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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(17): 2159-2170, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by multiple pathological features including myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte disarray, and interstitial fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to correlate myocardial histopathology with clinical characteristics of patients with obstructive HCM and post-operative outcomes following septal myectomy. METHODS: The authors reviewed the pathological findings of the myocardial specimens from 1,836 patients with obstructive HCM who underwent septal myectomy from 2000 to 2016. Myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte disarray, interstitial fibrosis, and endocardial thickening were graded and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at operation was 54.2 years (43.5 to 64.3 years), and 1,067 (58.1%) were men. A weak negative correlation between myocyte disarray and age at surgery was identified (ρ = -0.22; p < 0.001). Myocyte hypertrophy (p < 0.001), myocyte disarray (p < 0.001), and interstitial fibrosis (p < 0.001) were positively associated with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Interstitial fibrosis (p < 0.001) and endocardial thickening (p < 0.001) were associated with atrial fibrillation pre-operatively. In the Cox survival model, older age (p < 0.001), lower degree of myocyte hypertrophy (severe vs. mild hazard ratio: 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.86; p = 0.040), and lower degree of endocardial thickening (moderate vs. mild hazard ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.58 to 0.97; p = 0.019) were independently associated with worse post-myectomy survival. Among 256 patients who had genotype analysis, patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (n = 62) had a greater degree of myocyte disarray (42% vs. 15% vs. 20%; p = 0.022). Notably, 13 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants of HCM had no myocyte disarray. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathology was associated with clinical manifestations including the age of disease onset and arrhythmias. Myocyte hypertrophy and endocardial thickening were negatively associated with post-myectomy mortality.

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is highly prevalent in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In this study, we investigated the impact of body mass index (BMI) in patients undergoing septal myectomy (SM) for obstructive HCM. METHODS: We reviewed 2,746 patients who underwent transaortic SM for obstructive HCM from February 1993 through September 2018. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on BMI (normal weight < 25 kg/m2, overweight 25 to < 30 kg/m2, and obese ≥ 30 kg/m2). RESULTS: Preoperatively, median left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient was 58 mmHg, and there was no difference in gradients across BMI strata (P=0.35). Obese patients had lower percentage with moderate or greater mitral valve regurgitation (45.8%) compared to normal (52.9%) and overweight (55.4%) patients (P<0.001). However, patients with higher BMI were more likely to have New York Heart Association class III/IV limitation at presentation (P<0.001). After myectomy, both anteroseptal thickness (P=0.115) and LVOT gradient (P=0.210) did not differ between groups. There were 14 (0.5%) deaths < 30 days postoperatively and the risk was similar across BMI strata (P=0.448). Model-estimated changes in average BMI at 10 years post procedure showed stratum-specific increases ranging from 0.60 to 1.56 kg/m2. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 7.2 (3.2-13.3) years, higher BMI was associated with reduced survival after adjusting for baseline covariates (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Septal myectomy is safe and effective in HCM patients with obesity, but risk of late mortality increased with increasing BMI. Attention to risk factor management through weight loss may improve late results after SM.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Elongation of mitral valve leaflets is a phenotypic feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and some surgeons advocate plication of the anterior leaflet at the time of septal myectomy. The present study investigates mitral valve leaflet length and outcomes of patients undergoing septal myectomy for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We reviewed the records and echocardiograms of 564 patients who underwent transaortic septal myectomy for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy between February 2015 and April 2018. Extended septal myectomy without plication of the anterior leaflet was the standard procedure. From intraoperative prebypass transesophageal echocardiograms, we measured anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflets and their coaptation length. For comparison, we performed these mitral valve leaflet measurements in 90 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and 92 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement in the same period. Among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing septal myectomy, we assessed left ventricular outflow tract gradient relief and 1-year survival in relation to leaflet length. RESULTS: Median patient age (interquartile range) was 60.3 (50.2-67.7) years, and 54.1% were male. Concomitant mitral valve repair was performed in 36 patients (6.4%), and mitral valve replacement was performed in 8 patients (1.4%), primarily for intrinsic mitral valve disease. Patients in the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cohort had significantly longer mitral valve leaflet measurements compared with patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or aortic valve replacement (P < .001 for all 3 measurements). Preoperative resting left ventricular outflow tract gradients were not related to leaflet length (<30 mm, median 49 [21, 81.5] mm Hg vs ≥30 mm, 50.5 [21, 77] mm Hg; P = .76). Further, gradient reduction after myectomy was not related to leaflet length; patients with less than 30 mm anterior leaflet length had a median gradient reduction of 33 (69, 6) mm Hg compared with 36.5 (62, 6) mm Hg for patients with leaflet length 30 mm or more (P = .36). Anterior mitral valve leaflet length was not associated with increased 1-year mortality (P = .758). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms previous findings that patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have slight (5 mm) elongation of mitral valve leaflets. In contrast to other reports, increased anterior mitral valve leaflet length was not associated with higher left ventricular outflow tract gradients. Importantly, we found no significant relationship between anterior mitral valve leaflet length and postoperative left ventricular outflow tract resting gradients or gradient relief. Thus, in the absence of intrinsic mitral valve disease, transaortic septal myectomy with focus on extending the excision beyond the point of septal contact is sufficient for almost all patients.

