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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4974, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404802

RESUMO

Osteoporosis affects millions worldwide and is often caused by osteoclast induced bone loss. Here, we identify the cytoplasmic protein ELMO1 as an important 'signaling node' in osteoclasts. We note that ELMO1 SNPs associate with bone abnormalities in humans, and that ELMO1 deletion in mice reduces bone loss in four in vivo models: osteoprotegerin deficiency, ovariectomy, and two types of inflammatory arthritis. Our transcriptomic analyses coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 genetic deletion identify Elmo1 associated regulators of osteoclast function, including cathepsin G and myeloperoxidase. Further, we define the 'ELMO1 interactome' in osteoclasts via proteomics and reveal proteins required for bone degradation. ELMO1 also contributes to osteoclast sealing zone on bone-like surfaces and distribution of osteoclast-specific proteases. Finally, a 3D structure-based ELMO1 inhibitory peptide reduces bone resorption in wild type osteoclasts. Collectively, we identify ELMO1 as a signaling hub that regulates osteoclast function and bone loss, with relevance to osteoporosis and arthritis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Animais , Artrite/patologia , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoprotegerina/deficiência , Ovariectomia , Transcriptoma , Microtomografia por Raio-X
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(10): 2634-2651, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare variants in gene coding regions likely have a greater impact on disease-related phenotypes than common variants through disruption of their encoded protein. We searched for rare variants associated with onset of ESKD in individuals with type 1 diabetes at advanced kidney disease stage. METHODS: Gene-based exome array analyses of 15,449 genes in five large incidence cohorts of individuals with type 1 diabetes and proteinuria were analyzed for survival time to ESKD, testing the top gene in a sixth cohort (n=2372/1115 events all cohorts) and replicating in two retrospective case-control studies (n=1072 cases, 752 controls). Deep resequencing of the top associated gene in five cohorts confirmed the findings. We performed immunohistochemistry and gene expression experiments in human control and diseased cells, and in mouse ischemia reperfusion and aristolochic acid nephropathy models. RESULTS: Protein coding variants in the hydroxysteroid 17-ß dehydrogenase 14 gene (HSD17B14), predicted to affect protein structure, had a net protective effect against development of ESKD at exome-wide significance (n=4196; P value=3.3 × 10-7). The HSD17B14 gene and encoded enzyme were robustly expressed in healthy human kidney, maximally in proximal tubular cells. Paradoxically, gene and protein expression were attenuated in human diabetic proximal tubules and in mouse kidney injury models. Expressed HSD17B14 gene and protein levels remained low without recovery after 21 days in a murine ischemic reperfusion injury model. Decreased gene expression was found in other CKD-associated renal pathologies. CONCLUSIONS: HSD17B14 gene is mechanistically involved in diabetic kidney disease. The encoded sex steroid enzyme is a druggable target, potentially opening a new avenue for therapeutic development.

3.
Nat Genet ; 53(7): 962-971, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127860

RESUMO

We report the largest and most diverse genetic study of type 1 diabetes (T1D) to date (61,427 participants), yielding 78 genome-wide-significant (P < 5 × 10-8) regions, including 36 that are new. We define credible sets of T1D-associated variants and show that they are enriched in immune-cell accessible chromatin, particularly CD4+ effector T cells. Using chromatin-accessibility profiling of CD4+ T cells from 115 individuals, we map chromatin-accessibility quantitative trait loci and identify five regions where T1D risk variants co-localize with chromatin-accessibility quantitative trait loci. We highlight rs72928038 in BACH2 as a candidate causal T1D variant leading to decreased enhancer accessibility and BACH2 expression in T cells. Finally, we prioritize potential drug targets by integrating genetic evidence, functional genomic maps and immune protein-protein interactions, identifying 12 genes implicated in T1D that have been targeted in clinical trials for autoimmune diseases. These findings provide an expanded genomic landscape for T1D.


