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1.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004387

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) and natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas (NKTCL) are a heterogeneous group of aggressive malignancies with dismal outcomes and limited treatment options. While the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3) pathway has been shown to be highly activated in many B-cell lymphomas, its therapeutic relevance in PTCL and NKTCL remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of PIK3 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in these subtypes of lymphoma and to identify potential therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Therefore, the expression of PIK3α, PIK3ß, PIK3γ, PIK3δ and PTEN was analyzed in 88 cases of PTCL and NKTCL samples by immunohistochemistry. All PTCL and NKTCL samples demonstrated high expression of PIK3 isoforms. In particular, high PIK3α expression was significantly associated with poor survival, even after adjustment for age, International Prognostic Index (IPI) score and anthracycline-based chemotherapy in first line. Notably, copanlisib, a pan-class I inhibitor with predominant activities towards PIK3α and PIK3δ isoforms, effectively inhibited phosphorylation of AKT, 4E-BP-1 and STAT3, causing G0 /G1 cell cycle arrest and resulting in suppression of tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo. This study provides evidence that targeting the PIK3 pathway, particularly simultaneous inhibition of PIK3α and δ, could be a promising approach for the treatment of PTCL and NKTCL.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 682, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959771

RESUMO

Generation of large amounts of genomic data is now feasible and cost-effective with improvements in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) is becoming the preferred method for comprehensively characterising global transcriptome activity. Unique to cytoreductive surgery (CRS), multiple spatially discrete tumour specimens could be systematically harvested for genomic analysis. To facilitate such downstream analyses, laser capture microdissection (LCM) could be utilized to obtain pure cell populations. The aim of this protocol study was to develop a methodology to obtain high-quality expression data from matched primary tumours and metastases by utilizing LCM to isolate pure cellular populations. We demonstrate an optimized LCM protocol which reproducibly delivered intact RNA used for RNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). After pathologic annotation of normal epithelial, tumour and stromal components, LCM coupled with cDNA library generation provided for successful RNA sequencing. To illustrate our framework's potential to identify targets that would otherwise be missed with conventional bulk tumour sequencing, we performed qPCR and immunohistochemical technical validation to show that the genes identified were truly expressed only in certain sub-components. This study suggests that the combination of matched tissue specimens with tissue microdissection and NGS provides a viable platform to unmask hidden biomarkers and provides insight into tumour biology at a higher resolution.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(2): 306-316, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL; nasal type) is an aggressive malignancy with a particularly high prevalence in Asian and Latin American populations. Epstein-Barr virus infection has a role in the pathogenesis of NKTCL, and HLA-DPB1 variants are risk factors for the disease. We aimed to identify additional novel genetic variants affecting risk of NKTCL. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of NKTCL in multiple populations from east Asia. We recruited a discovery cohort of 700 cases with NKTCL and 7752 controls without NKTCL of Han Chinese ancestry from 19 centres in southern, central, and northern regions of China, and four independent replication samples including 717 cases and 12 650 controls. Three of these independent samples (451 cases and 5301 controls) were from eight centres in the same regions of southern, central, and northern China, and the fourth (266 cases and 7349 controls) was from 11 centres in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and South Korea. All cases had primary NKTCL that was confirmed histopathologically, and matching with controls was based on geographical region and self-reported ancestry. Logistic regression analysis was done independently by geographical regions, followed by fixed-effect meta-analyses, to identify susceptibility loci. Bioinformatic approaches, including expression quantitative trait loci, binding motif and transcriptome analyses, and biological experiments were done to fine-map and explore the functional relevance of genome-wide association loci to the development of NKTCL. FINDINGS: Genetic data were gathered between Jan 1, 2008, and Jan 23, 2019. Meta-analysis of all samples (a total of 1417 cases and 20 402 controls) identified two novel loci significantly associated with NKTCL: IL18RAP on 2q12.1 (rs13015714; p=2·83 × 10-16; odds ratio 1·39 [95% CI 1·28-1·50]) and HLA-DRB1 on 6p21.3 (rs9271588; 9·35 × 10-26 1·53 [1·41-1·65]). Fine-mapping and experimental analyses showed that rs1420106 at the promoter of IL18RAP was highly correlated with rs13015714, and the rs1420106-A risk variant had an upregulatory effect on IL18RAP expression. Cell growth assays in two NKTCL cell lines (YT and SNK-6 cells) showed that knockdown of IL18RAP inhibited cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest in NKTCL cells. Haplotype association analysis showed that haplotype 47F-67I was associated with reduced risk of NKTCL, whereas 47Y-67L was associated with increased risk of NKTCL. These two positions are component parts of the peptide-binding pocket 7 (P7) of the HLA-DR heterodimer, suggesting that these alterations might account for the association at HLA-DRB1, independent of the previously reported HLA-DPB1 variants. INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide new insights into the development of NKTCL by showing the importance of inflammation and immune regulation through the IL18-IL18RAP axis and antigen presentation involving HLA-DRB1, which might help to identify potential therapeutic targets. Taken in combination with additional genetic and other risk factors, our results could potentially be used to stratify people at high risk of NKTCL for targeted prevention. FUNDING: Guangdong Innovative and Entrepreneurial Research Team Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Program for Support of Top-Notch Young Professionals, Chang Jiang Scholars Program, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council, Tanoto Foundation, National Research Foundation Singapore, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Recruitment Program for Young Professionals of China, First Affiliated Hospital and Army Medical University, US National Institutes of Health, and US National Cancer Institute.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14961, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628410

