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1.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12859, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early life is a critical window for adiposity programming. Metabolic-profile in early life may reflect this programming and correlate with later life adiposity. We investigated if metabolic-profile at 3 months of age is predictive for body composition at 2 years and if there are differences between boys and girls and between infant feeding types. METHODS: In 318 healthy term-born infants, we determined body composition with skinfold measurements and abdominal ultrasound at 3 months and 2 years of age. High-throughput-metabolic-profiling was performed on 3-month-blood-samples. Using random-forest-machine-learning-models, we studied if the metabolic-profile at 3 months can predict body composition outcomes at 2 years of age. RESULTS: Plasma metabolite-profile at 3 months was found to predict body composition at 2 years, based on truncal: peripheral-fat-skinfold-ratio (T:P-ratio), with a predictive value of 75.8%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 50%. Predictive value was higher in boys (Q2  = 0.322) than girls (Q2  = 0.117). Of the 15 metabolite variables most strongly associated with T:P-ratio, 11 were also associated with visceral fat at 2 years of age. CONCLUSION: Several plasma metabolites (LysoPC(22:2), dimethylarginine and others) at 3 months associate with body composition outcome at 2 years. These results highlight the importance of the first months of life for adiposity programming.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371987

RESUMO

It was previously observed that in a population of a high-income country, dietary multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and increased offspring size at birth. In this follow-up study, we investigated whether similar changes are observed with dietary iron supplementation. For this we used the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study with records of maternal GDM status, nutrient supplementation, and extensive offspring birth size measurements. Maternal iron supplementation in pregnancy was associated with GDM development (risk ratio 1.67 (1.01-2.77), p = 0.048, n = 677) as well as offspring size and adiposity (n = 844-868) at birth in terms of weight (ß' = 0.078 (0.024-0.133); p = 0.005), head circumference (ß' = 0.060 (0.012-0.107); p = 0.02), body mass index (ß' = 0.067 (0.014-0.119); p = 0.01), and various skinfold thicknesses (ß' = 0.067-0.094; p = 0.03-0.003). In a subset of participants for whom GDM statuses were available, all these associations were attenuated by adjusting for GDM. Iron supplementation also attenuated the associations between multiple micronutrient supplementation and these same measures. These results suggest that iron supplementation may mediate the effects associated with multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy in a high-income country, possibly through the increased risk of developing GDM.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445039

RESUMO

Growth and nutrition during early life have been strongly linked to future health and metabolic risks. The Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), a longitudinal birth cohort of 2229 mother-infant pairs, was set up in 2001 to investigate early life determinant factors of infant growth and body composition in the UK setting. To carry out extensive profiling of breastmilk intakes and composition in relation to infancy growth, the Cambridge Baby Growth and Breastfeeding Study (CBGS-BF) was established upon the original CBGS. The strict inclusion criteria were applied, focusing on a normal birth weight vaginally delivered infant cohort born of healthy and non-obese mothers. Crucially, only infants who were exclusively breastfed for the first 6 weeks of life were retained in the analysed study sample. At each visit from birth, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and then at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, longitudinal anthropometric measurements and blood spot collections were conducted. Infant body composition was assessed using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) at 6 weeks and 3 months of age. Breast milk was collected for macronutrients and human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) measurements. Breast milk intake volume was also estimated, as well as sterile breastmilk and infant stool collection for microbiome study.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Leite Humano , Valor Nutritivo , Adiposidade , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Tempo , Circunferência da Cintura , Ganho de Peso
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211149

RESUMO

Age at first sexual intercourse and age at first birth have implications for health and evolutionary fitness. In this genome-wide association study (age at first sexual intercourse, N = 387,338; age at first birth, N = 542,901), we identify 371 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 11 sex-specific, with a 5-6% polygenic score prediction. Heritability of age at first birth shifted from 9% [CI = 4-14%] for women born in 1940 to 22% [CI = 19-25%] for those born in 1965. Signals are driven by the genetics of reproductive biology and externalising behaviour, with key genes related to follicle stimulating hormone (FSHB), implantation (ESR1), infertility and spermatid differentiation. Our findings suggest that polycystic ovarian syndrome may lead to later age at first birth, linking with infertility. Late age at first birth is associated with parental longevity and reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Higher childhood socioeconomic circumstances and those in the highest polygenic score decile (90%+) experience markedly later reproductive onset. Results are relevant for improving teenage and late-life health, understanding longevity and guiding experimentation into mechanisms of infertility.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232374

