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1.
Am Surg ; : 31348221082277, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) grade and lack of medical therapy are associated with stroke. Knowledge of stroke risk factors specific to individual grades may help tailor BCVI therapy to specific injury characteristics. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis of a 16 center, prospective, observational trial (2018-2020) was performed including grade 1 internal carotid artery (ICA) BCVI. Repeat imaging was considered the second imaging occurrence only. RESULTS: From 145 grade 1 ICA BCVI included, 8 (5.5%) suffered a stroke. Grade 1 ICA BCVI with stroke were more commonly treated with mixed anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy (75.0% vs 9.6%, P <.001) and less commonly antiplatelet therapy (25.0% vs 82.5%, P = .001) compared to injuries without stroke. Of the 8 grade 1 ICA BCVI with stroke, 4 (50.0%) had stroke after medical therapy was started. In comparing injuries with resolution at repeat imaging to those without, stroke occurred in 7 (15.9%) injuries without resolution and 0 (0%) injuries with resolution (P = .005). At repeat imaging in grade 1 ICA BCVI with stroke, grade of injury was grade 1 in 2 injuries, grade 2 in 3 injuries, grade 3 in 1 injury, and grade 5 in one injury. DISCUSSION: While the stroke rate for grade 1 ICA BCVI is low overall, injury persistence appears to heighten stroke risk. Some strokes occurred despite initiation of medical therapy. Repeat imaging is needed in grade 1 ICA BCVI to evaluate for injury progression or resolution.

2.
Am Surg ; 88(8): 1962-1969, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of endovascular intervention (EI) for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is without consensus guidelines. Rates of EI use and radiographic characteristics of BCVI undergoing EI nationally are unknown. METHODS: A post-hoc analysis of a prospective, observational study at 16 U.S. trauma centers from 2018 to 2020 was conducted. Internal carotid artery (ICA) BCVI was included. The primary outcome was EI use. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for predictors of EI use. RESULTS: From 332 ICA BCVI included, 21 (6.3%) underwent EI. 0/145 (0%) grade 1, 8/101 (7.9%) grade 2, 12/51 (23.5%) grade 3, and 1/20 (5.0%) grade 4 ICA BCVI underwent EI. Stroke occurred in 6/21 (28.6%) ICA BCVI undergoing EI and in 33/311 (10.6%) not undergoing EI (P = .03), with all strokes with EI use occurring prior to or at the same time as EI. Percentage of luminal stenosis (37.75 vs 20.29%, P = .01) and median pseudoaneurysm size (9.00 mm vs 3.00 mm, P = .01) were greater in ICA BCVI undergoing EI. On logistic regression, only pseudoaneurysm size was associated with EI (odds ratio 1.205, 95% CI 1.035-1.404, P = .02). Of the 8 grade 2 ICA BCVI undergoing EI, 3/8 were grade 2 and 5/8 were grade 3 prior to EI. Of the 12 grade 3 ICA BCVI undergoing EI, 11/12 were grade 3 and 1/12 was a grade 2 ICA BCVI prior to EI. DISCUSSION: Pseudoaneurysm size is associated with use of EI for ICA BCVI. Stroke is more common in ICA BCVI with EI but did not occur after EI use.


