibidores , Trióxido de Arsênio/farmacologia , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Trióxido de Arsênio/administração & dosagem , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 1155-1164, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872845

RESUMO

Bone is the main target of fluorosis, and it has been perfectly elaborated that a moderate dosage of calcium (Ca) can alleviate bone fluorosis. However, whether Ca can alleviate fluorosis through the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway has not yet been reported. Hence, we evaluated the histopathological structure, the imbalance of the biochemical index of bone metabolism, and the expression levels of PI3K/AKT apoptosis signaling pathway-related genes in rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF, F) and/or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) for 120 days. Our results suggest that 100 mg L-1 NaF induced histopathological injury as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (StrACP) activity increased, with a decrease in the serum Ca levels (p < 0.05). Moreover, the results of qRT-PCR and western blotting showed that F increased the expression levels of transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), PI3K, AKT, forkhead box O1 (Foxo1), Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (BIM), Bcl2-associated x protein (Bax) and Caspase 3 (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). It also decreased the expression of AnnexinA5 (Anxa5), 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) (p < 0.05, p < 0.01), which finally activated the PI3K/AKT pathway. On the other hand, CaCO3 supplementation reversed the histopathological injury along with the levels of ALP, StrACP and serum Ca, alleviating the gene expression levels of PI3K/AKT pathway-related markers. Altogether, we can conclude that CaCO3 supplementation mitigated F-induced bone damage via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Apoptose , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Intoxicação por Flúor/terapia , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 70(1): 49-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ifosfamide (IFO) is an alkylating agent administered against different types of malignancies. Several cases of renal injury and serum electrolytes disturbances have been reported in IFO-treated patients. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are suspected of being involved in the mechanism of IFO nephrotoxicity. Carnosine is a dipeptide which its antioxidant and mitochondria protecting properties have been mentioned in different experimental models. The current study aimed to evaluate the nephroprotective properties of carnosine against IFO-induced renal injury. METHODS: Rats were treated with IFO (50 mg/kg, i.p) alone or in combination with carnosine. Serum and urine biomarkers of renal injury in addition to kidney markers of oxidative stress were evaluated. Moreover, kidney mitochondria were isolated, and some mitochondrial indices were assessed. RESULTS: Elevated serum creatinine and BUN, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia, in addition, to an increase in urine glucose, protein, γ-GT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were evident in IFO-treated animals. IFO also caused an increase in kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Renal GSH levels and antioxidant capacity were also depleted with IFO therapy. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, GSH level, membrane potential, and ATP content were decreased while mitochondrial LPO and permeabilization were increased in IFO group. Carnosine (250 and 500 mg/kg, i.p) mitigated IFO-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in renal tissue. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as fundamental mechanisms of renal injury induced by IFO. On the other hand, carnosine supplementation protected kidneys against IFO-induced injury through regulating mitochondrial function and mitigating oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Ifosfamida/efeitos adversos , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Rim/citologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
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