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early puberty is associated with adverse health outcomes. To identify potential modifiable factors for puberty timing, we examined the associations of prepubertal childhood macronutrient intakes with puberty timing in boys and girls. METHODS: In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, macronutrient intakes at age 6 years were predicted using random intercepts linear regression models of dietary data at 3, 4, 7 (assessed by food frequency questionnaires) and 7.5 years (by 3-day food diaries). Timings of puberty onset (Tanner stage 2 genital or breast (B2) development) and puberty completion (voice breaking (VB) or menarche) were calculated from annual parental and child reports at 8-17 years. Age at peak height velocity (PHV) was derived from repeated height measurements at 5-20 years. Linear regression models were fit to estimate the associations of total energy (TEI) and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, fat, protein) with puberty timing traits, adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. RESULTS: Among 3811 boys, higher TEI, but no macronutrient, was associated with earlier VB. Among 3919 girls, higher TEI was associated with earlier ages at B2, PHV, and menarche. Higher protein intake but not carbohydrate or fat intake (in energy partition models) and substitution of dietary protein for carbohydrate (in nutrient density and residual models) was associated with earlier B2, PHV, and menarche in girls. Findings were not attenuated on additional adjustment for body fat percentage during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest habitual total energy intakes in children, and protein intakes in girls, as potential modifiable determinants of puberty timing.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4178, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234147

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in leukocytes is the most common form of clonal mosaicism, caused by dysregulation in cell-cycle and DNA damage response pathways. Previous genetic studies have focussed on identifying common variants associated with LOY, which we now extend to rarer, protein-coding variation using exome sequences from 82,277 male UK Biobank participants. We find that loss of function of two genes-CHEK2 and GIGYF1-reach exome-wide significance. Rare alleles in GIGYF1 have not previously been implicated in any complex trait, but here loss-of-function carriers exhibit six-fold higher susceptibility to LOY (OR = 5.99 [3.04-11.81], p = 1.3 × 10-10). These same alleles are also associated with adverse metabolic health, including higher susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes (OR = 6.10 [3.51-10.61], p = 1.8 × 10-12), 4 kg higher fat mass (p = 1.3 × 10-4), 2.32 nmol/L lower serum IGF1 levels (p = 1.5 × 10-4) and 4.5 kg lower handgrip strength (p = 4.7 × 10-7) consistent with proposed GIGYF1 enhancement of insulin and IGF-1 receptor signalling. These associations are mirrored by a common variant nearby associated with the expression of GIGYF1. Our observations highlight a potential direct connection between clonal mosaicism and metabolic health.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Y/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mosaicismo , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Leucócitos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(11): e12818, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthropometry-based equations are commonly used to estimate infant body composition. However, existing equations were designed for newborns or adolescents. We aimed to (a) derive new prediction equations in infancy against air-displacement plethysmography (ADP-PEA Pod) as the criterion, (b) validate the newly developed equations in an independent infant cohort and (c) compare them with published equations (Slaughter-1988, Aris-2013, Catalano-1995). METHODS: Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), UK, had anthropometry data at 6 weeks (N = 55) and 3 months (N = 64), including skinfold thicknesses (SFT) at four sites (triceps, subscapular, quadriceps and flank) and ADP-derived total body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). Prediction equations for FM and FFM were developed in CBGS using linear regression models and were validated in Sophia Pluto cohort, the Netherlands, (N = 571 and N = 447 aged 3 and 6 months, respectively) using Bland-Altman analyses to assess bias and 95% limits of agreement (LOA). RESULTS: CBGS equations consisted of sex, age, weight, length and SFT from three sites and explained 65% of the variance in FM and 79% in FFM. In Sophia Pluto, these equations showed smaller mean bias than the three published equations in estimating FM: mean bias (LOA) 0.008 (-0.489, 0.505) kg at 3 months and 0.084 (-0.545, 0.713) kg at 6 months. Mean bias in estimating FFM was 0.099 (-0.394, 0.592) kg at 3 months and -0.021 (-0.663, 0.621) kg at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: CBGS prediction equations for infant FM and FFM showed better validity in an independent cohort at ages 3 and 6 months than existing equations.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 44(8): 1852-1859, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172490