Assuntos
Falso Aneurisma , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Falso Aneurisma/complicações , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/complicações , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia
3.
Am Surg ; 88(5): 953-958, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35275764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a grading system for emergency general surgery (EGS) conditions. We sought to validate the AAST EGS grades for patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the "Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Multicenter Colorectal Resection in EGS-to anastomose or not to anastomose" study undergoing urgent/emergent surgery for obstruction, ischemia, or diverticulitis were included. Baseline demographics, comorbidity severity as defined by Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), procedure type, and AAST grade were prospectively collected. Outcomes included length of stay (LOS) in-hospital mortality, and surgical complications (superficial/deep/organ-space surgical site infection, anastomotic leak, stoma complication, fascial dehiscence, and need for further intervention). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication or mortality. RESULTS: There were 367 patients, with a mean (± SD) age of 62 ± 15 years. 39% were women. The median interquartile range (IQR) CCI was 4 (2-6). Overall, the pathologies encompassed the following AAST EGS grades: I (17, 5%), II (54, 15%), III (115, 31%), IV (95, 26%), and V (86, 23%). Management included laparoscopic (24, 7%), open (319, 87%), and laparoscopy converted to laparotomy (24, 6%). Higher AAST grade was associated with laparotomy (P = .01). The median LOS was 13 days (8-22). At least 1 surgical complication occurred in 33% of patients and the mortality rate was 14%. Development of at least 1 surgical complication, need for unplanned intervention, mortality, and increased LOS were associated with increasing AAST severity grade. On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of in-hospital mortality included AAST organ grade, CCI, and preoperative vasopressor use (odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, respectively). The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grade was also associated with the development of at least 1 surgical complication (OR 2.5), while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, respiratory failure, and pneumoperitoneum were not. CONCLUSION: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma emergency general surgery grading systems display construct validity for mortality and surgical complications after urgent/emergent colorectal resection. These results support incorporation of AAST EGS grades for quality benchmarking and surgical outcomes research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Cirurgia Geral , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
4.
Am Surg ; 88(4): 770-772, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734535

RESUMO

Data are lacking regarding the use of diuretics in facilitating closure of the open abdomen (OA). For patients with an OA after 2 laparotomies, we hypothesized that diuretic use was associated with a higher rate of primary fascial closure than no diuretic use. A retrospective review of patients with trauma laparotomies over 7 years was performed. Primary fascial closure (PFC) was defined as apposition of fascial edges without interposition mesh. Of 321 patients, 30 (9%) remained with an OA after 2 laparotomies. Prior to the third laparotomy, median cumulative fluid balance was +12.6 L. Thirteen (43%) received diuretics. Primary fascial closure rates were similar for diuretic use vs no diuretic (38% vs 59%, P = .46). Primary fascial closure was not associated with age (P = .2), gender (P = 0.7), cumulative fluid balance (P = .3), or units of packed cells (P = .4). Diuretic use in trauma patients with an OA after 2 laparotomies was not associated with successful PFC.