6.
Echocardiography ; 38(2): 183-188, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A subset of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Practice guidelines endorse use of a risk calculator, which requires entry of left atrial (LA) diameter. However, American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) guidelines recommend the use of LA volume index (LAVI) for routine quantification of LA size. The aims of this study were to (a) develop a model to estimate LA diameter from LAVI and (b) evaluate whether substitution of measured LA diameter by estimated LA diameter derived from LAVI reclassifies HCM-SCD risk. METHODS: The study cohort was comprised of 500 randomly selected HCM patients who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). LA diameter and LAVI were measured offline using digital clips from TTE. Linear regression models were developed to estimate LA diameter from LAVI. A European Society of Cardiology endorsed equation estimated SCD risk, which was measured using LA diameter and estimated LA diameter derived from LAVI. RESULTS: The mean LAVI was 48.5 ± 18.8 mL/m2 . The derived LA diameter was 45.1 mm (SD: 5.5 mm), similar to the measured LA diameter (45.1 mm, SD: 7.1 mm). Median SCD risk at 5 years estimated by measured LA diameter was 2.22% (interquartile range (IQR): 1.39, 3.56), while median risk calculated by estimated LA diameter was 2.18% (IQR: 1.44, 3.52). 476/500 (95%) patients maintained the same risk classification regardless of whether the measured or estimated LA diameter was used. CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of measured LA diameter by estimated LA diameter in the HCM-SCD calculator did not reclassify risk.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229115

RESUMO

AIM: This executive summary of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinical practice guideline provides recommendations and algorithms for clinicians to diagnose and manage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in adult and pediatric patients as well as supporting documentation to encourage their use. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted from January 1, 2010, to April 30, 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reports, and other relevant databases. STRUCTURE: Many recommendations from the earlier hypertrophic cardiomyopathy guidelines have been updated with new evidence or a better understanding of earlier evidence. This summary operationalizes the recommendations from the full guideline and presents a combination of diagnostic work-up, genetic and family screening, risk stratification approaches, lifestyle modifications, surgical and catheter interventions, and medications that constitute components of guideline directed medical therapy. For both guideline-directed medical therapy and other recommended drug treatment regimens, the reader is advised to follow dosing, contraindications and drug-drug interactions based on product insert materials.

10.
Circulation ; : CIR0000000000000938, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215938

RESUMO

Aim This executive summary of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinical practice guideline provides recommendations and algorithms for clinicians to diagnose and manage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in adult and pediatric patients as well as supporting documentation to encourage their use. Methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted from January 1, 2010, to April 30, 2020, encompassing studies, reviews, and other evidence conducted on human subjects that were published in English from PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality reports, and other relevant databases. Structure Many recommendations from the earlier hypertrophic cardiomyopathy guidelines have been updated with new evidence or a better understanding of earlier evidence. This summary operationalizes the recommendations from the full guideline and presents a combination of diagnostic work-up, genetic and family screening, risk stratification approaches, lifestyle modifications, surgical and catheter interventions, and medications that constitute components of guideline directed medical therapy. For both guideline-directed medical therapy and other recommended drug treatment regimens, the reader is advised to follow dosing, contraindications and drug-drug interactions based on product insert materials.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the influence of early septal reduction therapy (SRT) after referral on survival in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We reviewed the patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (resting pressure gradient ≥30 mm Hg or provoked pressure gradient ≥50 mm Hg) who were evaluated at our clinic from 2000 to 2012. Early SRT was defined as undergoing septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation during the 6 months after index evaluation. Survival after the 6-month landmark period was analyzed in a multivariable Cox model. RESULTS: A total of 1351 patients were included in the landmark analysis. Patients who were more symptomatic and had received more medical treatment at index evaluation were more likely to undergo early SRT. Over a median follow-up period of 10.2 years, the survival was comparable (P = .207) but patients undergoing early SRT had, on average, improved survival compared with the medical treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.90) after adjustment by age and comorbidities. Further analysis revealed significant treatment heterogeneity, with increased benefit of early SRT seen in women (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.75), those who are in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.76), and patients without diabetes (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: In experienced hypertrophic cardiomyopathy centers, early SRT is similar to continued medical treatment for patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It appears to improve survival of female patients and those who are in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190872