Assuntos
Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genômica , Autoimunidade/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3408, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099702

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for osteoporotic traits have identified over 1000 associations; however, their impact has been limited by the difficulties of causal gene identification and a strict focus on bone mineral density (BMD). Here, we use Diversity Outbred (DO) mice to directly address these limitations by performing a systems genetics analysis of 55 complex skeletal phenotypes. We apply a network approach to cortical bone RNA-seq data to discover 66 genes likely to be causal for human BMD GWAS associations, including the genes SERTAD4 and GLT8D2. We also perform GWAS in the DO for a wide-range of bone traits and identify Qsox1 as a gene influencing cortical bone accrual and bone strength. In this work, we advance our understanding of the genetics of osteoporosis and highlight the ability of the mouse to inform human genetics.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Osteoporose/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo Enxofre/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Camundongos de Cruzamento Colaborativo , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Fêmur/fisiologia , Fluoresceínas/administração & dosagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoblastos , Osteogênese/genética , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única
5.
Nature ; 593(7858): 255-260, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911285

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia1. Although there is no effective treatment for AD, passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies against amyloid beta (Aß) is a promising therapeutic strategy2,3. Meningeal lymphatic drainage has an important role in the accumulation of Aß in the brain4, but it is not known whether modulation of meningeal lymphatic function can influence the outcome of immunotherapy in AD. Here we show that ablation of meningeal lymphatic vessels in 5xFAD mice (a mouse model of amyloid deposition that expresses five mutations found in familial AD) worsened the outcome of mice treated with anti-Aß passive immunotherapy by exacerbating the deposition of Aß, microgliosis, neurovascular dysfunction, and behavioural deficits. By contrast, therapeutic delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor C improved clearance of Aß by monoclonal antibodies. Notably, there was a substantial overlap between the gene signature of microglia from 5xFAD mice with impaired meningeal lymphatic function and the transcriptional profile of activated microglia from the brains of individuals with AD. Overall, our data demonstrate that impaired meningeal lymphatic drainage exacerbates the microglial inflammatory response in AD and that enhancement of meningeal lymphatic function combined with immunotherapies could lead to better clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Vasos Linfáticos/imunologia , Meninges/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Meninges/irrigação sanguínea , Meninges/citologia , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia
6.
Blood ; 138(8): 662-673, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786584

RESUMO

Chronic natural killer large granular lymphocyte (NK-LGL) leukemia, also referred to as chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells, is a rare disorder defined by prolonged expansion of clonal NK cells. Similar prevalence of STAT3 mutations in chronic T-LGL and NK-LGL leukemia is suggestive of common pathogenesis. We undertook whole-genome sequencing to identify mutations unique to NK-LGL leukemia. The results were analyzed to develop a resequencing panel that was applied to 58 patients. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway gene mutations (PIK3CD/PIK3AP1) and TNFAIP3 mutations were seen in 5% and 10% of patients, respectively. TET2 was exceptional in that mutations were present in 16 (28%) of 58 patient samples, with evidence that TET2 mutations can be dominant and exclusive to the NK compartment. Reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing revealed that methylation patterns were significantly altered in TET2 mutant samples. The promoter of TET2 and that of PTPRD, a negative regulator of STAT3, were found to be methylated in additional cohort samples, largely confined to the TET2 mutant group. Mutations in STAT3 were observed in 19 (33%) of 58 patient samples, 7 of which had concurrent TET2 mutations. Thrombocytopenia and resistance to immunosuppressive agents were uniquely observed in those patients with only TET2 mutation (Games-Howell post hoc test, P = .0074; Fisher's exact test, P = .00466). Patients with STAT3 mutation, inclusive of those with TET2 comutation, had lower hematocrit, hemoglobin, and absolute neutrophil count compared with STAT3 wild-type patients (Welch's t test, P ≤ .015). We present the discovery of TET2 mutations in chronic NK-LGL leukemia and evidence that it identifies a unique molecular subtype.

7.
Mult Scler ; 27(9): 1332-1340, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defective alleles within the PRF1 gene, encoding the pore-forming protein perforin, in combination with environmental factors, cause familial type 2 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL2), a rare, severe autosomal recessive childhood disorder characterized by massive release of cytokines-cytokine storm. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the function of hypomorph PRF1:p.A91V g.72360387 G > A on multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: We cross-compare the association data for PRF1:p.A91V mutation derived from GWAS on adult MS and pediatric T1D in Sardinians. The novel association with T1D was replicated in metanalysis in 12,584 cases and 17,692 controls from Sardinia, the United Kingdom, and Scotland. To dissect this mutation function, we searched through the coincident association immunophenotypes in additional set of general population Sardinians. RESULTS: We report that PRF1:p.A91V, is associated with increase of lymphocyte levels, especially within the cytotoxic memory T-cells, at general population level with reduced interleukin 7 receptor expression on these cells. The minor allele increased risk of MS, in 2903 cases and 2880 controls from Sardinia p = 2.06 × 10-4, odds ratio OR = 1.29, replicating a previous finding, whereas it protects from T1D p = 1.04 × 10-5, OR = 0.82. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate opposing contributions of the cytotoxic T-cell compartment to MS and T1D pathogenesis.

