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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244453, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Heart Failure is a chronic syndrome affecting over 5.7 million in the US and 26 million adults worldwide with nearly 50% experiencing depressive symptoms. The objective of the study is to compare the effects of two evidence-based treatment options for adult patients with depression and advanced heart failure, on depressive symptom severity, physical and mental health related quality of life (HRQoL), heart-failure specific quality of life, caregiver burden, morbidity, and mortality at 3, 6 and 12-months. METHODS: Trial design. Pragmatic, randomized, comparative effectiveness trial. Interventions. The treatment interventions are: (1) Behavioral Activation (BA), a patient-centered psychotherapy which emphasizes engagement in enjoyable and valued personalized activities as selected by the patient; or (2) Antidepressant Medication Management administered using the collaborative care model (MEDS). Participants. Adults aged 18 and over with advanced heart failure (defined as New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II, III, and IV) and depression (defined as a score of 10 or above on the PHQ-9 and confirmed by the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview for the DSM-5) selected from all patients at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center who are admitted with heart failure and all patients presenting to the outpatient programs of the Smidt Heart Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. We plan to randomize 416 patients to BA or MEDS, with an estimated 28% loss to follow-up/inability to collect follow-up data. Thus, we plan to include 150 in each group for a total of 300 participants from which data after randomization will be collected and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The current trial is the first to compare the impact of BA and MEDS on depressive symptoms, quality of life, caregiver burden, morbidity, and mortality in patients with depression and advanced heart failure. The trial will provide novel results that will be disseminated and implemented into a wide range of current practice settings. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT03688100.

2.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(3): 281-287, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicidality is common among participants in clinical trials and health services research, but approaches to suicide risk assessment and mitigation vary widely. Studies involving vulnerable populations with limited access to care raise additional ethical concerns. The authors applied a community-partnered approach to develop and implement a suicide-risk management protocol (SRMP) in a depression study in an underresourced setting in Los Angeles. METHODS: Using a community-partnered participatory research framework, the authors designed and adapted the SRMP. Qualitative data regarding SRMP implementation included notes from SRMP development meetings and from study clinicians conducting outreach calls to study participants. Analyses included baseline and 6- and 12-month telephone survey data from 1,018 enrolled adults with moderate to severe depressive symptoms (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10), of whom 48% were Black and 40% Latino. RESULTS: Community stakeholders prioritized a robust SRMP to ensure participant safety. Features included rapid telephone outreach by study clinicians in all cases of reported recent suicidality and expedited treatment access. Using a suicidality timeframe prompt of "in the past 2 weeks," endorsement of suicidality was common (15% at baseline, 32% cumulative). Midway through the study, the SRMP was modified to assess for present suicidality, which reduced the frequency of clinician involvement. Overall, 318 outreach calls were placed, with none requiring an emergency response. Treatment referrals were provided in 157 calls, and outreach was well received. CONCLUSIONS: SRMP implementation in research involving underresourced and vulnerable communities merits additional considerations. Partnering with community stakeholders can facilitate the development of acceptable and feasible SRMP procedures.