Assuntos
Cavidade Abdominal , Traumatismos Abdominais , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos Abdominais , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Abdome/cirurgia , Cavidade Abdominal/cirurgia , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Fasciotomia , Humanos , Laparotomia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 347-354, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke risk factors after blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) are ill-defined. We hypothesized that factors associated with stroke for BCVI would include medical therapy (i.e., Aspirin), radiographic features, and protocolization of care. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored, 16-center, prospective, observational trial was undertaken. Stroke risk factors were analyzed individually for vertebral artery (VA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) BCVI. Blunt cerebrovascular injuries were graded on the standard 1 to 5 scale. Data were from the initial hospitalization only. RESULTS: Seven hundred seventy-seven BCVIs were included. Stroke rate was 8.9% for all BCVIs, with an 11.7% rate of stroke for ICA BCVI and a 6.7% rate for VA BCVI. Use of a management protocol (p = 0.01), management by the trauma service (p = 0.04), antiplatelet therapy over the hospital stay (p < 0.001), and Aspirin therapy specifically over the hospital stay (p < 0.001) were more common in ICA BCVI without stroke compared with those with stroke. Antiplatelet therapy over the hospital stay (p < 0.001) and Aspirin therapy over the hospital stay (p < 0.001) were more common in VA BCVI without stroke than with stroke. Percentage luminal stenosis was higher in both ICA BCVI (p = 0.002) and VA BCVI (p < 0.001) with stroke. Decrease in percentage luminal stenosis (p < 0.001), resolution of intraluminal thrombus (p = 0.003), and new intraluminal thrombus (p = 0.001) were more common in ICA BCVI with stroke than without, while resolution of intraluminal thrombus (p = 0.03) and new intraluminal thrombus (p = 0.01) were more common in VA BCVI with stroke than without. CONCLUSION: Protocol-driven management by the trauma service, antiplatelet therapy (specifically Aspirin), and lower percentage luminal stenosis were associated with lower stroke rates, while resolution and development of intraluminal thrombus were associated with higher stroke rates. Further research will be needed to incorporate these risk factors into lesion specific BCVI management. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiologic, Level IV.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Artéria Vertebral/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estados Unidos , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(1): 88-92, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma teams are often faced with patients on antithrombotic (AT) drugs, which is challenging when bleeding occurs. We sought to compare the effects of different AT medications on head injury severity and hypothesized that AT reversal would not improve mortality in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective, multicentered, observational study of 15 trauma centers was performed. Patient demographics, injury burden, comorbidities, AT agents, and reversal attempts were collected. Outcomes of interest were head injury severity and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Analysis was performed on 2,793 patients. The majority of patients were on aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid [ASA], 46.1%). Patients on a platelet chemoreceptor blocker (P2Y12) had the highest mean Injury Severity Score (9.1 ± 8.1). Patients taking P2Y12 inhibitors ± ASA, and ASA-warfarin had the highest head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) mean (1.2 ± 1.6). On risk-adjusted analysis, warfarin-ASA was associated with a higher head AIS (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-4.42) after controlling for Injury Severity Score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and initial systolic blood pressure. Among patients with severe TBI (head AIS score, ≥3) on antiplatelet therapy, reversal with desmopressin (DDAVP) and/or platelet transfusion did not improve survival (82.9% reversal vs. 90.4% none, p = 0.30). In severe TBI patients taking Xa inhibitors who received prothrombin complex concentrate, survival was not improved (84.6% reversal vs. 84.6% none, p = 0.68). With risk adjustment as described previously, mortality was not improved with reversal attempts (antiplatelet agents: OR 0.83; 85% CI, 0.12-5.9 [p = 0.85]; Xa inhibitors: OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.12-4.64; p = 0.77). CONCLUSION: Reversal attempts appear to confer no mortality benefit in severe TBI patients on antiplatelet agents or Xa inhibitors. Combination therapy was associated with severity of head injury among patients taking preinjury AT therapy, with ASA-warfarin possessing the greatest risk. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level II.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos , Hemorragia , Transfusão de Plaquetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/classificação , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Hemorragia/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(3): 559-565, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic reshaped the health care system in 2020. COVID-19 infection has been associated with poor outcomes after orthopedic surgery and elective, general surgery, but the impact of COVID-19 on outcomes after trauma is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to Pennsylvania trauma centers from March 21 to July 31, 2020. The exposure of interest was COVID-19 (COV+) and the primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay and complications. We compared demographic and injury characteristics between positive, negative, and not-tested patients. We used multivariable regression with coarsened exact matching to estimate the impact of COV+ on outcomes. RESULTS: Of 15,550 included patients, 8,170 (52.5%) were tested for COVID-19 and 219 (2.7%) were positive (COV+). Compared with COVID-19-negative (COV-) patients, COV+ patients were similar in terms of age and sex, but were less often white (53.5% vs. 74.7%, p < 0.0001), and more often uninsured (10.1 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.002). Injury severity was similar, but firearm injuries accounted for 11.9% of COV+ patients versus 5.1% of COV- patients (p < 0.001). Unadjusted mortality for COV+ was double that of COV- patients (9.1% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and length of stay was longer (median, 5 vs. 4 days; p < 0.001). Using coarsened exact matching, COV+ patients had an increased risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.29-15.99), any complication (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.08-3.16), and pulmonary complications (OR, 5.79; 95% CI, 2.02-16.54) compared with COV- patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with concomitant traumatic injury and COVID-19 infection have elevated risks of morbidity and mortality. Trauma centers must incorporate an understanding of these risks into patient and family counseling and resource allocation during this pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, Prognostic Study.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/etnologia , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia
8.
J Surg Res ; 258: 113-118, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most studies of trauma patients have not demonstrated a "weekend" or "night" effect on mortality, outcomes of hypotensive (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg) patients have not been studied. We sought to evaluate whether outcomes of hypotensive patients were associated with admission time and day. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients from Pennsylvania Level 1 and Level 2 trauma centers with systolic blood pressure of <90 mm Hg over 5 y. Patients were stratified into four groups by arrival day and time: Group 1, weekday days; Group 2, weekday nights; Group 3, weekend days; and Group 4, weekend nights. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared for the four groups. Adjusted mortality risks for Groups 2, 3, and 4 with Group 1 as the reference were determined using a generalized linear mixed effects model. RESULTS: After exclusions, 27 trauma centers with a total of 4937 patients were analyzed. Overall mortality was 44%. Compared with patients arriving during the day (Groups 1 and 3), those arriving at night (Groups 2 and 4) were more likely to be younger, to be male, to have lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores and blood pressures, to have penetrating injuries, and to die in the emergency room. Controlled for admission variables, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for Groups 2, 3, and 4 were 0.92 (0.72-1.17), 0.89 (0.65-1.23), and 0.76 (0.56-1.02), respectively, for mortality with Group 1 as reference. CONCLUSIONS: Patients arriving in shock to Pennsylvania Level 1 and Level 2 trauma centers at night or weekends had no increased mortality risk compared with weekday daytime arrivals.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/mortalidade , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am Surg ; 87(1): 156-158, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902302