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential impact of referral bias on short- and long-term outcomes following septal myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We reviewed 2303 adult patients who underwent transaortic septal myectomy for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from January 1993 to April 2016. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their permanent address: local (state) residents (n = 324), regional (surrounding 5 states) patients (n = 515), and national (outside 5 states) patients (n = 1464). RESULTS: Patient groups were similar for age, sex, preoperative New York Heart Association class, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Local patients had increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus (13%, 11%, 8%; P = .006), coronary artery disease (25%, 21%, 19%; P = .031), severe chronic lung disease (2.3%, 1.9%, 0.4%; P < .001), and atrial fibrillation (24%, 18%, 19%; P = .045) when compared with regional and national patients. Echocardiographic features did not differ between the 3 groups, including prevalence of moderate or greater mitral regurgitation (59%, 61%, 56%; P = .161). Local and regional patients were more likely to undergo concomitant procedures than national patients (P < .001). Mitral valve surgery was performed in 9.6% of the patients, more commonly in local and regional patients (12%, 12%, 8%; P = .018). There were 11 operative deaths (0.5%), and early mortality was similar among the groups. Geographic origin did not impact overall late survival. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with distant referrals, local patients who undergo septal myectomy at our institution have more comorbid conditions, and require more concomitant surgical procedures. Despite these differences, referral patterns did not impact early or late outcomes following transaortic septal myectomy.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic dilation has been associated with various cardiac conditions, although its prevalence and clinical correlates in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence of ascending aortic dilation in a large referral population of patients with HCM and determine clinical and echocardiographic correlates of aortic dilation. METHODS: 1698 patients with HCM underwent echocardiographic measurement of the tubular ascending aorta (proximal and mid-level) during index evaluation at a tertiary HCM referral center. End-diastolic ascending aorta dimension was indexed to body surface area (BSA), with dilation defined for the tubular ascending aorta as two standard deviations above mean (>19 mm/m2) and independently as greater than published age, sex, and BSA adjusted norms (for the sinus of Valsalva and mid-level). Aortic size and presence of aortic enlargement were correlated with clinical and echocardiographic parameters. RESULTS: Tubular ascending aortic dilation > 19 mm/m2 was present in 303 patients with HCM (18%) and dilation above adjusted norms was present in 210 patients with HCM (13%). The median indexed tubular ascending thoracic aortic dimension was 16.5 (IQR 14.8-18.2) mm/m2. Indexed dimension increased linearly with age (R=0.53, p<0.0001). Women and patients with a history of systemic hypertension were more likely to have tubular aortic enlargement > 19 mm/m2 (29.8% vs 9.9% and 24.1% vs 10.5%, p<0.0001 for both). Patients with obstructive physiology were more likely to have tubular aortic enlargement > 19 mm/m2 than those without resting or provocable obstruction (19.6% vs. 14.4%, p=0.007). Using adjusted norms, aortic enlargement was more frequent at the mid-level compared to the sinus of Valsalva (71% vs. 29%), more common in patients with hypertension (15.4% vs. 10.6%, p = 0.009), and more common in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (16.3% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.036), but no other relationships remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of patients with HCM, aortic dilation was common. The key correlate of tubular aortic enlargement > 19 mm/m2 and aortic enlargement greater than adjusted norms included a history of systemic hypertension. Given an increased prevalence of aortic dilation in HCM, further study is needed on the clinical impact of aortic dilation.

