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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 455, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a high burden of syphilis infection. Expanding syphilis testing to improve timely diagnosis and treatment is critical to improve syphilis control. However, syphilis testing rates remain low among MSM, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We describe the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess whether provision of syphilis self-testing services can increase the uptake of syphilis testing among MSM in China. METHODS: Four hundred forty-four high-risk MSM will be recruited online and randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to (1) standard syphilis self-testing arm; (2) a self-testing arm program enhanced with crowdsourcing and a lottery-based incentive, and (3) a standard of care (control). Self-testing services include a free syphilis self-test kit through the mail at monthly intervals. Participants in the lottery incentive arm will additionally receive health promotion materials generated from an open crowdsourcing contest and be given a lottery draw with a 10% chance to win 100 RMB (approximately 15 US Dollars) upon confirmed completion of syphilis testing. Syphilis self-test kits have step-by-step instructions and an instructional video. This is a non-blinded, open-label, parallel RCT. Participants in each arm will be followed-up at three and 6 months through WeChat (a social media app like Facebook messenger). Confirmation of syphilis self-test use will be determined by requiring participants to submit a photo of the used test kit to study staff via secure data messaging. Both self-testing and facility-based testing will be ascertained by sending a secure photographic image of the completed kit through an existing digital platform. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants who tested for syphilis in the past 3 months. DISCUSSION: Findings from this study will provide much needed insight on the impact of syphilis self-testing on promoting routine syphilis screening among MSM. The findings will also contribute to our understanding of the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of syphilis self-testing. These findings will have important implications for self-testing policy, both in China and internationally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900022409 (10 April, 2019).

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 219-224, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The mostly-resolved first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in China provided a unique opportunity to investigate how the initial characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak predict its subsequent magnitude. METHODS: We collected publicly available COVID-19 epidemiological data from 436 Chinese cities from 16th January-15th March 2020. Based on 45 cities that reported >100 confirmed cases, we examined the correlation between early-stage epidemic characteristics and subsequent epidemic magnitude. RESULTS: We identified a transition point from a slow- to a fast-growing phase for COVID-19 at 5.5 (95% CI, 4.6-6.4) days after the first report, and 30 confirmed cases marked a critical threshold for this transition. The average time for the number of confirmed cases to increase from 30 to 100 (time from 30-to-100) was 6.6 (5.3-7.9) days, and the average case-fatality rate in the first 100 confirmed cases (CFR-100) was 0.8% (0.2-1.4%). The subsequent epidemic size per million population was significantly associated with both of these indicators. We predicted a ranking of epidemic size in the cities based on these two indicators and found it highly correlated with the actual classification of epidemic size. CONCLUSIONS: Early epidemic characteristics are important indicators for the size of the entire epidemic.

3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WHO recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) receive gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing, but many evidence-based preventive services are unaffordable. The pay-it-forward strategy offers an individual a gift (eg, a test for sexually transmitted diseases) and then asks whether they would like to give a gift (eg, a future test) to another person. This study examined the effectiveness of a pay-it-forward programme to increase gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing among MSM in China. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled superiority trial at three HIV testing sites run by MSM community-based organisations in Guangzhou and Beijing, China. We included MSM aged 16 years or older who were seeking HIV testing and met indications for gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing. Restricted randomisation was done using computer-generated permuted blocks. 30 groups were randomised into three arms (1:1:1): a pay-it-forward arm in which men were offered free gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing and then asked whether they would like to donate for testing of prospective participants, a pay-what-you-want arm in which men were offered free testing and given the option to pay any desired amount for the test, and a standard-of-care arm in which testing was offered at ¥150 (US$22). There was no masking to arm assignment. The primary outcome was gonorrhoea and chlamydia test uptake ascertained by administrative records. We used generalised estimating equations to estimate intervention effects with one-sided 95% CIs and a prespecified superiority margin of 20%. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03741725. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2018, and Jan 19, 2019, 301 men were recruited and included in the analysis. 101 were randomly assigned to the pay-it-forward group, 100 to the pay-what-you-want group, and 100 to the standard-of-care group. Test uptake for gonorrhoea and chlamydia was 56% (57 of 101 participants) in the pay-it-forward arm, 46% (46 of 100 participants) in the pay-what-you-want arm, and 18% (18 of 100 participants) in the standard-of-care arm. The estimated difference in test uptake between the pay-it-forward and standard-of-care group was 38·4% (95% CI lower bound 28·4%). Among men in the pay-it-forward arm, 54 of 57 (95%) chose to donate to support testing for others. INTERPRETATION: The pay-it-forward strategy can increase gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing uptake among Chinese MSM and could be a useful tool for scaling up preventive services that carry a mandatory fee. FUNDING: US National Institute of Health; Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, sponsored by UNICEF, UNDP, World Bank, and WHO; the National Key Research and Development Program of China; Doris Duke Charitable Foundation; and Social Entrepreneurship to Spur Health.