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the link between HLA polymorphisms that predispose to type 1 diabetes and birth size, infancy growth, and/or circulating IGF-I in a general population-based birth cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Cambridge Baby Growth Study is a prospective observational birth cohort study that recruited 2,229 newborns for follow-up in infancy. Of these, 612 children had DNA available for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HLA region that capture the highest risk of type 1 diabetes: rs17426593 for DR4, rs2187668 for DR3, and rs7454108 for DQ8. Multivariate linear regression models at critical ages (cross-sectional) and mixed-effects models (longitudinal) were performed under additive genetic effects to test for associations between HLA polymorphisms and infancy weight, length, skinfold thickness (indicator of adiposity), and concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). RESULTS: In longitudinal models, the minor allele of rs2187668 tagging DR3 was associated with faster linear growth (P = 0.007), which was more pronounced in boys (P = 3 × 10-7) than girls (P = 0.07), and was also associated with increasing IGF-I (P = 0.002) and IGFBP-3 (P = 0.003) concentrations in infancy. Cross-sectionally, the minor alleles of rs7454108 tagging DQ8 and rs17426593 tagging DR4 were associated with lower IGF-I concentrations at age 12 months (P = 0.003) and greater skinfold thickness at age 24 months (P = 0.003), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The variable associations of DR4, DR3, and DQ8 alleles with growth measures and IGF-I levels in infants from the general population could explain the heterogeneous growth trajectories observed in genetically at-risk cohorts. These findings could suggest distinct mechanisms involving endocrine pathways related to the HLA-conferred type 1 diabetes risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-DQ/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígeno HLA-DR3/genética , Antígeno HLA-DR4 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091768

RESUMO

Common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an index of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). We undertook a cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of measures of cIMT in 6400 individuals. Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the potential causal role of DNA methylation in the link between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT or clinical cardiovascular disease. The CpG site cg05575921 was associated with cIMT (beta = -0.0264, p value = 3.5 × 10-8) in the discovery panel and was replicated in replication panel (beta = -0.07, p value = 0.005). This CpG is located at chr5:81649347 in the intron 3 of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR). Our results indicate that DNA methylation at cg05575921 might be in the pathway between smoking, cIMT and stroke. Moreover, in a region-based analysis, 34 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified of which a DMR upstream of ALOX12 showed the strongest association with cIMT (p value = 1.4 × 10-13). In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease.

11.
Glycobiology ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142145

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are indigestible carbohydrates with prebiotic, pathogen decoy, and immunomodulatory activities that are theorized to substantially impact infant health. The objective of this study was to monitor HMO concentrations over one year to develop a long-term longitudinal dataset. HMO concentrations in the breast milk of healthy lactating mothers of the Cambridge Baby Growth and Breastfeeding Study (CBGS-BF) were measured at birth, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. HMO quantification was conducted by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection using a newly validated "dilute-and-shoot" method. This technique minimizes sample losses and expedites throughput, making it particularly suitable for the analysis of large sample sets. Varying patterns of individual HMO concentrations were observed with changes in lactation timepoint and maternal secretor status, with the most prominent temporal changes occurring during the first 3 months. This data provides valuable information for the development of human milk banks in view of targeted distribution of donor milk based on infant age. Maternal FUT2 genotype was determined based on identification at single-nucleotide polymorphism rs516246 and compared with the genotype expected based on phenotypic markers in the HMO profile. Surprisingly, two mothers genotyped as secretors produced milk that displayed very low levels of 2'-fucosylated moieties. This unexpected discrepancy between genotype and phenotype suggests that differential enzyme expression may cause substantial variation in HMO profiles between genotypically similar mothers, and current genotypic methods of secretor status determination may require validation with HMO markers from milk analysis.