3.
J Surg Res ; 261: 310-319, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative respiratory failure is the most common serious postoperative pulmonary complication, yet little is known about factors that can reduce its incidence. We sought to elucidate modifiable factors associated with respiratory failure that developed within the first 5 d after an elective operation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Matched case-control study of adults who had an operation at five academic medical centers between October 1, 2012 and September 30, 2015. Cases were identified using administrative data and confirmed via chart review by critical care clinicians. Controls were matched 1:1 to cases based on hospital, age, and surgical procedure. RESULTS: Our total sample (n = 638) was 56.4% female, 71.3% white, and had a median age of 62 y (interquartile range 51, 70). Factors associated with early postoperative respiratory failure included male gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.63), American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or greater (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.74-4.66), greater number of preexisting comorbidities (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.004-1.30), increased operative duration (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.22), increased intraoperative positive end-expiratory pressure (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.13-1.35) and tidal volume (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.004-1.27), and greater net fluid balance at 24 h (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28). CONCLUSIONS: We found greater intraoperative ventilator volume and pressure and 24-h fluid balance to be potentially modifiable factors associated with developing early postoperative respiratory failure. Further studies are warranted to independently verify these risk factors, explore their role in development of early postoperative respiratory failure, and potentially evaluate targeted interventions.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242210, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 50% of hospital readmissions due to heart failure are preventable, with lack of adherence to prescribed self-care as a driving factor. Remote tracking and reminders issued by mobile health devices could help to promote self-care, which could potentially reduce these readmissions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate two factors: (1) feasibility of enrolling heart failure patients in a remote monitoring regimen that uses wireless sensors and patient-reported outcome measures; and (2) their adherence to using the study devices and completing patient-reported outcome measures. METHODS: Twenty heart failure patients participated in piloting a remote monitoring regimen. Data collection included: (1) physical activity using wrist-worn activity trackers; (2) body weight using bathroom scales; (3) medication adherence using smart pill bottles; and (4) patient -reported outcomes using patient-reported outcome measures. RESULTS: We evaluated 150 hospitalized heart failure patients and enrolled 20 individuals. Two factors contributed to 50% (65/130) being excluded from the study: smartphone ownership and patient discharge. Over the course of the study, 60.0% of the subjects wore the activity tracker for at least 70% of the hours, and 45.0% used the scale for more than 70% of the days. The pill bottle was used less than 10% of the days by 55.0% of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our method of recruiting heart failure patients prior to hospital discharge may not be feasible as the enrollment rate was low. Once enrolled, the majority of subjects maintained a high adherence to wearing the activity tracker but low adherence to using the pill bottle and completing the follow-up surveys. Scale usage was fair, but it received positive reviews from most subjects. Given the observed usage and feedback, we suggest mobile health-driven interventions consider including an activity tracker and bathroom scale. We also recommend administering a shorter survey more regularly and through an easier interface.

6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(12): 3471-3477, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though patient-physician racial concordance correlates with better perceived shared decision-making, Chinese immigrants report low quality of care and have undertreated hypertension regardless of concordance. OBJECTIVE: To inform efforts to change physician behavior and improve quality of hypertension care, we used role theory to explore differences between Chinese American seniors' descriptions of current and desired physician roles in hypertension management. DESIGN: Qualitative interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Immigrant Chinese Americans with hypertension age ≥ 65 years in Los Angeles County. APPROACH: We recruited 15 participants from a senior wellness center for language-matched interviews and blood pressure (BP) checks. Participants described current and desired physician activities for hypertension management. Bilingual research assistants translated audio recordings. Using thematic analysis, a three-member team independently reviewed and coded transcripts to identify themes regarding physician roles in hypertension management; discrepancies were discussed to achieve consensus. Themes were checked for validity in four subsequent focus groups. RESULTS: We completed interviews in 2014. Interviewees' mean age was 70.6 years; seven were female and five had a systolic BP over 150 mmHg. All interviewees reported having race- and language-concordant primary care providers, were prescribed at least one BP medication, and had Medicare. Three major themes encompassed current and desired physician roles in hypertension management: technical expert, empathetic health steward, and health educator. Descriptions of current and desired physician roles differed for all themes, most prominently for empathetic health steward and health educator. Participants desired but did not consistently experience interpersonal engagement or receive hypertension lifestyle counseling, citing visit time pressures. CONCLUSIONS: Among these Chinese American seniors, there remains a gap between current and desired physician roles in hypertension management, particularly interpersonal behaviors and education. Seniors deprioritized these roles in response to perceived physician role strain. Increased attention to the impact of perceived physician role strain might improve shared decision-making and hypertension management.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2010174, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648924