4.
AIDS ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To appropriately plan for rollout and monitor impact of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) it is important to understand PrEP continuation and come to a consensus on how best to measure PrEP continuation. This study reviews data on PrEP continuation to document how it is reported, and to compare continuation over time and across populations. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health and reviewed abstracts from HIV conferences from 2017-2018 for studies reporting primary data on PrEP continuation. Findings were summarized along a PrEP cascade and continuation was presented by population at months 1, 6, and 12, with random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 2,578 articles and 596 abstracts identified, 41 studies were eligible covering 22,034 individuals. Continuation data were measured and reported inconsistently. Results showed high discontinuation at month 1 and persistent discontinuation at later time points in many studies. Pooled continuation estimates were 66% at month 1 (n = 5,348; 95% CI: 48%-82%), 63% at month 6 (n = 13,629; 95% CI: 48%-77%), and 71% at month 12 (n = 14,933; 95% CI: 60%-81%; higher estimate than previous timepoints due to inclusion of different studies). Adequate data were not available to reliably compare estimates across populations. CONCLUSIONS: This review found that discontinuation at 1 was high, suggesting PrEP initiations may be a poor measure of effectiveness. Continuation declined further over time in many studies, indicating existing cross-sectional indicators may not be adequate to understand PrEP use patterns. Studies do not measure continuation consistently, and consensus is needed.

5.
Int J Behav Med ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) shoulder a disproportionate HIV burden. Early initiation and adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be critical to reversing the HIV epidemic in China, but ART usage remains suboptimal among MSM diagnosed with HIV. One understudied but potentially important factor underpinning suboptimal ART usage is personal belief in supernatural explanatory models of health and illness (supernatural explanatory models). This study examines associations between beliefs in supernatural explanatory models and ART usage among MSM in China. METHOD: In 2017, an online survey was distributed nationwide throughout China by gay community-based organizations. Eligible study participants were self-identified MSM between 16 and 30 years old who had tested positive for HIV and who had seen a doctor in the last 2 years. Beliefs in supernatural explanatory models were measured using a three-item scale developed specifically for the Chinese population (range, 3-15). RESULTS: Of 73 participants, the majority were currently using ART (83.6%) and 42.5% expressed some endorsement of belief in supernatural explanatory models. However, among 21 participants with the strongest belief in supernatural explanatory models, prevalence of current ART usage was 61.9%. Stronger belief in supernatural explanatory models was significantly associated with lower likelihood of current ART usage (adjusted odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.75). CONCLUSION: Belief in supernatural explanatory models may be a powerful predictor of ART usage among MSM living with HIV in China. Further studies are needed to corroborate these findings and elucidate mechanisms of association.