8.
Diabet Med ; 38(8): e14545, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605492

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to identify long-term HbA1c trajectories and examine associated characteristics in an observational, childhood-onset (<17 years) type 1 diabetes cohort. METHODS: Data are from the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study, comprising 405 participants with ≥2 of seven possible HbA1c measurements over follow-up (1988-2013) and available DNA (baseline mean diabetes duration 21 years, 53% men). HbA1c trajectories were estimated using latent class growth models. Baseline and change in participant characteristics were compared across trajectories. RESULTS: Five HbA1c trajectories were identified: low (51%), intermediate stable (22%), improved (19%), high stable (6%), and worsened (2%; not included in analyses). Age, diabetes duration, diabetes onset age, and sex did not differ across trajectories. Characteristics did not differ significantly between intermediate stable and low trajectories at baseline, though albumin excretion rate (AER, p = 0.0002) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, p = 0.001) worsened slightly more in intermediate stable over time. Improved and high stable trajectories had higher baseline LDL-c (p = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Improved trajectory increased median self-monitoring of blood glucose from <1 to 3.5 times/day (p < 0.0001) and had larger LDL-c improvement (p = 0.004) but greater worsening of AER (p < 0.0001) and eGFR (p < 0.0001) than low. The A allele of rs12970134 (near MC4R) was associated with improved (p = 0.0003) or high stable (p = 0.001) HbA1c trajectory, both patterns with high baseline HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term HbA1c trajectories were primarily associated with modifiable factors in this type 1 diabetes cohort. The intermediate stable pattern had a risk factor profile that suggests some protection against adverse metabolic effects of chronic hyperglycaemia, warranting further study.

9.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(4): 107842, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468396

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine candidate insulin resistance single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for associations with glycemic control, insulin resistance, BMI, and complications in an observational type 1 diabetes (T1D) cohort: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) study. METHODS: In 422 European-ancestry participants, we assessed associations using additive models between 15 candidate SNPs and 25-year mortality, cardiovascular disease, microalbuminuria, overt nephropathy and proliferative retinopathy, and 25-year mean HbA1c, estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR, inverse measure of insulin resistance), and BMI. RESULTS: The A allele of rs12970134 was associated with higher mean HbA1c (ß = +0.34 ±â€¯0.09, p = 0.00009) and nominally associated with worse eGDR (p = 0.02). Further analyses suggest the HbA1c association may be modified by diabetes therapy regimen: rs12970134 AA genotype was associated with higher HbA1c under non-intensive therapy conditions (<3 insulin injections/day or monitoring blood glucose<3 times/day [p = 0.004]), but not under intensive therapy (≥3 injections/day or insulin pump and monitoring glucose≥3 times/day [p = 0.71]). There were no significant associations between any SNPs and BMI or complications. CONCLUSIONS: rs12970134, near MC4R, is strongly associated with HbA1c in this cohort. Further exploration of this genomic region is warranted, as it may hold promise for discovering new therapeutic targets to improve glycemic control in T1D.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19193, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154504

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes arises from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas, resulting in dependence on exogenously administered insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. In this study, our aim was to identify genetic risk factors that contribute to progression from islet autoimmunity to clinical type 1 diabetes. We analyzed 6.8 million variants derived from whole genome sequencing of 160 islet autoantibody positive subjects, including 87 who had progressed to type 1 diabetes. The Cox proportional-hazard model for survival analysis was used to identify genetic variants associated with progression. We identified one novel region, 20p12.1 (TASP1; genome-wide P < 5 × 10-8) and three regions, 1q21.3 (MRPS21-PRPF3), 2p25.2 (NRIR), 3q22.1 (COL6A6), with suggestive evidence of association (P < 8.5 × 10-8) with progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes. Once islet autoimmunity is initiated, functional mapping identified two critical pathways, response to viral infections and interferon signaling, as contributing to disease progression. These results provide evidence that genetic pathways involved in progression from islet autoimmunity differ from those pathways identified once disease has been established. These results support the need for further investigation of genetic risk factors that modulate initiation and progression of subclinical disease to inform efforts in development of novel strategies for prediction and intervention of type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
11.
Circ Res ; 127(12): 1552-1565, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040646