RESUMO

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTL) is an aggressive type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma closely associated with Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by varying degrees of systemic inflammation. We aim to examine the prognostic significance of peripheral blood neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with NKTL. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective review of 178 patients with biopsy-proven NKTL from the National Cancer Centre Singapore and Samsung Medical Center, South Korea. Using receiver operating curve analysis, an optimal cut-off for high NLR (>3.5) in predicting overall survival (OS) was derived. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable Cox proportional regression. In patients with high NLR, estimated 5-year OS was 25% compared to 53% in those with low NLR. In multivariable analysis, high NLR, in addition to age ≥60 years, presence of B-symptoms and stage III/IV at diagnosis, was independently correlated with worse OS (HR 2.08; 95% CI 1.36 to 3.18; p = 0.0008) and progression-free survival (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.11 to 2.46; p = 0.0128). A new prognostic index (NABS score) derived from these factors stratified patients into low (0), low-intermediate (1), high-intermediate (2) and high (3-4) risk subgroups, which were associated with 5-year OS of 76.5%, 55.7%, 29.2% and 0% respectively. In conclusion, high NLR is an independent prognostic marker and the NABS model can be used to risk-stratify NKTL patients.

6.
Blood ; 134(24): 2159-2170, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562134

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell malignancies; approximately one-third of cases are designated as PTCL-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Using gene-expression profiling (GEP), we have previously defined 2 major molecular subtypes of PTCL-NOS, PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21, which have distinct biological differences in oncogenic pathways and prognosis. In the current study, we generated an immunohistochemistry (IHC) algorithm to identify the 2 subtypes in paraffin tissue using antibodies to key transcriptional factors (GATA3 and TBX21) and their target proteins (CCR4 and CXCR3). In a training cohort of 49 cases of PTCL-NOS with corresponding GEP data, the 2 subtypes identified by the IHC algorithm matched the GEP results with high sensitivity (85%) and showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) (P = .03). The IHC algorithm classification showed high interobserver reproducibility among pathologists and was validated in a second PTCL-NOS cohort (n = 124), where a significant difference in OS between the PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21 subtypes was confirmed (P = .003). In multivariate analysis, a high International Prognostic Index score (3-5) and the PTCL-GATA3 subtype identified by IHC were independent adverse predictors of OS (P = .0015). Additionally, the 2 IHC-defined subtypes were significantly associated with distinct morphological features (P < .001), and there was a significant enrichment of an activated CD8+ cytotoxic phenotype in the PTCL-TBX21 subtype (P = .03). The IHC algorithm will aid in identifying the 2 subtypes in clinical practice, which will aid the future clinical management of patients and facilitate risk stratification in clinical trials.

7.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 11(4): 354-358, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497296

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) is an essential chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of malignancies, but it is known to cause complications to the central nervous system. We report a case of severe MTX neurotoxicity in an adult presenting with choreoathetosis despite a normal clearance of MTX. High dose-MTX has been successfully rechallenged without any neurological sequelae. We reviewed the relevant literature of similar manifestations and summarized their clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging features and treatment given. None of them has recurrence of neurotoxicity. We concluded that it is safe to persist with MTX even after a previous episode of toxic leukoencephalopathy.