6.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(4): 147-156, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324482

RESUMO

HIV self-testing (HIVST) allows individuals to interpret and report their own test results, thus decentralizing testing. Yet, this decentralization can make it difficult to verify self-testing results, which is important for linkage to care and surveillance. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize methods for verifying HIVST use and results. We followed guidance from the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 on systematic reviews. We searched four journal databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane Library), one clinical trials database (ClinicalTrials.gov), two conference abstract databases (International AIDS Society and Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections) and one gray literature database (OpenGrey). We included studies that verified opening of kits or test results. Two researchers independently screened articles and extracted data regarding HIVST location, method of verification, who performed verification, proportion of results verified, and primary or secondary kit distribution. The search yielded 3853 unique citations, of which 40 contained information on HIVST verification and were included. Among these 40 studies, 13 were in high-income countries, 16 were in middle-income countries, and 11 were in low-income countries. Seventeen studies included key populations and two focused on youth. Three methods verified results: supervision by a health provider, returning used test kits, and electronic transmission of photographs. One method verified opening of kits using Bluetooth sensors. Although HIVST has increased worldwide, strategies to verify self-testing results remain limited. These findings suggest a need for additional innovative strategies for verifying HIVST use and results and linkage of self-testing results to surveillance and care systems.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275071

RESUMO

To understand the epidemiology, evolutionary and transmission characteristics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC in Nanjing, China. One hundred and fifty-nine patients with HIV-1 CRF07_BC were recruited. DNA sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and molecular transmission cluster analysis were conducted to determine the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary characteristics. Of these HIV-1-infected patients, 95.6% were male, and men who sex with men (76.7%) were the main transmission route. Only 34.0% of these cases were born in Nanjing, and most of them (64.8%) reported having multiple sex partners in the last 6 months. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 CRF07_BC revealed two lineages. Overall, 67.3% of Nanjing sequences were connected to at least one other individual distributed in 11 clusters, and the average degree was 21.2 with range (1-178). The clustered patients were more likely to be male. The time to a most recent common ancestor for the early HIV-1 CRF07_BC circulating in Nanjing was estimated to be 1998.71[1997.36-2001.07]. The mean estimated evolutionary rate for the epidemic cluster was slightly lower at 2.38[2.12-2.65] × 10-3 per site per year with the relaxed exponential clock model. HIV-1 CRF07_BC was transmitted into Nanjing more than 20 years ago from Yunnan and has become one of the most predominant subtypes with a higher evolutionary rate than before.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 183, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106820

RESUMO

After publication of the original article [1], the authors would like to add a co-author, Dr. Stephen Pan, who contributed sufficiently to this manuscript.