RESUMO

Female-specific traumatic injury patterns have not been well researched and are potentially not well documented. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of breast hematomas (BHs) after blunt chest trauma, and to evaluate if there were risk factors associated with BH requiring intervention. A retrospective review from 2013 to 2018 was performed, identifying female patients ≥18 years sustaining blunt chest trauma. BH was defined as the presence of a collection of blood within the breast parenchyma, and clinically significant breast hematoma (CSBH) as BH requiring blood transfusion, surgical, or interventional radiology intervention. Univariate analysis was performed comparing CSBH with BH in terms of demographics, injury severity, antithrombotic agent use, and body mass index (BMI). Of 871 female patients meeting criteria, 59 (7%) had BH. Of these, 10 (17%) had CSBH (transfusion only, n = 3; angioembolization, n = 4; operation, n = 3). Compared to BH not requiring intervention, CSBH patients were older (mean age, 80 vs 69, P = .006), but had similar rates of motor vehicle crashes (90% vs 78%), seatbelt use (70% vs 71%), antiplatelet use (10% vs 12%), and anticoagulant use (10% vs 6%). Median Injury Severity Scores and median BMI (34 vs 34) were similar between the groups.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/epidemiologia , Mama/lesões , Hematoma/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Mamárias/terapia , Feminino , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Hematoma/terapia , Humanos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1023-1031, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence comparing stoma creation (STM) versus anastomosis after urgent or emergent colorectal resection is limited. This study examined outcomes after colorectal resection in emergency general surgery patients. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored prospective observational multicenter study of patients undergoing urgent/emergent colorectal resection. Twenty-one centers enrolled patients for 11 months. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were recorded. χ, Mann-Whitney U test, and multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe outcomes and risk factors for surgical complication/mortality. RESULTS: A total of 439 patients were enrolled (ANST, 184; STM, 255). The median (interquartile range) age was 62 (53-71) years, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 4 (1-6). The most common indication for surgery was diverticulitis (28%). Stoma group was older (64 vs. 58 years, p < 0.001), had a higher CCI, and were more likely to be immunosuppressed. Preoperatively, STM patients were more likely to be intubated (57 vs. 15, p < 0.001), on vasopressors (61 vs. 13, p < 0.001), have pneumoperitoneum (131 vs. 41, p < 0.001) or fecal contamination (114 vs. 33, p < 0.001), and had a higher incidence of elevated lactate (149 vs. 67, p < 0.001). Overall mortality was 13%, which was higher in STM patients (18% vs. 8%, p = 0.02). Surgical complications were more common in STM patients (35% vs. 25%, p = 0.02). On multivariable analysis, management with an open abdomen, intraoperative blood transfusion, and larger hospital size were associated with development of a surgical complication, while CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: This study highlights a tendency to perform fecal diversion in patients who are acutely ill at presentation. There is a higher morbidity and mortality rate in STM patients. Independent predictors of mortality include CCI, preoperative vasopressor use, steroid use, open abdomen, and intraoperative blood transfusion. Following adjustment by clinical factors, method of colon management was not associated with surgical complications or mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Idoso , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colectomia/educação , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emergências , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Surg ; 220(5): 1300-1303, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The significance of external signs (EST) and signs or symptoms of trauma (SS) after ground level falls or found down (GLF/FD) is unclear. We hypothesized that EST and SS were associated with injury. METHODS: Patients with GLF/FD were retrospectively studied. SS was defined as having any EST, tenderness, or subjective complaint. Outcomes were any significant finding (SF) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 8. Diagnostic accuracy of EST and SS were assessed with positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-). RESULTS: Of 578 patients, 66% and 95% had EST and SS respectively. For EST, LR+ and LR-were 1.14 and 0.76 (SF), and 1.21 and 0.64 (ISS>8). For SS, LR+ and LR-were 1.07 and 0.19 (SF), and 1.03 and 0.49 (ISS>8). CONCLUSION: EST lacked sufficient diagnostic accuracy for SF and ISS>8. Lack of SS was reasonably accurate in ruling out SF but not ISS>8. Triage utilizing EST alone for GLF/FD is not useful.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Triagem/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
14.
Am J Surg ; 219(3): 535-539, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735260