8.
Cancer Cell ; 35(6): 932-947.e8, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130341

RESUMO

We performed genomic and transcriptomic sequencing of 133 combined hepatocellular and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-ICC) cases, including separate, combined, and mixed subtypes. Integrative comparison of cHCC-ICC with hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma revealed that combined and mixed type cHCC-ICCs are distinct subtypes with different clinical and molecular features. Integrating laser microdissection, cancer cell fraction analysis, and single nucleus sequencing, we revealed both mono- and multiclonal origins in the separate type cHCC-ICCs, whereas combined and mixed type cHCC-ICCs were all monoclonal origin. Notably, cHCC-ICCs showed significantly higher expression of Nestin, suggesting Nestin may serve as a biomarker for diagnosing cHCC-ICC. Our results provide important biological and clinical insights into cHCC-ICC.

9.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 28, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876435

RESUMO

Natural killer T cell lymphoma (NKTL) is an aggressive disease with very poor treatment outcomes in the advanced stages. With chemotherapy, initial response rates to treatment are high but responses are short lived. A better understanding of the complex molecular pathogenesis of this disease is essential in order to design and develop better therapeutics with improved efficacy. This review aims to summarise the key pathogenic mechanisms in NKTL which may have significant prognostic and therapeutic implications.

10.
Blood ; 133(15): 1664-1676, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782609

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a group of complex clinicopathological entities, often associated with an aggressive clinical course. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and PTCL-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) are the 2 most frequent categories, accounting for >50% of PTCLs. Gene expression profiling (GEP) defined molecular signatures for AITL and delineated biological and prognostic subgroups within PTCL-NOS (PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21). Genomic copy number (CN) analysis and targeted sequencing of these molecular subgroups revealed unique CN abnormalities (CNAs) and oncogenic pathways, indicating distinct oncogenic evolution. PTCL-GATA3 exhibited greater genomic complexity that was characterized by frequent loss or mutation of tumor suppressor genes targeting the CDKN2A /B-TP53 axis and PTEN-PI3K pathways. Co-occurring gains/amplifications of STAT3 and MYC occurred in PTCL-GATA3. Several CNAs, in particular loss of CDKN2A, exhibited prognostic significance in PTCL-NOS as a single entity and in the PTCL-GATA3 subgroup. The PTCL-TBX21 subgroup had fewer CNAs, primarily targeting cytotoxic effector genes, and was enriched in mutations of genes regulating DNA methylation. CNAs affecting metabolic processes regulating RNA/protein degradation and T-cell receptor signaling were common in both subgroups. AITL showed lower genomic complexity compared with other PTCL entities, with frequent co-occurring gains of chromosome 5 (chr5) and chr21 that were significantly associated with IDH2 R172 mutation. CN losses were enriched in genes regulating PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling in cases without IDH2 mutation. Overall, we demonstrated that novel GEP-defined PTCL subgroups likely evolve by distinct genetic pathways and provided biological rationale for therapies that may be investigated in future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/genética , Oncogenes , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfadenopatia Imunoblástica/genética , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/classificação , Masculino , Mutação , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética
11.
Leukemia ; 33(6): 1451-1462, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546078

RESUMO

Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (nasal type; NKTCL) is an aggressive malignancy strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. However, the role of EBV in NKTCL development is unclear, largely due to the lack of information about EBV genome and transcriptome in NKTCL. Here, using high-throughput sequencing, we obtained whole genome (n = 27) and transcriptome datasets (n = 18) of EBV derived from NKTCL tumor biopsies. We assembled 27 EBV genomes and detected an average of 1,152 single nucleotide variants and 44.8 indels (<50 bp) of EBV per sample. We also identified frequent focal EBV genome deletions and integrated EBV fragments in the host genome. Moreover, Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NKTCL-derived EBVs are closely clustered; transcriptome analysis revealed less activation of both latent and lytic genes and larger amount of T-cell epitope alterations in NKTCL, as compared with other EBV-associated cancers. Furthermore, we observed transcriptional defects of the BARTs miRNA by deletion, and the disruption of host NHEJ1 by integrated EBV fragment, implying novel pathogenic mechanisms of EBV. Taken together, we reported for the first time global mutational and transcriptional profiles of EBV in NKTCL clinical samples, revealing important somatic events of EBV and providing insights to better understanding of EBV's contribution in tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Genoma Viral , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/genética , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Virais/genética , Adulto , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/epidemiologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/virologia , Masculino , Mutação , Células T Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
Blood ; 132(11): 1146-1158, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054295