RESUMO

Importance: Adherence to telemonitoring may be associated with heart failure exacerbation but is not included in telemonitoring algorithms. Objective: To assess whether telemonitoring adherence is associated with a patient's risk of hospitalization, emergency department visit, or death. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc secondary analysis of the Better Effectiveness After Transition-Heart Failure randomized clinical trial included patients from 6 academic medical centers in California who were eligible if they were hospitalized for decompensated heart failure and excluded if they were discharged to a skilled nursing facility, were expected to improve because of a medical procedure, or did not have the cognitive or physical ability to participate. The trial compared a telemonitoring intervention with usual care for patients with heart failure after hospital discharge from October 12, 2011, to September 30, 2013. Data analysis was performed from November 8, 2016, to May 10, 2019. Interventions: The intervention group (n = 722) received heart failure education, telephone check-ins, and a wireless telemonitoring system that allowed the patient to transmit weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and selected symptoms. The control group (n = 715) received usual care. Patients were followed up for 180 days after discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was within-person risk of hospitalization, emergency department visit, or death by week during the study period. Poisson regression was used to determine the within-person association of adherence to daily weighing with the risk of experiencing these events in the following week. Results: Among the 538 participants (mean [SD] age, 70.9 [14.1] years; 287 [53.8%] male; 269 [50.7%] white) in the present analysis, adherence was lowest during the first week after enrollment but steadily increased, peaking between days 26 and 60 at 69%, or 371 transmissions. Adherence to weight telemonitoring was associated with events in the following week; an increase in adherence by 1 day was associated with a 19% decrease in the rate of death in the following week (incidence rate ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73-0.90) and an 11% decrease in the rate of hospitalization (incidence rate ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). Adherence in the previous week was not associated with reduced rates of emergency department visits (incidence rate ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-1.02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, lower adherence to weight telemonitoring in a given week was associated with an increased risk of subsequent hospitalization or death in the following week. It is unlikely that this is a result of the telemonitoring intervention; rather, adherence may be an important factor associated with a patient's health status.

9.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(12): 3581-3590, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission rates decreased for myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia with implementation of the first phase of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). It is not established whether readmissions fell for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an HRRP condition added in 2014. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether HRRP penalties influenced COPD readmissions among Medicare, Medicaid, or privately insured patients. DESIGN: We analyzed a retrospective cohort, evaluating readmissions across implementation periods for HRRP penalties ("pre-HRRP" January 2010-April 2011, "implementation" May 2011-September 2012, "partial penalty" October 2012-September 2014, and "full penalty" October 2014-December 2016). PATIENTS: We assessed discharged patients ≥ 40 years old with COPD versus those with HRRP Phase 1 conditions (AMI, CHF, and pneumonia) or non-HRRP residual diagnoses in the Nationwide Readmissions Database. INTERVENTIONS: HRRP was announced and implemented during this period, forming a natural experiment. MEASUREMENTS: We calculated differences-in-differences (DID) for 30-day COPD versus HRRP Phase 1 and non-HRRP readmissions. KEY RESULTS: COPD discharges for 1.2 million Medicare enrollees were compared with 22 million non-HRRP and 3.4 million HRRP Phase 1 discharges. COPD readmissions decreased from 19 to 17% over the study. This reduction was significantly greater than non-HRRP conditions (DID - 0.41%), but not HRRP Phase 1 (DID + 0.02%). A parallel trend was observed in the privately insured, with significant reduction compared with non-HRRP (DID - 0.83%), but not HRRP Phase 1 conditions (DID - 0.45%). Non-significant reductions occurred in Medicaid (DID - 0.52% vs. non-HRRP and - 0.21% vs. Phase 1 conditions). CONCLUSIONS: In Medicare, HRRP implementation was associated with reductions in COPD readmissions compared with non-HRRP controls but not versus other HRRP conditions. Parallel findings were observed in commercial insurance, but not in Medicaid. Condition-specific penalties may not reduce readmissions further than existing HRRP trends.