RESUMO

Early postoperative small bowel obstruction (ESBO) is a challenging problem. Although it is usually amenable to non-operative management, a significant proportion of patients will require re-operation. Certain causes of ESBO and types of index procedures should prompt consideration for early re-operation. A laparoscopic approach during the index operation, certain barrier agents and closure of mesenteric defects in bariatric surgery may reduce the risk of ESBO. There is no consensus regarding an acceptable length of time for initial non-operative management of ESBO but re-operation beyond two weeks may be associated with increased complications.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Intestino Delgado , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Reoperação , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 708-711, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405412

RESUMO

Few studies have evaluated outcomes in geriatric trauma patients discharged with anemia. Our hypothesis was that anemia at discharge was not associated with six-month mortality. A 22-month retrospective study of trauma patients ≥ 65 years was conducted from 2015 to 2016. The end point was six-month mortality. The degree of anemia at admission (admission hemoglobin [AHb]) and discharge (discharge hemoglobin [DHb]) was categorized as follows based on hemoglobin (Hb) (g/dL): I (>10), II (>9 and ≤10), III (>8 and ≤9), and IV (≤8). Univariate analysis and multivariate analysis were performed to determine the association of AHb and DHb with the end point. Nine hundred forty-nine patients were analyzed (median age, 82 years). Six-month mortality was 11 per cent. Mortality was associated with AHb by univariate analysis (I: 10% [84/831]; II: 13% [9/67]; III: 22% [7/32]; and IV: 26% [5/19]) (P = 0.003). DHb was not associated with mortality (I: 11% [65/613]; II: 12% [21/183]; III: 10% [12/116]; and IV: 18% [7/39]) (P = 0.37). Logistic regression found that AHb category IV, age, and chronic kidney disease were independently associated with the end point. In geriatric patients, the severity of anemia at admission and not at discharge predicted six-month mortality. Discharging patients with an Hb of ≤8 g/dL was not adversely associated with mortality.