RESUMO

Mature T-cell lymphomas, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL), represent a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with dismal outcomes and limited treatment options. To determine the extent of involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway in this malignancy, we performed targeted capture sequencing of 188 genes in this pathway in 171 PTCL and NKTL cases. A total of 272 nonsynonymous somatic mutations in 101 genes were identified in 73% of the samples, including 258 single-nucleotide variants and 14 insertions or deletions. Recurrent mutations were most frequently located in STAT3 and TP53 (15%), followed by JAK3 and JAK1 (6%) and SOCS1 (4%). A high prevalence of STAT3 mutation (21%) was observed specifically in NKTL. Novel STAT3 mutations (p.D427H, E616G, p.E616K, and p.E696K) were shown to increase STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 in the absence of cytokine, in which p.E616K induced programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by robust binding of activated STAT3 to the PD-L1 gene promoter. Consistent with these findings, PD-L1 was overexpressed in NKTL cell lines harboring hotspot STAT3 mutations, and similar findings were observed by the overexpression of p.E616K and p.E616G in the STAT3 wild-type NKTL cell line. Conversely, STAT3 silencing and inhibition decreased PD-L1 expression in STAT3 mutant NKTL cell lines. In NKTL tumors, STAT3 activation correlated significantly with PD-L1 expression. We demonstrated that STAT3 activation confers high PD-L1 expression, which may promote tumor immune evasion. The combination of PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and STAT3 inhibitors might be a promising therapeutic approach for NKTL, and possibly PTCL.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
14.
Haematologica ; 103(2): 278-287, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097495

RESUMO

The molecular biology of primary nodal T- and NK-cell lymphoma and its relationship with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type is poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the relationship between nodal and extranodal Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphomas using gene expression profiling and copy number aberration analyses. We performed gene expression profiling and copy number aberration analysis on 66 cases of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/NK-cell lymphoma from nodal and extranodal sites, and correlated the molecular signatures with clinicopathological features. Three distinct molecular clusters were identified with one enriched for nodal presentation and loss of 14q11.2 (TCRA loci). T/NK-cell lymphomas with a nodal presentation (nodal-group) were significantly associated with older age, lack of nasal involvement, and T-cell lineage compared to those with an extranodal presentation (extranodal-group). On multivariate analysis, nodal presentation was an independent factor associated with short survival. Comparing the molecular signatures of the nodal and extranodal groups it was seen that the former was characterized by upregulation of PD-L1 and T-cell-related genes, including CD2 and CD8, and downregulation of CD56, consistent with the CD8+/CD56-immunophenotype. PD-L1 and CD2 protein expression levels were validated using multiplexed immunofluorescence. Interestingly, nodal group lymphomas were associated with 14q11.2 loss which correlated with loss of TCR loci and T-cell origin. Overall, our results suggest that T/NK-cell lymphoma with nodal presentation is distinct and deserves to be classified separately from T/NK-cell lymphoma with extranodal presentation. Upregulation of PD-L1 indicates that it may be possible to use anti-PD1 immunotherapy in this distinctive entity. In addition, loss of 14q11.2 may be a potentially useful diagnostic marker of T-cell lineage.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/genética , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem da Célula , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/classificação , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/virologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/classificação , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Deleção de Sequência/genética
15.
Nat Genet ; 49(11): 1633-1641, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991254

RESUMO

Durian (Durio zibethinus) is a Southeast Asian tropical plant known for its hefty, spine-covered fruit and sulfury and onion-like odor. Here we present a draft genome assembly of D. zibethinus, representing the third plant genus in the Malvales order and first in the Helicteroideae subfamily to be sequenced. Single-molecule sequencing and chromosome contact maps enabled assembly of the highly heterozygous durian genome at chromosome-scale resolution. Transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of sulfur-, ethylene-, and lipid-related pathways in durian fruits. We observed paleopolyploidization events shared by durian and cotton and durian-specific gene expansions in MGL (methionine γ-lyase), associated with production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). MGL and the ethylene-related gene ACS (aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) were upregulated in fruits concomitantly with their downstream metabolites (VSCs and ethylene), suggesting a potential association between ethylene biosynthesis and methionine regeneration via the Yang cycle. The durian genome provides a resource for tropical fruit biology and agronomy.