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent genome-wide association studies revealed 163 loci associated with CAD. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which the majority of these loci increase CAD risk are not known. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are critical in the development of CAD. They can play either beneficial or detrimental roles in lesion pathogenesis, depending on the nature of their phenotypic changes. OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic variants associated with atherosclerosis-relevant phenotypes in VSMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We quantified 12 atherosclerosis-relevant phenotypes related to calcification, proliferation, and migration in VSMCs isolated from 151 multiethnic heart transplant donors. After genotyping and imputation, we performed association mapping using 6.3 million genetic variants. We demonstrated significant variations in calcification, proliferation, and migration. These phenotypes were not correlated with each other. We performed genome-wide association studies for 12 atherosclerosis-relevant phenotypes and identified 4 genome-wide significant loci associated with at least one VSMC phenotype. We overlapped the previously identified CAD loci with our data set and found nominally significant associations at 79 loci. One of them was the chromosome 1q41 locus, which harbors MIA3. The G allele of the lead risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs67180937 was associated with lower VSMC MIA3 expression and lower proliferation. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of MIA3 (melanoma inhibitory activity protein 3) in VSMCs resulted in lower proliferation, consistent with human genetics findings. Furthermore, we observed a significant reduction of MIA3 protein in VSMCs in thin fibrous caps of late-stage atherosclerotic plaques compared to early fibroatheroma with thick and protective fibrous caps in mice and humans. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that genetic variants have significant influences on VSMC function relevant to the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, high MIA3 expression may promote atheroprotective VSMC phenotypic transitions, including increased proliferation, which is essential in the formation or maintenance of a protective fibrous cap.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Variação Genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Animais , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947841

RESUMO

Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia arises spontaneously in elderly Fischer (F344) rats. This rodent model has been shown to emulate many aspects of the natural killer (NK) variant of human LGL leukemia. Previous transplantation of leukemic material into young F344 rats resulted in several strains of rat NK (RNK) primary leukemic cells. One strain, RNK-16, was adapted into the RNK-16 cell line and established as an aggressive NK-LGL leukemia model. Whole genome sequencing of the RNK-16 cell line identified 255,838 locations where the RNK16 had an alternate allele that was different from F334, including a mutation in Jak1. Functional studies showed Jak1 Y1034C to be a somatic activating mutation that mediated increased STAT signaling, as assessed by phosphoprotein levels. Sanger sequencing of Jak1 in RNK-1, -3, -7, and -16 found only RNK-16 to harbor the Y1034C Jak1 mutation. In vivo studies revealed that rats engrafted with RNK-16 primary material developed leukemia more rapidly than those engrafted with RNK-1, -3, and -7. Additionally, ex vivo RNK-16 spleen cells from leukemic rats exhibited increased STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 phosphorylation compared to other RNK strains. Therefore, we report and characterize a novel gain-of-function Jak1 mutation in a spontaneous LGL leukemia model that results in increased downstream STAT signaling.

13.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(2): 365-382, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552482

RESUMO

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) account for about 5% of total brain and spinal cord cells, giving rise to myelinating oligodendrocytes that provide electrical insulation to neurons of the CNS. OPCs have also recently been shown to regulate inflammatory responses and glial scar formation, suggesting functions that extend beyond myelination. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifaceted phagocytic receptor that is highly expressed in several CNS cell types, including OPCs. Here, we have generated an oligodendroglia-specific knockout of LRP1, which presents with normal myelin development, but is associated with better outcomes in two animal models of demyelination (EAE and cuprizone). At a mechanistic level, LRP1 did not directly affect OPC differentiation into mature oligodendrocytes. Instead, animals lacking LRP1 in OPCs in the demyelinating CNS were characterized by a robust dampening of inflammation. In particular, LRP1-deficient OPCs presented with impaired antigen cross-presentation machinery, suggesting a failure to propagate the inflammatory response and thus promoting faster myelin repair and neuroprotection. Our study places OPCs as major regulators of neuroinflammation in an LRP1-dependent fashion.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos/metabolismo , Células Precursoras de Oligodendrócitos/patologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Cuprizona , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/etiologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia
14.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(12): 1532-1543, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792382