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical myectomy eliminates symptoms in the majority of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but dyspnea and/or angina can recur in some. This study investigates clinical features associated with a lack of clinical improvement postoperatively. METHODS: Between March 2007 and December 2012, 963 patients underwent transaortic septal myectomy at our Clinic. 601 patients received standardized follow-up questionnaires, which were answered by 409 (68.1%). We compared clinical characteristics of patients with and without improvement, and identified predictors of worsening health using a multivariable proportional odds ordinal logistic model. RESULTS: Of 409 patients, 329 (80.4%) indicated better health status at follow-up, and 80 (19.6%) responded that their health had stayed the same or worsened. The median (IQR) age of patients with perceived better health was 56.8 (47.4, 65.7) years, and those without improvement was 63.0 (50.0, 70.2) years. New York Heart Association class III/ IV dyspnea was present in 90.3% of patients who reported improvement, and 79.7% who did not. In multivariable analysis, presence of coronary artery disease (OR [95% CI]=2.76 [1.17-6.50]; P=0.020), lower preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (per IQR increase, OR [95% CI]= 0.76 [0.57 - 0.99]; P=0.047), and worse preoperative health status (e.g., poor:fair OR [95% CI]=1.63 [1.05-2.54]; P=0.004) were associated with worse health status at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Septal myectomy leads to excellent symptomatic relief in the majority of patients, and more than 80% report subjective improvement in health status. Important predictors of worsening health included coronary artery disease and poor preoperative health status.

15.
Br J Sports Med ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967852

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recommendations on physical activity (PA) for adults with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are not well established. We investigated the association of PA intensity with mortality in the general adult HCM population. METHODS: A nationwide population-based cohort of individuals with HCM who underwent health check-ups including questionnaires on PA levels were identified from the years 2009 to 2016 in the National Health Insurance Service database. Subjects who reported no PA at baseline were excluded. To estimate each individual's PA level, the PA score (PAS) was calculated based on the self-reported questionnaires, and the study population was categorised into three groups according to tertiles of PAS. The associations of PAS with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 7666 participants (mean age 59.5 years, 29.9% were women) were followed up for a mean 5.3±2.0 years. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality progressively decreased from the lowest to the highest tertiles of PA intensity: 9.1% (4.7%), 8.9% (3.8%) and 6.4% (2.7%), respectively (p-for-trend=0.0144 and 0.0023, respectively). Of note, compared with the middle PA group, the highest PA group did not have an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.78, (95% CI 0.63 to 0.95) and HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.03), respectively). All subgroup and sensitivity analyses consistently showed that all-cause and cardiovascular mortality did not increase with higher PA levels. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, in a middle-aged population of patients with HCM, was associated with progressive reduction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The impact of vigorous-intensity PA on a younger age group requires further investigation.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes after septal myectomy in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy according to atrial fibrillation and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. METHODS: We reviewed patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent septal myectomy at the Mayo Clinic from 2001 to 2016. History of atrial fibrillation was obtained from patient histories and electrocardiograms. All-cause mortality was the primary end point. RESULTS: A total of 2023 patients underwent septal myectomy, of whom 394 (19.5%) had at least 1 episode of atrial fibrillation preoperatively. Among patients with atrial fibrillation, 76 (19.3%) had only 1 known episode, 278 (70.6%) had recurrent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and 40 (10.2%) had persistent atrial fibrillation. Surgical ablation was performed in 190 patients at the time of septal myectomy, including 148 with pulmonary vein isolation and 42 with the classic maze procedure. Among all patients, operative mortality was 0.4%, and there were no early deaths in patients undergoing surgical ablation. Over a median follow-up of 5.6 years, patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation had increased mortality (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.91; P = .070) after multivariable adjustment for comorbidities. When considering the impact of atrial fibrillation with or without surgical treatment, the adjusted hazard ratio for mortality in patients undergoing ablation compared with no ablation was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.69; P = .824). CONCLUSIONS: Atrial fibrillation is present preoperatively in one-fifth of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing myectomy and showed a trend toward higher all-cause mortality. Survival of patients undergoing septal myectomy with preoperative atrial fibrillation was similar between those who did and did not receive concomitant surgical ablation.