Assuntos
Anemia/sangue , Anemia/mortalidade , Hemoglobinas/análise , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 721-724, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405415

RESUMO

Despite the incorporation of anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP) drugs in our trauma triage criteria, it is unclear whether trauma team activation (TTA) impacts outcomes in geriatric patients on ACAP drugs sustaining falls. We hypothesized that TTA in this cohort was associated with improved outcomes. The hospital electronic database was queried to identify normotensive, awake patients aged ≥65 years on ACAP agent from 2014 to 2018 presenting to the emergency department after falls. The outcome was in-hospital mortality. The association between TTA and mortality was examined using logistic regression analysis and 1:1 propensity score matching analysis. In this study, 4540 patients on ACAP drugs were analyzed, with TTA occurring in 500 (11%). TTA occurred in younger but more severely injured patients with lower Glasgow Coma Score. Logistic regression revealed that TTA was not associated with mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals], 2.04 [0.89-4.25]). The 1:1 propensity score analysis revealed similar mortality for the matched groups (non-TTA, 1.6% vs TTA, 2.2%, P = 0.64). In the elderly patients on ACAP agents, the current triage criteria resulted in the appropriate use of TTA for more severely injured patients. The lack of outcome benefit suggests that ACAP drug use as a criterion for TTA should be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem/métodos
17.
Am J Surg ; 218(4): 755-759, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine if clinician suspicion of injury was useful in predicting injuries found on pan-body computed tomography (PBCT) in clinically intoxicated patients. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled awake, intoxicated patients with low-energy mechanism of injury. For each of four body regions (head/face, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis), clinician suspicion for injury was recorded as "low index" or "more than a low index". The reference standard was the presence of any pre-defined significant finding (SF) on CT. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios were calculated. RESULTS: Enrollment of 103 patients was completed. Sensitivity, specificity, LR+ and LR-for clinician index of suspicion were: 56%, 68%, 1.75, 0.64 (head/face), 50%, 92%, 6.18, 0.54 (neck), 10%, 96%, 2.60, 0.94 (thorax) and 67%, 93%, 9.56, 0.36 (abdomen/pelvis). CONCLUSION: Clinician judgement was most useful to guide need for CT imaging in the neck and abdomen/pelvis. Routine PBCT may not be necessary. SUMMARY: For awake, stable intoxicated patients after falls and assaults, clinician index of suspicion was most useful to guide the need for CT imaging in the neck and abdomen/pelvis. Our findings support selective use of CT if the index of suspicion is low. Routine PBCT may not be necessary.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/complicações , Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Competência Clínica , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidentes por Quedas , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Violência , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/etiologia
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(6): 1010-1014, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data examining the impact of screening for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in the geriatric population sustaining falls. We hypothesize that BCVI screening in this cohort would rarely identify injuries that would change management. METHODS: A retrospective study (2012-2016) identified patients 65 years or older with Abbreviated Injury Scores for the head and neck region or face region of 1 or greater after falls of 5 ft or less. Patients who met the expanded Denver criteria for BCVI screening were included for analysis. Outcomes were change in management (defined as the initiation of medical, surgical or endovascular therapy for BCVI), stroke attributable to BCVI, in-hospital mortality and acute kidney injury. Univariate analysis was performed where appropriate. A p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Of 997 patients, 257 (26%) met criteria for BCVI screening after exclusions. The BCVI screening occurred in 100 (39%), using computed tomographic angiography for screening in 85% of patients. Patients who were not screened (n = 157) were more likely to be on preinjury antithrombotic drugs and to have worse renal function compared with the screened group. There were 23 (23%) BCVIs diagnosed in the screened group while one (0.7%) in the nonscreened group had a delayed diagnosis of BCVI. Of the 24 patients with BCVI, 15 (63%) had a change in management, consisting of the initiation of antiplatelet therapy. Comparing the screened to the nonscreened groups, 14% versus 0.7% (p < 0.0001) had a change in management. The screened group had a higher 30-day stroke rate (7% vs. 1%, p = 0.03) but there were no differences in the stroke rate attributable to BCVI (1% vs. 0.7%, p = 0.99), mortality (6% vs. 8%, p = 0.31) or acute kidney injury (5% vs. 6%, p = 0.40). CONCLUSION: In geriatric patients with low-energy falls meeting criteria for BCVI screening, BCVIs were commonly diagnosed when screened, and the majority of those with BCVI had a change in management. These findings support BCVI screening in this geriatric cohort. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management, level IV.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismo Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Idoso , Angiografia Cerebral , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
19.
Am Surg ; 84(7): 1180-1184, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064584