12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070864

RESUMO

Dietary intakes of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (FAs) have been inconsistently associated with puberty timing. We examined longitudinal associations of prepubertal dietary and plasma phospholipid FAs with several puberty timing traits in boys and girls. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, prepubertal fat intakes at 3-7.5 years and plasma phospholipid FAs at 7.5 years were measured. Timings of Tanner stage 2 genital or breast development and voice breaking or menarche from repeated reports at 8-17 years, and age at peak height velocity (PHV) from repeated height measurements at 5-20 years were estimated. In linear regression models with adjustment for maternal and infant characteristics, dietary substitution of polyunsaturated FAs for saturated FAs, and higher concentrations of dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3n6) and palmitoleic acid (16:1n7) were associated with earlier timing of puberty traits in girls (n = 3872) but not boys (n = 3654). In Mendelian Randomization models, higher genetically predicted circulating dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was associated with earlier menarche in girls. Based on repeated dietary intake data, objectively measured FAs and genetic causal inference, these findings suggest that dietary and endogenous metabolic pathways that increase plasma dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, an intermediate metabolite of n-6 polyunsaturated FAs, may promote earlier puberty timing in girls.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Fosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Puberdade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(8): 1802-1810, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early adiposity rebound (AR) has been associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in adulthood. However, little is known about early predictors of age at AR. We aimed to study the role of perinatal factors and genetic susceptibility to obesity in the kinetics of AR. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) curves were modelled by using mixed-effects cubic models, and age at AR was estimated for 1415 children of the EDEN mother-child cohort study. A combined obesity risk-allele score was calculated from genotypes for 27 variants identified by genome-wide association studies of adult BMI. Perinatal factors of interest were maternal age at delivery, parental education, parental BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and newborn characteristics (sex, prematurity, and birth weight). We used a hierarchical level approach with multivariable linear regression model to investigate the association between these factors, obesity risk-allele score, and age at AR. RESULTS: A higher genetic susceptibility to obesity score was associated with an earlier age at AR. At the most distal level of the hierarchical model, maternal and paternal educational levels were positively associated with age at AR. Children born to parents with higher BMI were more likely to exhibit earlier age at AR. In addition, higher gestational weight gain was related to earlier age at AR. For children born small for gestational age, the average age at AR was 88 [±39] days lower than for children born appropriate for gestational age and 91 [±56] days lower than for children born large for gestational age. CONCLUSION: The timing of AR seems to be an early childhood manifestation of the genetic susceptibility to adult obesity. We further identified low birth weight and gestational weight gain as novel predictors of early AR, highlighting the role of the intrauterine environment in the kinetics of adiposity.

14.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 160, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy was associated with increased offspring size at birth and adiposity, as well as with maternal gestational diabetes risk, in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. In this study we therefore investigated whether folic acid supplementation specifically is associated with similar changes, to test the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation mediates such changes. RESULTS: The majority of mothers who reported supplementing with folic acid in pregnancy (n = 776 in total, 526 of which took multiple micronutrient preparations) did so either from pre- (n = 139) or post-conception (n = 637) largely for all or just the first half of pregnancy. A minority of mothers (n = 198) reported not supplementing with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy was not associated with birth weight [ß' = - 0.003, p = 0.9], height [ß' = - 0.013, p = 0.6], head circumference [ß' = 0.003, p = 0.09] or adiposity (ponderal index [ß' = 0.020, p = 0.5], skinfolds thicknesses [ß' = - 0.029 to + 0.008, p = 0.4-0.9]). Neither was it associated with the development of maternal gestational diabetes (risk ratio 1.2 [0.6‒2.2], p = 0.6). These results suggest that folic acid supplementation in pregnancy did not mediate the previously observed increases in offspring size at birth and adiposity, or the raised gestational diabetes risk, in response to supplementation with multiple micronutrients.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Micronutrientes , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
15.
Mol Autism ; 12(1): 31, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of autistic children suggest that restricted eating, reduced physical activity, and sleep disorders are common; however, no studies attempt to broadly describe the diet, exercise, and sleep patterns of autistic adults or consider relationships between lifestyle behaviors and the widely reported increased risks of obesity and chronic conditions. To address this, the authors developed the largest study of lifestyle patterns of autistic adults and assessed their relationships to body mass index, health outcomes, and family history. METHODS: We administered an anonymized, online survey to n = 2386 adults (n = 1183 autistic) aged 16-90 years of age. We employed Fisher's exact tests and binomial logistic regression to describe diet, exercise, and sleep patterns; mediation of seizure disorders on sleep; body mass index (BMI); relationships of lifestyle factors to BMI, cardiovascular conditions, and diabetic conditions; and sex differences among autistic adults. RESULTS: Autistic adults, and particularly autistic females, exhibit unhealthy diet, exercise, and sleep patterns; they are also more likely to be underweight or obese. Limited sleep duration and high rates of sleep disturbances cannot be accounted for by epilepsy or seizure disorders. Lifestyle factors are positively related to higher risk of cardiovascular conditions among autistic males, even more than family history. LIMITATIONS: Our sample may not be representative of all autistic and non-autistic people, as it primarily comprised individuals who are white, female, have a high school education or higher, and reside in the UK. Our sampling methods may also exclude some individuals on the autism spectrum, and particularly those with moderate to severe intellectual disability. This is a cross-sectional sample that can test for relationships between factors (e.g., lifestyle factors and health outcomes) but cannot assess the direction of these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Autistic adults are less likely to meet minimal health recommendations for diet, exercise, and sleep-and these unhealthy behaviors may relate to excess risk of cardiovascular conditions. Although the present study can only provide preliminary, correlational evidence, our findings suggest that diet, exercise, and sleep should be considered and further investigated as key targets for reducing the now widely reported and dramatically increased risks of health comorbidity and premature death among autistic individuals compared to others. Physicians should work cooperatively with patients to provide health education and develop individualized strategies for how to better manage challenges with diet, exercise, and sleep.