10.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(7): 962-970, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421168

RESUMO

Importance: Influenza vaccination rates across the US are low. Because few practices send patient reminders for influenza vaccination, a scalable patient reminder system is needed. Objective: To evaluate the effect of patient reminders sent via a health care system's electronic health record patient portal on influenza vaccination rates. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pragmatic, 4-arm randomized clinical trial was performed from October 1, 2018, to March 31, 2019, across the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) health care system. A total of 164 205 patients in 52 primary care practices who had used the patient portal within 12 months were included. Interventions: Patients due for an influenza vaccine were sent a letter via the patient portal of the health care system reminding them about the importance of influenza vaccination, safety of the vaccine, and morbidity associated with influenza. Patients were randomized within primary care practices to 1 of 4 study groups (no reminder [n = 41 070] vs 1 reminder [n = 41 055], 2 reminders [n = 41 046], or 3 reminders [n = 41 034]). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was receipt of 1 or more influenza vaccines as documented in the electronic health record, which was supplemented with influenza vaccination data from external sources (eg, pharmacies). Secondary outcomes were influenza vaccination rates among subgroups and influenza vaccinations self-reported by patients in reply to the portal-based query as having been received elsewhere. Results: A total of 164 205 patients (mean [SD] age, 46.2 [19.6] years; 95 779 [58.3%] female) were randomly allocated to 1 of the 4 study arms. In the primary analysis across all ages and not including patient self-reported vaccinations in reply to portal reminders, influenza vaccination rates were 37.5% for those receiving no reminders, 38.0% for those receiving 1 reminder (P = .008 vs no reminder), 38.2% for those receiving 2 reminders (P = .03 vs no reminder), and 38.2% for those receiving 3 reminders (P = .02 vs no reminder). In the secondary analysis not including patient self-reported vaccinations, among adults aged 18 to 64 years (vaccination rates: 32.0% in the control group, 32.8% in the 1-reminder group, 32.8% in the 2-reminder group, and 32.8% in the 3-reminder group; P = .001), male patients (vaccination rates: 37.3% vs 38.3%, 38.6%, and 38.8%; P = .001), non-Hispanic patients (vaccination rates: 37.6% vs 38.2%, 38.3%, and 38.2%; P = .004), and those who were not vaccinated in the prior 2 years (vaccination rates: 15.3% vs 15.9%, 16.3%, and 16.1%; P < .001), vaccination rates were higher in the portal reminder groups than in the control group; the findings in these 3 subgroups mirrored the findings in the entire population. When self-reported vaccinations received elsewhere were included, influenza vaccination rates were 1.4 to 2.9 percentage points higher in the portal reminder groups, with a dose-response effect (0 reminders: 15 537 [37.8%]; 1 reminder: 16 097 [39.2%]; 2 reminders: 16 426 [40.0%]; and 3 reminders: 16 714 [40.7%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Generic patient portal reminders were effective in minimally increasing influenza vaccination rates, but more intensive or more targeted patient motivational strategies appear to be needed. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03666026.

11.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight telemonitoring may be an effective way to improve patients' ability to manage heart failure and prevent unnecessary utilization of health services. However, the effectiveness of such interventions is dependent upon patient adherence. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine how adherence to weight telemonitoring changes in response to 2 types of events: hospital readmissions and emergency department visits. METHODS: The Better Effectiveness After Transition-Heart Failure trial examined the effectiveness of a remote telemonitoring intervention compared with usual care for patients discharged to home after hospitalization for decompensated heart failure. Participants were followed for 180 days and were instructed to transmit weight readings daily. We used Poisson regression to determine the within-person effects of events on subsequent adherence. RESULTS: A total of 625 events took place during the study period. Most of these events were rehospitalizations (78.7%). After controlling for the number of previous events and discharge to a skilled nursing facility, the rate for adherence decreased by nearly 20% in the 2 weeks after a hospitalization compared with the 2 weeks before (adjusted rate ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.86; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing a rehospitalization had the effect of diminishing adherence to daily weighing. Providers using telemonitoring to monitor decompensation and manage medications should take advantage of the potential "teachable moment" during hospitalization to reinforce the importance of adherence.