17.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 453-459, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Missense variants in the MYH7-encoded MYH7 (beta myosin heavy chain 7) represent a leading cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). MYH7-specific American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) variant classification guidelines were released recently but have yet to be assessed independently. We set out to assess the performance of the MYH7-specific ACMG guidelines and determine if the addition of phenotype-enhanced criteria (PE-ACMG) using the HCM Genotype Predictor Score can further reduce the burden of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). METHODS: Re-assessment was performed on 70 MYH7-variants in 121 unique patients from Mayo Clinic, and an independent cohort of 54 variants in 70 patients from Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (Australia). Qualifying variants were re-adjudicated using both standard ACMG and MYH7-ACMG guidelines, and HCM Genotype Predictor Score was used to provide a validated measure of strength of clinical phenotype to be incorporated into the MYH7-ACMG framework. RESULTS: Among Mayo Clinic identified variants, 11/70 (16%) were classified as pathogenic (P), 10/70 (14%) as likely pathogenic, and 49/70 (70%) as a VUS. A similar distribution was seen in the Australian patients (12/54 [22%] P, 12/54 [22%] likely pathogenic, and 30/54 [56%] VUS; P=not significant). Application of the MYH7-ACMG resulted in a nonsignificant reduction of the VUS burden in both cohorts from 49/70 to 39/70 (56%; P=0.1; Mayo Clinic) and from 30/54 to 20/54 (37%; P=0.1; Australia). Using the combined PE-MYH7-ACMG framework, the VUS decreased significantly from 49 to 27 (P<0.001, Mayo Clinic) and from 30 to 16 (P<0.001; Australia). CONCLUSIONS: Use of the MYH7-specific guidelines alone failed to significantly decrease VUS burden in 2 independent cohorts. However, a significant reduction in VUS burden was observed after the addition of phenotypic criteria. Using a patient's strength of sarcomeric HCM phenotype for variant adjudication can increase significantly the clinical utility of genetic testing for patients with HCM.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend medications with rate control properties for symptomatic patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) based on the rationale that lowering heart rate (HR) improves their symptoms. Whether sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with increased HR in HCM patients is not known. METHOD: We diagnosed uncontrolled SDB (oxygen desaturation index ≥5) in consecutive echocardiographically confirmed HCM patients seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, and analyzed their HR as recorded by a 24-h Holter monitor. We compared mean, minimum, maximum HR between those with vs without SDB. In a pilot subanalysis of HCM patients with SDB who also underwent subsequent diagnostic polysomnography (PSG), we analyzed RR interval changes coinciding with obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea episodes. RESULTS: Of the 230 HCM patients included in this study (age 54 ± 16 years; 138 male; LVOT pressure gradient at rest 45 ± 39 mmHg), 115 (50%) patients had SDB. HCM patients with SDB were recorded to have higher mean HR (71 vs. 67 bpm; p = .002, adjusted p = .001), and this difference was most pronounced during night hours of 10 PM to 5 AM (61 vs. 67 bpm; p < .001). In the pilot analysis of the available PSG data, the release of obstructive sleep apneas and hypopneas coincided with fluctuation of HR. CONCLUSIONS: SDB is independently associated with higher mean HR in patients with HCM, and this difference is most significant during sleep. Treatment of SDB, which is readily available, should be tested as a complementary modality to the currently recommended pharmacotherapy aimed at lowering HR in patients with symptomatic HCM.

19.
Telemed J E Health ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795147

RESUMO

Immediately before the pandemic, 300 enterprise Mayo Clinic physicians and advanced practice providers had performed a minimum of one video telemedicine consult in the preceding year. By July 15, 2020, the number of Mayo Clinic providers performing video telemedicine consults had risen to >6,500, reflecting a 2,000% increase. Through this pandemic, we have witnessed unprecedented growth in telemedicine utilization. The existing telemedicine system has proven to be scalable.

20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Midventricular obstruction (MVO) is an uncommon variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In patients receiving septal myectomy for HCM, failure to recognize the concurrent MVO in the context of basal septum thickening can lead to inadequate excision and residual gradient. In this report, we detail the operative outcomes of MVO with and without coexistent basal septal hypertrophy. METHODS: From February 1997 through September 2018, 196 patients underwent midventricular myectomy. Medical records and follow-up databases were reviewed to obtain patient characteristics and perioperative features. RESULTS: At baseline, 156 (80%) patients were in New York Heart Association class III/IV. Obstruction was isolated to the mid ventricle in 80 patients; 63 (79%) were treated by isolated transapical myectomy. The remaining 116 patients had intraventricular obstruction at both subaortic and mid-cavity levels; in 108 (93%), combined transaortic and transapical approach was adopted to achieve complete relief of obstruction. After septal myectomy, the resting peak instantaneous gradient decreased from a median (IQR) of 48 (23-77) mmHg preoperatively to 8 (0-19) mmHg prior to hospital dismissal. Median (IQR) follow-up was 2.9 (0.7-5.0) years, and the estimated 1-, 5-, and 10-year survivals were 99%, 98%, and 90%. There were no late complications attributable to the transapical incision. CONCLUSIONS: Transapical exposure is a safe and effective approach for relief of midventricular obstruction, and hemodynamic results are similar to those achieved by standard myectomy for subaortic obstruction. The technique can be combined with transaortic myectomy for patients with left ventricular outflow obstruction at both levels.

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