9.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(4): 232-237, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partner notification (PN) is an essential component of syphilis control and is recommended by Chinese Sexually Transmitted Disease guidelines. However, in China, studies examining local practice are limited. This study evaluated PN outcomes among persons with early syphilis infection in an urban district in China. METHODS: From 2011 to 2017, persons diagnosed with early syphilis were asked to participate in an evaluation of supportive patient referral partner services for all recent sex partners, and the contact and case finding indices were determined in Nanshan District, Shenzhen, China. RESULTS: During the study period, 642 index patients with early syphilis reported 1749 sex partners. Of those partners, 678 were potentially contactable and 525 (30%) were contacted. The overall contact index was 0.82. Among the 1749 partners reported, 1108 (63%) were described as casual partners, and only 37 (3%) were contacted (contact index 0.13) compared with 641 partners who were either spouses and regular partners (contact index, 1.37). Among those 525 partners contacted, 418 (80%) were tested, and 205 (39%) were diagnosed with and treated for syphilis. Among those, 9 (4%) were primary, 26 (13%) were secondary, 16 (8%) were early latent, and 154 (49%) were other syphilis infections. The overall case finding index was 0.29. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve PN practices in China, which include developing operational guidelines of PN and to develop and evaluate novel PN ways like using Internet-based strategy.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 44, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticipated HIV stigma, i.e., the expectation of adverse experiences from one's seroconversion, is associated with both negative psychological and behavioral outcomes. We know little about anticipated HIV stigma's relationship with emerging technologies, such as HIV self-testing (HIVST) and online sex-seeking platforms, that have become popular among populations that are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study examined correlates of anticipated HIV stigma among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: In July 2016, MSM, who were ≥ 16 years old and self-reported as HIV negative or unknown, were recruited from a gay mobile phone application in China. Information regarding socio-demographics, sexual behaviors, sexual health service utilization, and anticipated HIV stigma were collected. Anticipated HIV stigma (i.e., negative attitude toward future stigmatization of HIV seroconversion by others) was measured as the mean score from a 7-item Likert-scale ranging from 1 (low) to 4 (high). Generalized linear models were conducted to examine the factors associated with the anticipated HIV stigma scores. RESULTS: Overall, 2006 men completed the survey. Most men completed high school (1308/2006, 65.2%) and had an annual personal income of ≤9200 USD (1431/2006, 71.3%). The mean anticipated HIV stigma score for the participants was 2.98 ± 0.64. Using social media to seek sexual partners was associated with higher anticipated HIV stigma (Adjusted ß = 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05 to 0.17, p = 0.001). HIV self-testing (Adjusted ß = - 0.07, 95%CI: - 0.13 to - 0.01, p = 0.02) and having disclosed one's sexual orientation to a healthcare provider (Adjusted ß = - 0.16, 95%CI: - 0.22 to - 0.96, p < 0.001) were associated with lower anticipated HIV stigma. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that anticipated HIV stigma is still common among Chinese MSM not living with HIV. Tailored anti-HIV stigma campaigns on social media are especially needed, and the promotion of HIVST may be a promising approach.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Soronegatividade para HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Telefone Celular , China , Estudos Transversais , Revelação , HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Autorrelato , Testes Sorológicos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Mídias Sociais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 8, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing is used increasingly in health and medical research. Crowdsourcing is the process of aggregating crowd wisdom to solve a problem. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize quantitative evidence on crowdsourcing to improve health. METHODS: We followed Cochrane systematic review guidance and systematically searched seven databases up to September 4th 2019. Studies were included if they reported on crowdsourcing and related to health or medicine. Studies were excluded if recruitment was the only use of crowdsourcing. We determined the level of evidence associated with review findings using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: We screened 3508 citations, accessed 362 articles, and included 188 studies. Ninety-six studies examined effectiveness, 127 examined feasibility, and 37 examined cost. The most common purposes were to evaluate surgical skills (17 studies), to create sexual health messages (seven studies), and to provide layperson cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) out-of-hospital (six studies). Seventeen observational studies used crowdsourcing to evaluate surgical skills, finding that crowdsourcing evaluation was as effective as expert evaluation (low quality). Four studies used a challenge contest to solicit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing promotion materials and increase HIV testing rates (moderate quality), and two of the four studies found this approach saved money. Three studies suggested that an interactive technology system increased rates of layperson initiated CPR out-of-hospital (moderate quality). However, studies analyzing crowdsourcing to evaluate surgical skills and layperson-initiated CPR were only from high-income countries. Five studies examined crowdsourcing to inform artificial intelligence projects, most often related to annotation of medical data. Crowdsourcing was evaluated using different outcomes, limiting the extent to which studies could be pooled. CONCLUSIONS: Crowdsourcing has been used to improve health in many settings. Although crowdsourcing is effective at improving behavioral outcomes, more research is needed to understand effects on clinical outcomes and costs. More research is needed on crowdsourcing as a tool to develop artificial intelligence systems in medicine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42017052835. December 27, 2016.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Crowdsourcing/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Crowdsourcing/métodos , Humanos
12.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(2): 721-731, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571020