RESUMO

Antithrombotic (anticoagulant [AC] and antiplatelet [AP]) drugs have been associated with mortality in geriatric patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). It is unclear whether trauma team activation (TTA) in this cohort impacts outcome. Patients ≥65 years with a Glasgow Coma Scale of ≥13 and ICH over four years were included and were divided into three groups according to type of drug: group 1, AC with or without AP; group 2, AP only and; group 3, no AC or AP. The Rotterdam score was used to characterize the severity of CT findings. The primary outcome was inhospital mortality or transition to comfort measures. The secondary outcome was need for neurosurgical intervention within 48 hours. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for predictors of each outcome. Of 419 patients, 20.5, 50.4, and 29.1 per cent belonged to groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with TTA occurring in 39.5, 18.0, and 32.0 per cent of the respective groups. Within each group, there were no differences for the primary and secondary outcomes whether or not TTA was triggered. TTA patients had shorter times to CT (median, 20 minutes versus 80 minutes, P < 0.0001) and to administration of reversal agents (median, 105 minutes versus 255 minutes, P < 0.0001). Age, head-Abbreviated Injury Score, and the Rotterdam score were predictors for both outcomes by multivariable analysis, whereas antithrombotic drug use and TTA were not. In awake elderly patients on antithrombotic drugs found to have ICH, TTA expedited evaluation and treatment but was not associated with mortality benefit.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Geriatria , Hemorragias Intracranianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(1): 78-84, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure is an important consideration during emergency department thoracotomy (EDT). While human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis prevalence in trauma patients (0-16.8%) and occupational exposure rates during operative trauma procedures (1.9-18.0%) have been reported, exposure risk during EDT is unknown. We hypothesized that occupational exposure risk during EDT would be greater than other operative trauma procedures. METHODS: A prospective, observational study at 16 US trauma centers was performed (2015-2016). All bedside EDT resuscitation providers were surveyed with a standardized data collection tool and risk factors analyzed with respect to the primary end point, EDT occupational exposure (percutaneous injury, mucous membrane, open wound, or eye splash). Provider and patient variables and outcomes were evaluated with single and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred sixty participants (23% attending, 59% trainee, 11% nurse, 7% other) were surveyed after 305 EDTs (gunshot wound, 68%; prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 57%; emergency department signs of life, 37%), of which 15 patients survived (13 neurologically intact) their hospitalization. Overall, 22 occupational exposures were documented, resulting in an exposure rate of 7.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7-10.5%) per EDT and 1.6% (95% CI, 1.0-2.4%) per participant. No differences in trauma center level, number of participants, or hours worked were identified. Providers with exposures were primarily trainees (68%) with percutaneous injuries (86%) during the thoracotomy (73%). Full precautions were utilized in only 46% of exposed providers, while multiple variable logistic regression determined that each personal protective equipment item utilized during EDT correlated with a 34% decreased risk of occupational exposure (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48-0.91; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the risk of occupational exposure should not deter providers from performing EDT. Despite the small risk of viral transmission, our data revealed practices that may place health care providers at unnecessary risk of occupational exposure. Regardless of the lifesaving nature of the procedure, improved universal precaution compliance with personal protective equipment is paramount and would further minimize occupational exposure risks during EDT. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management study, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Toracotomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Toracotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
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