12.
J Hosp Med ; 15(4): 219-227, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Readmissions after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are penalized under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP). Understanding attributable diagnoses at readmission would improve readmission reduction strategies. OBJECTIVES: Determine factors that portend 30-day readmissions attributable to COPD versus non-COPD diagnoses among patients discharged following COPD exacerbations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed COPD discharges in the Nationwide Readmissions Database from 2010 to 2016 using inclusion and readmission definitions in HRRP. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We evaluated readmission odds for COPD versus non-COPD returns using a multilevel, multinomial logistic regression model. Patient-level covariates included age, sex, community characteristics, payer, discharge disposition, and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Hospital-level covariates included hospital ownership, teaching status, volume of annual discharges, and proportion of Medicaid patients. RESULTS: Of 1,622,983 (a weighted effective sample of 3,743,164) eligible COPD hospitalizations, 17.25% were readmitted within 30 days (7.69% for COPD and 9.56% for other diagnoses). Sepsis, heart failure, and respiratory infections were the most common non-COPD return diagnoses. Patients readmitted for COPD were younger with fewer comorbidities than patients readmitted for non-COPD. COPD returns were more prevalent the first two days after discharge than non-COPD returns. Comorbidity was a stronger driver for non-COPD (odds ratio [OR] 1.19) than COPD (OR 1.04) readmissions. CONCLUSION: Thirty-day readmissions following COPD exacerbations are common, and 55% of them are attributable to non-COPD diagnoses at the time of return. Higher burden of comorbidity is observed among non-COPD than COPD rehospitalizations. Readmission reduction efforts should focus intensively on factors beyond COPD disease management to reduce readmissions considerably by aggressively attempting to mitigate comorbid conditions.

13.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 55(1): 81-95, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005368

RESUMO

The Veterans Health Administration Home Based Primary Care (VHA-HBPC) program serves Veterans with complex, chronic conditions. Emergency management is a concern for VHA-HBPC programs. Geographic information system (GIS) mapping has been implemented for local program operations in 30 locations. An evaluation assessed GIS mapping as a tool in emergency management, including frontline nurses' and nurse leaders' experiences. Nurses' roles included making and using maps for preparedness and response. Maps provided valuable information, including locations of vulnerable patients (eg, ventilator dependent), community emergency resources, and environmental threats (eg, hurricane). Nurses' willingness to embrace this new technology and skill set was notable.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Enfermagem em Emergência/organização & administração , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Medicina Militar/organização & administração , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Veteranos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
14.
Qual Life Res ; 29(5): 1349-1360, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Half of the 21-item Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) response categories are labeled (0 = No, 1 = Very little, 5 = Very much) and half are not (2, 3, and 4). We hypothesized that the unlabeled response options would not be more likely to be chosen at some place along the scale continuum than other response options and, therefore, not satisfy the monotonicity assumption of simple-summated scoring. METHODS: We performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the MLHFQ items in a sample of 1437 adults in the Better Effectiveness After Transition-Heart Failure study. We evaluated the unlabeled response options using item characteristic curves from item response theory-graded response models for MLHFQ physical and emotional health scales. Then, we examined the impact of collapsing response options on correlations of scale scores with other variables. RESULTS: The sample was 46% female; 71% aged 65 or older; 11% Hispanic, 22% Black, 54% White, and 12% other. The unlabeled response options were rarely chosen. The standard approach to scoring and scores obtained by collapsing adjacent response categories yielded similar associations with other variables, indicating that the existing response options are problematic. CONCLUSIONS: The unlabeled MLHFQ response options do not meet the assumptions of simple-summated scoring. Further assessment of the performance of the unlabeled response options and evaluation of alternative scoring approaches is recommended. Adding labels for response options in future administrations of the MLHFQ should be considered.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Exame Físico
15.
J Telemed Telecare ; 26(6): 341-348, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular electronic consultation is a new service line in consultative medicine and enables care without in-person office visits. We aimed to evaluate accessibility and time saved as measures of efficiency, determine the safety of cardiology electronic consultations, and assess satisfaction by responding cardiologists. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods approach and a modified time-driven, activity-based, costing framework, we retrospectively analysed cardiology electronic consultations. A random subset of 500 electronic consultations referred between 2013-2017 were reviewed. Accessibility was determined based upon increased number of patients served without the need for an in-person clinic visit. To assess safety, medical records were reviewed for emergency room visits or hospital admission at six months from the initial electronic consultation date. Responding cardiologist satisfaction was assessed by voluntary completion of an online survey. RESULTS: The majority of electronic consultations were related to medication advice, clearance for surgery, evaluation of images, or guidance after abnormal testing. Recommendations included echo (10.8%), stress testing (5.0%), other imaging (4.0%) and other subspecialist referrals (3.8%). Electronic consultations were completed within 0.7±0.5 days of the request, with a time to completion of 5-30 min. Over a six-month follow-up, 13.9% of patients had an in-person visit and 2.2% of patients were hospitalised, but none were directly related to the electronic consultation question. Satisfaction by responding cardiologists was modest. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, within a single-payer system, cardiology electronic consultations represent a convenient and safe alternative for providing consultative cardiovascular care, but further optimization is necessary to minimise electronic consultation fatigue experienced by cardiologists.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Consulta Remota/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cardiologia/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(4): 522-531, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032184