RESUMO

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a diverse population yet are often treated as a monolithic risk group. In China, MSM have long been characterized as a "bridge population" of closeted men who are married to (or will marry) women due to sociocultural expectations. Latent class models can inform a more nuanced yet empirical characterization of this population. In total, 1424 eligible respondents recruited online provided self-reported behavioral data. Nine items related to constructs including sexual behaviors, sexual orientation, and gender identity informed the latent class model. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between latent class membership and HIV-related sexual and health-seeking behaviors. Model fit indicated a population structure made up of four classes that we characterized as "Gender nonconforming" (4.3%), "Closeted-unmarried" (29.9%), "Closeted-married" (24.6%), and "Out" (41.2%). Members of the "gender nonconforming" class were more likely to report HIV-related risk behaviors, and "Closeted-unmarried" class members were less likely to report health-seeking behaviors, both relative to "Out" members. The largest latent class was made up of members of the "Out" class, an enlightening revision of a population traditionally viewed as largely closeted men. Two types of "closeted" classes emerged, distinguished by divergent tendencies regarding marriage and health seeking. Findings suggest that current understandings of Chinese MSM are simplistic (regarding closeted behaviors) and too narrow (in its definition of MSM as cisgender men). A more nuanced understanding of MSM subgroups and their heterogeneous risk behaviors will be critical for provision of more meaningful prevention services.

13.
Glob Public Health ; 15(1): 83-96, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378138

RESUMO

People's beliefs in supernatural explanatory models of health and illness - beliefs in divine and/or supernatural forces to inform how they perceive, interpret, and respond to health and illness - may have important implications for their use of healthcare services, especially among individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES). However, the relevance of such research for contexts with strong Confucian and Buddhist traditions and sexual minority subpopulations remains unclear. We conducted a nation-wide survey in China of 503 men who have sex with men (MSM) to test hypotheses examining how supernatural beliefs impact commitment to a primary healthcare provider and testing history for HIV and syphilis. We also tested hypotheses regarding how SES may moderate such effects. Results indicate that strength of supernatural beliefs is associated with less commitment to a primary care provider and lower likelihood of HIV testing, particularly among men with lower educational attainment. However, among men with low income, supernatural belief was associated with higher likelihood of testing for HIV and syphilis. Belief in supernatural explanatory models of health and illness may have substantial influence on healthcare use among MSM in China. As religion and spirituality evolves within China, additional research concerning supernatural beliefs and healthcare use is warranted.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(10): 2178-2186, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis self-testing may help expand syphilis testing among men who have sex with men (MSM). China has rapidly scaled up human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-testing, creating an opportunity for integrated syphilis self-testing. However, there is a limited literature on implementing syphilis self-testing. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Chinese MSM in 2018. Participants completed a survey instrument including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, syphilis self-testing, and HIV self-testing history. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify correlates of syphilis self-testing. We also recorded potential harms associated with syphilis self-testing. RESULTS: Six hundred ninety-nine MSM from 89 cities in 21 provinces in China completed the study. A total of 361/699 (51.7%) men tested for syphilis, of whom 174/699 (24.9%) men used syphilis self-testing. Among 174 who had self-tested, 90 (51.7%) reported that the self-test was their first syphilis test and 161 (92.5%) reported that they undertook syphilis self-testing together with HIV self-testing. After adjusting for covariates, syphilis self-testing was correlated with disclosure of sexual orientation to family or friends (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.73), reporting 2-5 male sexual partners (aOR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.04-3.16), HIV self-testing (aOR, 39.90; 95% CI, 17.00-93.61), and never tested for syphilis in the hospital (aOR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.86-4.72). Self-reported harms associated with syphilis self-testing were minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling up syphilis self-testing could complement facility-based testing in China among MSM. Self-testing may increase first-time testing and has limited harms. Our findings suggest that syphilis self-testing could be integrated into HIV self-testing services.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(1): 136-139, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237616

RESUMO

Syphilis control programs have been scaled up due to the substantial burden in China. We analyzed syphilis incidence according to demographic, spatiotemporal, and economic factors. The increasing latent syphilis diagnoses and declining congenital syphilis suggest the effectiveness of scale-up screening. However, primary and secondary cases persist, especially in inland provinces.