RESUMO

Apoptotic cell clearance (efferocytosis) elicits an anti-inflammatory response by phagocytes, but the mechanisms that underlie this response are still being defined. Here, we uncover a chloride-sensing signalling pathway that controls both the phagocyte 'appetite' and its anti-inflammatory response. Efferocytosis transcriptionally altered the genes that encode the solute carrier (SLC) proteins SLC12A2 and SLC12A4. Interfering with SLC12A2 expression or function resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic corpse uptake per phagocyte, whereas the loss of SLC12A4 inhibited corpse uptake. In SLC12A2-deficient phagocytes, the canonical anti-inflammatory program was replaced by pro-inflammatory and oxidative-stress-associated gene programs. This 'switch' to pro-inflammatory sensing of apoptotic cells resulted from the disruption of the chloride-sensing pathway (and not due to corpse overload or poor degradation), including the chloride-sensing kinases WNK1, OSR1 and SPAK-which function upstream of SLC12A2-had a similar effect on efferocytosis. Collectively, the WNK1-OSR1-SPAK-SLC12A2/SLC12A4 chloride-sensing pathway and chloride flux in phagocytes are key modifiers of the manner in which phagocytes interpret the engulfed apoptotic corpse.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Cloretos/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Células Jurkat , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fagócitos/fisiologia , Fagocitose/genética , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia
15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 2000-2016, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although diabetic kidney disease demonstrates both familial clustering and single nucleotide polymorphism heritability, the specific genetic factors influencing risk remain largely unknown. METHODS: To identify genetic variants predisposing to diabetic kidney disease, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses. Through collaboration with the Diabetes Nephropathy Collaborative Research Initiative, we assembled a large collection of type 1 diabetes cohorts with harmonized diabetic kidney disease phenotypes. We used a spectrum of ten diabetic kidney disease definitions based on albuminuria and renal function. RESULTS: Our GWAS meta-analysis included association results for up to 19,406 individuals of European descent with type 1 diabetes. We identified 16 genome-wide significant risk loci. The variant with the strongest association (rs55703767) is a common missense mutation in the collagen type IV alpha 3 chain (COL4A3) gene, which encodes a major structural component of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Mutations in COL4A3 are implicated in heritable nephropathies, including the progressive inherited nephropathy Alport syndrome. The rs55703767 minor allele (Asp326Tyr) is protective against several definitions of diabetic kidney disease, including albuminuria and ESKD, and demonstrated a significant association with GBM width; protective allele carriers had thinner GBM before any signs of kidney disease, and its effect was dependent on glycemia. Three other loci are in or near genes with known or suggestive involvement in this condition (BMP7) or renal biology (COLEC11 and DDR1). CONCLUSIONS: The 16 diabetic kidney disease-associated loci may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of this condition and help identify potential biologic targets for prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/genética , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Membrana Basal Glomerular , Mutação , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4836, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894605