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined the effects of cigarette price on intention to quit, quit attempts, and successful cessation among African American smokers in the United States and explored whether price effects differed by income level and menthol use status. Price effects were further compared to White counterparts. METHODS: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 2006 to 2007 and 2010 to 2011 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey to analyze 4213 African American recent active smokers. Three dependent variables were examined: any quit attempts in the past 12 months, successful cessation for at least 3 months, and intention to quit in the next 6 months. For each dependent variable, separate multiple logistic regression models were estimated to determine the impact of cigarette prices. RESULTS: There was no indication that price was associated with quit attempts or successful cessation, but price was positively associated with increased odds of intending to quit among African American smokers (p < .001). In contrast, prices were positively associated with intention to quit and quit attempts for White smokers. The association between price and intention to quit was significantly positive for African American low-income and menthol smokers but was not statistically significant for African American high-income and non-menthol smokers. There was no evidence of a price effect on quit attempts and successful cessation for each subgroup of African Americans. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco tax policy alone may not be enough to increase quit attempts or successful cessation among African Americans. Community-based cessation programs tailored toward African American smokers, especially low-income menthol smokers, are needed. IMPLICATIONS: The results revealed that, among African American smokers, particularly among low-income and menthol smoking African American smokers, price appears to be positively associated with intention to quit; nevertheless, this deterrent effect does not appear to translate to actualized quit attempts or successful cessation. Increasing cigarette prices as a standalone policy may not be independently effective in increasing quit attempts and successful cessation within the African American community. Community-based cessation interventions tailored for African Americans are needed to help further translate desired cessation into actualized quit attempts.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Comércio/economia , Intenção , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Fumar/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Neurol ; 267(2): 479-490, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680185

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Polyneuropathy (PN) is a common condition with significant morbidity. We developed tele-polyneuropathy (tele-PN) clinics to improve access to neurology and increase guideline-concordant PN care. This article describes the mixed-methods evaluation of pilot tele-PN clinics at three community sites within the Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare System. METHODS: For the first 25 patients (48 scheduled visits), we recorded the duration of the tele-PN visit and exam; the performance on three guideline-concordant care indicators (PN screening labs, opiate reduction, physical therapy for falls); and patient-satisfaction scores. We elicited comments about the tele-PN clinic from patients and the clinical team. We combined descriptive statistics with qualitative themes to determine the feasibility and acceptability of the tele-PN clinics. RESULTS: The average tele-PN encounter and exam times were 28.5 and 9.1 min, respectively. PN screening lab completion increased from 80 to 100%. Opiate freedom improved from 68 to 88%. Physical therapy for patients with recent falls increased from 58 to 100%. The tele-PN clinic was preferred for follow-up over in-person clinics in 86% of cases. Convenience was paramount to the clinic's success, saving an average of 231 min per patient in round-trip travel. The medical team's caring and collaborative spirit received high praise. While the clinic's efficiency was equal or superior to in-person care, the limited treatment options for PN and the small clinical exam space are areas for improvement. CONCLUSION: In this pilot, we were able to efficiently see and examine patients remotely, promote guideline-concordant PN care, and provide a high-satisfaction encounter.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Exame Neurológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Polineuropatias/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Telemedicina/normas , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Geriatr Nurs ; 41(3): 282-289, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757414