Assuntos
Bombacaceae/genética , Liases de Carbono-Enxofre/genética , Frutas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Aminoácidos Cíclicos/biossíntese , Bombacaceae/classificação , Bombacaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bombacaceae/metabolismo , Liases de Carbono-Enxofre/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ligases/genética , Ligases/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
16.
Cancer Discov ; 7(10): 1116-1135, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667006

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a hepatobiliary malignancy exhibiting high incidence in countries with endemic liver-fluke infection. We analyzed 489 CCAs from 10 countries, combining whole-genome (71 cases), targeted/exome, copy-number, gene expression, and DNA methylation information. Integrative clustering defined 4 CCA clusters-fluke-positive CCAs (clusters 1/2) are enriched in ERBB2 amplifications and TP53 mutations; conversely, fluke-negative CCAs (clusters 3/4) exhibit high copy-number alterations and PD-1/PD-L2 expression, or epigenetic mutations (IDH1/2, BAP1) and FGFR/PRKA-related gene rearrangements. Whole-genome analysis highlighted FGFR2 3' untranslated region deletion as a mechanism of FGFR2 upregulation. Integration of noncoding promoter mutations with protein-DNA binding profiles demonstrates pervasive modulation of H3K27me3-associated sites in CCA. Clusters 1 and 4 exhibit distinct DNA hypermethylation patterns targeting either CpG islands or shores-mutation signature and subclonality analysis suggests that these reflect different mutational pathways. Our results exemplify how genetics, epigenetics, and environmental carcinogens can interplay across different geographies to generate distinct molecular subtypes of cancer.Significance: Integrated whole-genome and epigenomic analysis of CCA on an international scale identifies new CCA driver genes, noncoding promoter mutations, and structural variants. CCA molecular landscapes differ radically by etiology, underscoring how distinct cancer subtypes in the same organ may arise through different extrinsic and intrinsic carcinogenic processes. Cancer Discov; 7(10); 1116-35. ©2017 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1047.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
17.
Am J Cancer Res ; 7(3): 484-502, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28401006

RESUMO

AT rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in a broad variety of tumors. The mechanisms that involve ARID1A in ampullary cancer progression remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the frequency of ARID1A and KRAS mutations in ampullary adenomas and adenocarcinomas and in duodenal adenocarcinomas from two cohorts of patients from Singapore and Romania, correlated with clinical and pathological tumor features, and assessed the functional role of ARID1A. In the ampullary adenocarcinomas, the frequency of KRAS and ARID1A mutations was 34.7% and 8.2% respectively, with a loss or reduction of ARID1A protein in 17.2% of the cases. ARID1A mutational status was significantly correlated with ARID1A protein expression level (P=0.023). There was a significant difference in frequency of ARID1A mutation between Romania and Singapore (2.7% versus 25%, P=0.04), suggestive of different etiologies. One somatic mutation was detected in the ampullary adenoma group. In vitro studies indicated the tumor suppressive role of ARID1A. Our results warrant further investigation of this chromatin remodeller as a potential early biomarker of the disease, as well as identification of therapeutic targets in ARID1A mutated ampullary cancers.

18.
Oncoimmunology ; 5(8): e1191731, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622062

RESUMO

Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) face a clinically intractable disease with poor survival rates, attributed to exceptionally high levels of metastasis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is pronounced at inflammatory foci within the tumor; however, the immunological mechanisms promoting tumor dissemination remain unclear. It is well established that tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, a preferential use of glycolysis for energy production, even in the presence of oxygen, to support rapid growth. We hypothesized that the metabolic pathways utilized by tumor-infiltrating macrophages are altered in PDAC, conferring a pro-metastatic phenotype. We generated tumor-conditioned macrophages in vitro, in which human peripheral blood monocytes were cultured with conditioned media generated from normal pancreatic or PDAC cell lines to obtain steady-state and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), respectively. Compared with steady-state macrophages, TAMs promoted vascular network formation, augmented extravasation of tumor cells out of blood vessels, and induced higher levels of EMT. TAMs exhibited a pronounced glycolytic signature in a metabolic flux assay, corresponding with elevated glycolytic gene transcript levels. Inhibiting glycolysis in TAMs with a competitive inhibitor to Hexokinase II (HK2), 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), was sufficient to disrupt this pro-metastatic phenotype, reversing the observed increases in TAM-supported angiogenesis, extravasation, and EMT. Our results indicate a key role for metabolic reprogramming of tumor-infiltrating macrophages in PDAC metastasis, and highlight the therapeutic potential of using pharmacologics to modulate these metabolic pathways.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 8: 195-202, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27428430