RESUMO

Single-cell transcriptomic methods classify new and existing cell types very effectively, but alternative approaches are needed to quantify the individual regulatory states of cells in their native tissue context. We combined the tissue preservation and single-cell resolution of laser capture with an improved preamplification procedure enabling RNA sequencing of 10 microdissected cells. This in situ 10-cell RNA sequencing (10cRNA-seq) can exploit fluorescent reporters of cell type in genetically engineered mice and is compatible with freshly cryoembedded clinical biopsies from patients. Through recombinant RNA spike-ins, we estimate dropout-free technical reliability as low as ~250 copies and a 50% detection sensitivity of ~45 copies per 10-cell reaction. By using small pools of microdissected cells, 10cRNA-seq improves technical per-cell reliability and sensitivity beyond existing approaches for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Detection of low-abundance transcripts by 10cRNA-seq is comparable to random 10-cell groups of scRNA-seq data, suggesting no loss of gene recovery when cells are isolated in situ. Combined with existing approaches to deconvolve small pools of cells, 10cRNA-seq offers a reliable, unbiased, and sensitive way to measure cell-state heterogeneity in tissues and tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Biópsia/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA/genética , RNA Citoplasmático Pequeno/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Software , Transcriptoma/genética
17.
Diabetes Care ; 42(3): 406-415, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic risk scores (GRS) have been developed that differentiate individuals with type 1 diabetes from those with other forms of diabetes and are starting to be used for population screening; however, most studies were conducted in European-ancestry populations. This study identifies novel genetic variants associated with type 1 diabetes risk in African-ancestry participants and develops an African-specific GRS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We generated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data with the ImmunoChip on 1,021 African-ancestry participants with type 1 diabetes and 2,928 control participants. HLA class I and class II alleles were imputed using SNP2HLA. Logistic regression models were used to identify genome-wide significant (P < 5.0 × 10-8) SNPs associated with type 1 diabetes in the African-ancestry samples and validate SNPs associated with risk in known European-ancestry loci (P < 2.79 × 10-5). RESULTS: African-specific (HLA-DQA1*03:01-HLA-DQB1*02:01) and known European-ancestry HLA haplotypes (HLA-DRB1*03:01-HLA-DQA1*05:01-HLA-DQB1*02:01, HLA-DRB1*04:01-HLA-DQA1*03:01-HLA-DQB1*03:02) were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes risk. Among European-ancestry defined non-HLA risk loci, six risk loci were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes in subjects of African ancestry. An African-specific GRS provided strong prediction of type 1 diabetes risk (area under the curve 0.871), performing significantly better than a European-based GRS and two polygenic risk scores in independent discovery and validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk of type 1 diabetes includes ancestry-specific, disease-associated variants. The GRS developed here provides improved prediction of type 1 diabetes in African-ancestry subjects and a means to identify groups of individuals who would benefit from immune monitoring for early detection of islet autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Testes Genéticos , Antígenos HLA-D/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
18.
Diabetes ; 68(4): 847-857, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655385

RESUMO

The risk for autoimmunity and subsequently type 1 diabetes is 10-fold higher in children with a first-degree family history of type 1 diabetes (FDR children) than in children in the general population (GP children). We analyzed children with high-risk HLA genotypes (n = 4,573) in the longitudinal TEDDY birth cohort to determine how much of the divergent risk is attributable to genetic enrichment in affected families. Enrichment for susceptible genotypes of multiple type 1 diabetes-associated genes and a novel risk gene, BTNL2, was identified in FDR children compared with GP children. After correction for genetic enrichment, the risks in the FDR and GP children converged but were not identical for multiple islet autoantibodies (hazard ratio [HR] 2.26 [95% CI 1.6-3.02]) and for diabetes (HR 2.92 [95% CI 2.05-4.16]). Convergence varied depending upon the degree of genetic susceptibility. Risks were similar in the highest genetic susceptibility group for multiple islet autoantibodies (14.3% vs .12.7%) and diabetes (4.8% vs. 4.1%) and were up to 5.8-fold divergent for children in the lowest genetic susceptibility group, decreasing incrementally in GP children but not in FDR children. These findings suggest that additional factors enriched within affected families preferentially increase the risk of autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in lower genetic susceptibility strata.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-DQ/genética , Antígenos HLA-DQ/imunologia , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
19.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 97, 2018 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, research has consistently proven the occurrence of genetic overlap across autoimmune diseases, which supports the existence of common pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity. The objective of this study was to further investigate this shared genetic component. METHODS: For this purpose, we performed a cross-disease meta-analysis of Immunochip data from 37,159 patients diagnosed with a seropositive autoimmune disease (11,489 celiac disease (CeD), 15,523 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3477 systemic sclerosis (SSc), and 6670 type 1 diabetes (T1D)) and 22,308 healthy controls of European origin using the R package ASSET. RESULTS: We identified 38 risk variants shared by at least two of the conditions analyzed, five of which represent new pleiotropic loci in autoimmunity. We also identified six novel genome-wide associations for the diseases studied. Cell-specific functional annotations and biological pathway enrichment analyses suggested that pleiotropic variants may act by deregulating gene expression in different subsets of T cells, especially Th17 and regulatory T cells. Finally, drug repositioning analysis evidenced several drugs that could represent promising candidates for CeD, RA, SSc, and T1D treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have been able to advance in the knowledge of the genetic overlap existing in autoimmunity, thus shedding light on common molecular mechanisms of disease and suggesting novel drug targets that could be explored for the treatment of the autoimmune diseases studied.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Doença Celíaca/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética
20.
Nature ; 564(7734): E7, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397347

RESUMO

Change history: In this Article, Extended Data Fig. 9 was appearing as Fig. 2 in the HTML, and in Fig. 2, the panel labels 'n' and 'o' overlapped the figure; these errors have been corrected online.

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