RESUMO

The Veteran's Health Administration (VHA) Home Based Primary Care (HBPC) program provides comprehensive in-home primary care services to elderly Veterans with complex chronic medical conditions. Nurses have prominent roles in HBPC including as program leaders, primary care providers and nurses who make home visits. Delivery of primary care services to patients in their homes can be challenging due to travel distances, difficult terrain, traffic, and adverse weather. Mapmaking with geographic information systems (GIS) can support optimization of resource utilization, travel efficiency, program capacity, and management during normal operations, and patient safety during disasters. This paper reports on the feasibility, acceptability and outcomes of an initiative to implement GIS mapmaking in VHA HBPC programs. A mixed method evaluation assessed extent of adoption and identified facilitators and barriers to uptake. Results indicate that GIS mapping in VHA HBPC is feasible and can increase effectiveness and efficiency of VHA HBPC nurses.

19.
Am J Surg ; 220(1): 222-228, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administrative data can be used to identify cases of postoperative respiratory failure (PRF). We aimed to determine if recent changes to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicator 11 (PSI 11) and adoption of clinical documentation improvement programs have improved the validity of PSI 11. We also analyzed reasons why PSI 11 was falsely triggered. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of all eligible discharges using health record data from five academic medical centers between October 1, 2012 and September 30, 2015. RESULTS: Of 437 flagged records, 434 (99.3%) were accurately coded and 414 (94.7%) represented true clinical PRF. None of the false positive records involved respiratory failure present on admission. Most (78.3%) false positive records required airway protection but did not have respiratory failure. CONCLUSION: The validity of PSI 11 has improved with recent changes to the code criterion and adoption of clinical documentation improvement programs.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1050, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736844

RESUMO

Introduction: Polyneuropathy (PN) complaints are common, prompting many referrals for neurologic evaluation. To improve access of PN care in distant community clinics, we developed a telemedicine service (patient-clinician interactions using real-time videoconference technology) for PN. The primary goal of this study was to construct a remote exam for PN that is feasible, reliable, and concordant with in-person assessments for use in our tele-PN clinics. Methods: To construct the VA Neuropathy Scale (VANS), we searched the literature for existing, validated PN assessments. From these assessments, we selected a parsimonious set of exam elements based on literature-reported sensitivity and specificity of PN detection, with modifications as necessary for our teleneurology setting (i.e., a technician examination under the direction of a neurologist). We recruited 28 participants with varying degrees of PN to undergo VANS testing under 5 scenarios. The 5 scenarios differed by mode of VANS grading (in-person vs. telemedicine) and by the in-person examiner type (neurologist vs. technician) in telemedicine scenarios. We analyzed concordance between the VANS and a person's medical chart-derived PN status by modeling the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We analyzed reliability of the VANS by mixed effects regression and computing the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of scores across the 5 scenarios. Results: The VA Neuropathy Scale (VANS) tests balance, gait, reflexes, foot inspection, vibration, and pinprick. Possible scores range from 0 to 50 (worst). From the ROC curve, a cutoff of >2 points on the VANS sets the sensitivity and specificity of detecting PN at 98 and 91%, respectively. There is a small (1.3 points) but statistically significant difference in VANS scoring between in-person and telemedicine grading scenarios. For telemedicine grading scenarios, there is no difference in VANS scores between neurologist and technician examinations. The ICC is 0.89 across all scenarios. Discussion: The VANS, informed by existing PN instruments, is a promising clinical assessment tool for diagnosing and monitoring the severity of PN in telemedicine settings. This pilot study indicates acceptable concordance and reliability of the VANS with in-person examinations.

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