18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(12): e1917134, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825501

RESUMO

Importance: Despite a global increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs), there is limited focus and investment in STI management within HIV programs, in which risks for STIs are likely to be elevated. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of STIs at initiation of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP; emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) and the incidence of STIs during PrEP use. Data Sources: Nine databases were searched up to November 20, 2018, without language restrictions. The implementers of PrEP were also approached for additional unpublished data. Study Selection: Studies reporting STI prevalence and/or incidence among PrEP users were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were extracted independently by at least 2 reviewers. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical assessment tool for prevalence and incidence studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled STI prevalence (ie, within 3 months of PrEP initiation) and STI incidence (ie, during PrEP use, after 3 months). Results: Of the 3325 articles identified, 88 were included (71 published and 17 unpublished). Data came from 26 countries; 62 studies (70%) were from high-income countries, and 58 studies (66%) were from programs only for men who have sex with men. In studies reporting a composite outcome of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis, the pooled prevalence was 23.9% (95% CI, 18.6%-29.6%) before starting PrEP. The prevalence of the STI pathogen by anatomical site showed that prevalence was highest in the anorectum (chlamydia, 8.5% [95% CI, 6.3%-11.0%]; gonorrhea, 9.3% [95% CI, 4.7%-15.2%]) compared with genital sites (chlamydia, 4.0% [95% CI, 2.0%-6.6%]; gonorrhea, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.9%-3.7%]) and oropharyngeal sites (chlamydia, 2.4% [95% CI, 0.9%-4.5%]; gonorrhea, 4.9% [95% CI, 1.9%-9.1%]). The pooled incidence of studies reporting the composite outcome of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and early syphilis was 72.2 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 60.5-86.2 per 100 person-years). Conclusions and Relevance: Given the high burden of STIs among individuals initiating PrEP as well as persistent users of PrEP, this study highlights the need for active integration of HIV and STI services for an at-risk and underserved population.

19.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 16(6): 431-438, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792704

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature on progress towards UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV prevention and treatment among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. RECENT FINDINGS: China has made progress towards UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets among MSM. However, socio-structural barriers, including HIV-related stigma and homophobia, persist at each stage of the HIV care continuum, leading to substantial levels of attrition and high risk of forward HIV transmission. Moreover, access to key prevention tools, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, is still limited. Multilevel interventions, many using digital intervention, have been shown effective in pragmatic randomized controlled trials in China. Multilevel interventions incorporating digital health have led to significant improvement in engagement of Chinese MSM in the HIV care continuum. However, interventions that address socio-structural determinants, including HIV-related stigma and discrimination, towards Chinese MSM are needed.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Adulto , China , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Homofobia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1054, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary care may be an avenue to increase coverage of HIV testing but it is unclear what challenges primary healthcare professionals in low- and middle-income countries face. We describe the HIV testing practices in community health centres (CHCs) and explore the staff's attitude towards further development of HIV testing services at the primary care level in China. METHODS: We conducted a national, cross-sectional survey using a stratified random sample of CHCs in 20 cities in 2015. Questionnaires were completed by primary care doctors and nurses in CHCs, and included questions regarding their demographics, clinical experience and their views on the facilitators and barriers to offering HIV testing in their CHC. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between staff who would offer HIV testing and their sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 3580 staff from 158 CHCs participated. Despite the majority (81%) agreeing that HIV testing was an important part of healthcare, only 25% would provide HIV testing when requested by a patient. The majority (71%) were concerned about reimbursement, and half (47%) cited lack of training as a major barrier. Almost half (44%) believed that treating people belonging to high-risk populations would scare other patients away, and 6% openly expressed their dislike of people belonging to high-risk populations. Staff who would offer HIV testing were younger (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.97 per year increase in age, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.97-0.98); trained as a doctor compared to a nurse (aOR 1.79, 95%CI:1.46-2.15); held a bachelor degree or above (aOR 1.34, 95%CI:1.11-1.62); and had previous HIV training (aOR 1.55, 95%CI:1.27-1.89). CONCLUSIONS: Improving HIV training of CHC staff, including addressing stigmatizing attitudes, and improving financial reimbursement may help increase HIV testing coverage in China.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV/imunologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , China , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/economia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/psicologia , Educação Médica , Educação em Enfermagem , Feminino , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos/economia , Testes Sorológicos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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