16.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 35(5): 557-568, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite early childhood weight gain being a key indicator of obesity risk, we do not have a good understanding of the different patterns that exist. OBJECTIVES: To identify and characterise distinct groups of children displaying similar early-life weight trajectories. METHODS: A growth mixture model captured heterogeneity in weight trajectories between 0 and 60 months in 1390 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Differences between the classes in characteristics and body size/composition at 9 years were investigated. RESULTS: The best model had five classes. The "Normal" (45%) and "Normal after initial catch-down" (24%) classes were close to the 50th centile of a growth standard between 24 and 60 months. The "High-decreasing" (21%) and "Stable-high" (7%) classes peaked at the ~91st centile at 12-18 months, but while the former declined to the ~75th centile and comprised constitutionally big children, the latter did not. The "Rapidly increasing" (3%) class gained weight from below the 50th centile at 4 months to above the 91st centile at 60 months. By 9 years, their mean body mass index (BMI) placed them at the 98th centile. This class was characterised by the highest maternal BMI; highest parity; highest levels of gestational hypertension and diabetes; and the lowest socio-economic position. At 9 years, the "Rapidly increasing" class was estimated to have 68.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.3, 88.1) more fat mass than the "Normal" class, but only 14.0% (95% CI 9.1, 18.9) more lean mass. CONCLUSIONS: Criteria used in growth monitoring practice are unlikely to consistently distinguish between the different patterns of weight gain reported here.

17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807319

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is an area of intense concern internationally and is influenced by events during antenatal and postnatal life. Although pregnancy complications, such as gestational diabetes and large-for-gestational-age birthweight have been associated with increased obesity risk in offspring, very few successful interventions in pregnancy have been identified. We describe a study protocol to identify if a reduced calorie diet in pregnancy can reduce adiposity in children to 3 years of age. The dietary intervention in gestational diabetes (DiGest) study is a randomised, controlled trial of a reduced calorie diet provided by a whole-diet replacement in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Women receive a weekly dietbox intervention from enrolment until delivery and are blinded to calorie allocation. This follow-up study will assess associations between a reduced calorie diet in pregnancy with offspring adiposity and maternal weight and glycaemia. Anthropometry will be performed in infants and mothers at 3 months, 1, 2 and 3 years post-birth. Glycaemia will be assessed using bloodspot C-peptide in infants and continuous glucose monitoring with HbA1c in mothers. Data regarding maternal glycaemia in pregnancy, maternal nutrition, infant birthweight, offspring feeding behaviour and milk composition will also be collected. The DiGest follow-up study is expected to take 5 years, with recruitment finishing in 2026.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adulto , Glicemia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco
18.
FASEB Bioadv ; 3(4): 205-230, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842847

