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ACS Nano ; 13(11): 12322-12344, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246407


The goal of this work is to identify favored pathways for preparation of defect-resilient attached wurtzite CdX (X = S, Se, Te) nanocrystals. We seek guidelines for oriented attachment of faceted nanocrystals that are most likely to yield pairs of nanocrystals with either few or no electronic defects or electronic defects that are in and of themselves desirable and stable. Using a combination of in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electronic structure calculations, we evaluate the relative merits of atomic attachment of wurtzite CdSe nanocrystals on the {11̅00} or {112̅0} family of facets. Pairwise attachment on either facet can lead to perfect interfaces, provided the nanocrystal facets are perfectly flat and the angles between the nanocrystals can adjust during the assembly. Considering defective attachment, we observe for {11̅00} facet attachment that only one type of edge dislocation forms, creating deep hole traps. For {112̅0} facet attachment, we observe that four distinct types of extended defects form, some of which lead to deep hole traps whereas others only to shallow hole traps. HRTEM movies of the dislocation dynamics show that dislocations at {11̅00} interfaces can be removed, albeit slowly. Whereas only some extended defects at {112̅0} interfaces could be removed, others were trapped at the interface. Based on these insights, we identify the most resilient pathways to atomic attachment of pairs of wurtzite CdX nanocrystals and consider how these insights can translate to the creation of electronically useful materials from quantum dots with other crystal structures.

J Am Chem Soc ; 141(10): 4428-4437, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777753


Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy has the necessary temporal and spatial resolution to enable the in situ observation of nanoscale dynamics in solution. However, the chemistry of the solution in the liquid cell during imaging is as yet poorly understood due to the generation of a complex mixture of radiolysis products by the electron beam. In this work, the etching trajectories of nanocrystals were used as a probe to determine the effect of the electron beam dose rate and preloaded etchant, FeCl3, on the chemistry of the liquid cell. Initially, illuminating the sample at a low electron beam dose rate generates hydrogen bubbles, providing a reservoir of sacrificial reductant. Increasing the electron beam dose rate leads to a constant etching rate that varies linearly with the electron beam dose rate. Comparing these results with the oxidation potentials of the species in solution, the electron beam likely controls the total concentration of oxidative species in solution and FeCl3 likely controls the relative ratio of oxidative species, independently determining the etching rate and chemical potential of the reaction, respectively. Correlating these liquid cell etching results with the ex situ oxidative etching of gold nanocrystals using FeCl3 provides further insight into the liquid cell chemistry while corroborating the liquid cell dynamics with ex situ synthetic behavior. This understanding of the chemistry in the liquid cell will allow researchers to better control the liquid cell electron microscopy environment, allowing new nanoscale materials science experiments to be conducted systematically in a reproducible manner.

Nano Lett ; 18(9): 5731-5737, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107133


Mechanisms of kinetically driven nanocrystal shape transformations were elucidated by monitoring single particle etching of gold nanocrystals using in situ graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By systematically changing the chemical potential of the oxidative etching and then quantifying the facets of the nanocrystals, nonequilibrium processes of atom removal could be deduced. Etching at sufficiently high oxidation potentials, both cube and rhombic dodecahedra (RDD)-shaped gold nanocrystals transform into kinetically stable tetrahexahedra (THH)-shaped particles. Whereas {100}-faceted cubes adopt an { hk0}-faceted THH intermediate where h/ k depends on chemical potential, {110}-faceted RDD adopt a {210}-faceted THH intermediate regardless of driving force. For cube reactions, Monte Carlo simulations show that removing 6-coordinate edge atoms immediately reveals 7-coordinate interior atoms. The rate at which these 6- and 7-coordinate atoms are etched is sensitive to the chemical potential, resulting in different THH facet structures with varying driving force. Conversely, when RDD are etched to THH, removal of 6-coordinate edge atoms reveals 6-coordinate interior atoms. Thus, changing the driving force for oxidation does not change the probability of edge atom versus interior atom removal, leading to a negligible effect on the kinetically stabilized intermediate shape. These fundamental insights, facilitated by single-particle liquid-phase TEM imaging, provide important atomic-scale mechanistic details regarding the role of kinetics and chemical driving force in dictating shape transformations at the nanometer length scale.

J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(14): 4120-4124, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985006


Small polaron formation limits the mobility and lifetimes of photoexcited carriers in metal oxides. As the ligand field strength increases, the carrier mobility decreases, but the effect on the photoexcited small polaron formation is still unknown. Extreme ultraviolet transient absorption spectroscopy is employed to measure small polaron formation rates and probabilities in goethite (α-FeOOH) crystalline nanorods at pump photon energies from 2.2 to 3.1 eV. The measured polaron formation time increases with excitation photon energy from 70 ± 10 fs at 2.2 eV to 350 ± 30 fs at 2.6 eV, whereas the polaron formation probability (85 ± 10%) remains constant. By comparison to hematite (α-Fe2O3), an oxide analogue, the role of ligand composition and metal center density in small polaron formation time is discussed. This work suggests that incorporating small changes in ligands and crystal structure could enable the control of photoexcited small polaron formation in metal oxides.

J Vis Exp ; (135)2018 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863683


Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy provides the ability to observe nanoscale chemical transformations and dynamics as the reactions are occurring in liquid environments. This manuscript describes the process for making graphene liquid cells through the example of graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments of gold nanocrystal etching. The protocol for making graphene liquid cells involves coating gold, holey-carbon TEM grids with chemical vapor deposition graphene and then using those graphene-coated grids to encapsulate liquid between two graphene surfaces. These pockets of liquid, with the nanomaterial of interest, are imaged in the electron microscope to see the dynamics of the nanoscale process, in this case the oxidative etching of gold nanorods. By controlling the electron beam dose rate, which modulates the etching species in the liquid cell, the underlying mechanisms of how atoms are removed from nanocrystals to form different facets and shapes can be better understood. Graphene liquid cell TEM has the advantages of high spatial resolution, compatibility with traditional TEM holders, and low start-up costs for research groups. Current limitations include delicate sample preparation, lack of flow capability, and reliance on electron beam-generated radiolysis products to induce reactions. With further development and control, graphene liquid cell may become a ubiquitous technique in nanomaterials and biology, and is already being used to study mechanisms governing growth, etching, and self-assembly processes of nanomaterials in liquid on the single particle level.

Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotubos/química , Humanos
ACS Nano ; 12(4): 3178-3189, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470056


Using in situ high-resolution TEM, we study the structure and dynamics of well-defined edge dislocations in imperfectly attached PbTe nanocrystals. We identify that attachment of PbTe nanocrystals on both {100} and {110} facets gives rise to b = a/2⟨110⟩ edge dislocations. Based on the Burgers vector of individual dislocations, we can identify the glide plane of the dislocations. We observe that defects in particles attached on {100} facets have glide planes that quickly intersect the surface, and HRTEM movies show that the defects follow the glide plane to the surface. For {110} attached particles, the glide plane is collinear with the attachment direction, which does not provide an easy path for the dislocation to reach the surface. Indeed, HRTEM movies of dislocations for {110} attached particles show that defect removal is much slower. Further, we observe conversion from pure edge dislocations in imperfectly attached particles to dislocations with mixed edge and screw character, which has important implications for crystal growth. Finally, we observe that dislocations initially closer to the surface have a higher speed of removal, consistent with the strong dislocation free surface attractive force. Our results provide important design rules for defect-free attachment of preformed nanocrystals into epitaxial assemblies.