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the primary cancer of the bile duct system. The role of bile duct tissue microbiomes in CCA tumorigenesis is unestablished. To address this, sixty primary CCA tumors and matched normals, from both liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) associated (OVa, n=28) and non-O. viverrini associated (non-OVa, n=32) cancers, were profiled using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. A distinct, tissue-specific microbiome dominated by the bacterial families Dietziaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Oxalobacteraceae was observed in bile duct tissues. Systemic perturbation of the microbiome was noted in tumor and paired normal samples (vs non-cancer normals) for several bacterial families with a significant increase in Stenotrophomonas species distinguishing tumors vs paired normals. Comparison of parasite associated (OVa) vs non-associated (non-OVa) groups identified enrichment for specific enteric bacteria (Bifidobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae). One of the enriched families, Bifidobacteriaceae, was found to be dominant in the O. viverrini microbiome, providing a mechanistic link to the parasite. Functional analysis and comparison of CCA microbiomes revealed higher potential for producing bile acids and ammonia in OVa tissues, linking the altered microbiota to carcinogenesis. These results define how the unique microbial communities resident in the bile duct, parasitic infections and the tissue microenvironment can influence each other, and contribute to cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/etiologia , Colangiocarcinoma/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Opistorquíase/complicações , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Opisthorchis , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biodiversidade , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenoma , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 17(9): 1240-7, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27470079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), nasal type, is a rare and aggressive malignancy that occurs predominantly in Asian and Latin American populations. Although Epstein-Barr virus infection is a known risk factor, other risk factors and the pathogenesis of NKTCL are not well understood. We aimed to identify common genetic variants affecting individual risk of NKTCL. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study of 189 patients with extranodal NKTCL, nasal type (WHO classification criteria; cases) and 957 controls from Guangdong province, southern China. We validated our findings in four independent case-control series, including 75 cases from Guangdong province and 296 controls from Hong Kong, 65 cases and 983 controls from Guangdong province, 125 cases and 1110 controls from Beijing (northern China), and 60 cases and 2476 controls from Singapore. We used imputation and conditional logistic regression analyses to fine-map the associations. We also did a meta-analysis of the replication series and of the entire dataset. FINDINGS: Associations exceeding the genome-wide significance threshold (p<5 × 10(-8)) were seen at 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to the class II MHC region on chromosome 6, with rs9277378 (located in HLA-DPB1) having the strongest association with NKTCL susceptibility (p=4·21 × 10(-19), odds ratio [OR] 1·84 [95% CI 1·61-2·11] in meta-analysis of entire dataset). Imputation-based fine-mapping across the class II MHC region suggests that four aminoacid residues (Gly84-Gly85-Pro86-Met87) in near-complete linkage disequilibrium at the edge of the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DPB1 could account for most of the association between the rs9277378*A risk allele and NKTCL susceptibility (OR 2·38, p value for haplotype 2·32 × 10(-14)). This association is distinct from MHC associations with Epstein-Barr virus infection. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first time that a genetic variant conferring an NKTCL risk is noted at genome-wide significance. This finding underlines the importance of HLA-DP antigen presentation in the pathogenesis of NKTCL. FUNDING: Top-Notch Young Talents Program of China, Special Support Program of Guangdong, Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (20110171120099), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-11-0529), National Medical Research Council of Singapore (TCR12DEC005), Tanoto Foundation Professorship in Medical Oncology, New Century Foundation Limited, Ling Foundation, Singapore National Cancer Centre Research Fund, and the US National Institutes of Health (1R01AR062886, 5U01GM092691-04, and 1R01AR063759-01A1).


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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