RESUMO

Low birthweight and reduced height gain during infancy (stunting) may arise at least in part from adverse early life environments that trigger epigenetic reprogramming that may favor survival. We examined differential DNA methylation patterns using targeted methyl sequencing of regions regulating gene activity in groups of rural Gambian infants: (a) low and high birthweight (DNA from cord blood (n = 16 and n = 20, respectively), from placental trophoblast tissue (n = 21 and n = 20, respectively), and DNA from peripheral blood collected from infants at 12 months of age (n = 23 and n = 17, respectively)), and, (b) the top 10% showing rapid postnatal length gain (high, n = 20) and the bottom 10% showing slow postnatal length gain (low, n = 20) based on z score change between birth and 12 months of age (LAZ) (DNA from peripheral blood collected from infants at 12 months of age). Using BiSeq analysis to identify significant methylation marks, for birthweight, four differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified in trophoblast DNA, compared to 68 DMRs in cord blood DNA, and 54 DMRs in 12-month peripheral blood DNA. Twenty-five DMRs were observed to be associated with high and low length for age (LAZ) at 12 months. With the exception of five loci (associated with two different genes), there was no overlap between these groups of methylation marks. Of the 194 CpG methylation marks contained within DMRs, 106 were located to defined gene regulatory elements (promoters, CTCF-binding sites, transcription factor-binding sites, and enhancers), 58 to gene bodies (introns or exons), and 30 to intergenic DNA. Distinct methylation patterns associated with birthweight between comparison groups were observed in DNA collected at birth (at the end of intrauterine growth window) compared to those established by 12 months (near the infancy/childhood growth transition). The longitudinal differences in methylation patterns may arise from methylation adjustments, changes in cellular composition of blood or both that continue during the critical postnatal growth period, and in response to early nutritional and infectious environmental exposures with impacts on growth and longer-term health outcomes.

19.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925946

RESUMO

Previous findings suggest that parental feeding practices may adapt to children's eating behavior and sex, but few studies assessed these associations in toddlerhood. We aimed to study the associations between infant's appetite or children's genetic susceptibility to obesity and parental feeding practices. We assessed infant's appetite (three-category indicator: low, normal or high appetite, labelled 4-to-24-month appetite) and calculated a combined obesity risk-allele score (genetic risk score of body mass index (BMI-GRS)) in a longitudinal study of respectively 1358 and 932 children from the EDEN cohort. Parental feeding practices were assessed at 2-year-follow-up by the CFPQ. Three of the five tested scores were used as continuous variables; others were considered as binary variables, according to the median. Associations between infant's appetite or child's BMI-GRS and parental feeding practices were assessed by linear and logistic regression models, stratified on child's sex if interactions were significant. 4-to-24-month appetite was positively associated with restrictive feeding practices among boys and girls. Among boys, high compared to normal 4-to-24-month appetite was associated with higher use of food to regulate child's emotions (OR [95% CI] = 2.24 [1.36; 3.68]). Child's BMI-GRS was not related to parental feeding practices. Parental feeding practices may adapt to parental perception of infant's appetite and child's sex.


Assuntos
Apetite , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais
20.
Nat Genet ; 53(5): 663-671, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888908

RESUMO

Genetic association results are often interpreted with the assumption that study participation does not affect downstream analyses. Understanding the genetic basis of participation bias is challenging since it requires the genotypes of unseen individuals. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to estimate comparative biases by performing a genome-wide association study contrasting one subgroup versus another. For example, we showed that sex exhibits artifactual autosomal heritability in the presence of sex-differential participation bias. By performing a genome-wide association study of sex in approximately 3.3 million males and females, we identified over 158 autosomal loci spuriously associated with sex and highlighted complex traits underpinning differences in study participation between the sexes. For example, the body mass index-increasing allele at FTO was observed at higher frequency in males compared to females (odds ratio = 1.02, P = 4.4 × 10-36). Finally, we demonstrated how these biases can potentially lead to incorrect inferences in downstream analyses and propose a conceptual framework for addressing such biases. Our findings highlight a new challenge that genetic studies may face as sample sizes continue to grow.


Assuntos
Viés , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Artefatos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tamanho da Amostra , Reino Unido
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