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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7495, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820941

RESUMO

The natural history and clinical significance of pachydrusen is unclear. This study aims to compare the longitudinal changes of eyes with pachydrusen and soft drusen and progression to exudative macular neovascularisation (MNV). Patients with a diagnosis of MNV in one eye only and the fellow eye was selected as the study eye. Study eyes were required to have pachydrusen or soft drusen on fundus photographs and follow up of at least 2 years or until exudative MNV occurred. Systematic grading was performed at baseline and change in drusen area and onset of exudative MNV recorded over the period of follow up. A total of 75 eyes from 75 patients (29 with pachydrusen and 46 with soft drusen) were included. There was no difference in the rate of progression to exudative MNV in the soft and pachydrusen groups (13.3% versus 24.1%, p = 0.38). Pachydrusen, as compared to soft drusen, was associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy subtype (85.7% versus 16.7%, p < 0.01) and the location of exudation was co-localised with soft drusen but not with pachydrusen. There was a higher rate of increase in soft drusen area compared to pachydrusen area (27.7 ± 31.9%/year versus 8.7 ± 12.4%/year respectively, p < 0.01). We found no difference in the proportion of eyes that developed exudative MNV in this study however characterisation of drusen evolution patterns revealed a strong association with exudative MNV subtype.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/patologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Drusas Retinianas/patologia , Idoso , Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Drusas Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
2.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 5(5): 458-467, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the distribution and determinants of choroidal thickness (CT) in participants in a population study based on spectral-domain (SD)-OCT measurements. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Ethnic Chinese, Indian, and Malay adults aged more than 50 years without any retinal diseases (e.g., diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy) that might affect the CT were recruited from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. METHODS: Choroidal imaging was performed by SD-OCT (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) in enhanced depth imaging (EDI) mode. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was measured on the foveal line scan by 2 retinal experts independently (YS and KT), and the average was used in the analyses. In Chinese and Indian cohorts in whom macular raster scans were captured, the manufacturer-supplied research software (Heyex SP-X version 6.4.8.116; Heidelberg Engineering) was used to obtain automated segmentation yielding mean choroidal thickness in each of the 9 ETDRS grid sectors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subfoveal choroidal thickness and regional CT in the 9 ETDRS grid sectors. RESULTS: For the SFCT analysis, 2794 eyes of 1619 participants (Chinese, Indian, and Malay ) were included. The mean age was 60.9 years (standard deviation, 7.7), and 797 (49.2%) were male. Mean SFCT was 255.2 µm (standard deviation, 102.6). The normal range of SFCT was 106 to 447 µm (corresponding to 5th and 95th percentile limits of SFCT, respectively). In multivariable models, thinner SFCT was associated with older age, female gender, longer axial length, and Malay (vs. Chinese) ethnicity. In the subset of Chinese and Indian eyes (n = 1842) in whom regional variation was evaluated, the choroid was thickest at the superior and temporal sectors and thinner at the inferior and nasal sectors. CONCLUSIONS: Subfoveal choroidal thickness is influenced by age, gender, and ethnicity along with regional differences even within individual eyes. Subfoveal choroidal thickness also shows a wide range in physiologic limits. These data may be used as a reference in future studies.

3.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 25: 100661, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101980

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inherited metabolic condition caused by pathogenic mutations in the ALPL gene. This leads to deficiency of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP), resulting in decreased mineralization of the bones and/or teeth and multi-systemic complications. Inheritance may be autosomal dominant or recessive, and the phenotypic spectrum, including age of onset, varies widely. We present four families demonstrating both modes of inheritance of HPP and phenotypic variability and discuss the resultant challenges in disease management, genetic counseling, and risk assessment. Failure to consider different modes of inheritance in a family with HPP may lead to an inaccurate risk assessment upon which medical and reproductive decisions may be made. We highlight the essential role of high-quality genetic counseling and meaningful biochemical and molecular testing strategies in the evaluation and management of families with HPP.

4.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 258(8): 1607-1615, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458099

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify common optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics of taxane-related CME (T-CME) to differentiate it from CME associated with other causes (O-CME) and to present multimodal imaging findings of T-CME. METHODS: To differentiate T-CME from O-CME, pooled SD-OCT images from 14 previous publications and images obtained from our multicenter case series of 3 patients with multimodal imaging of T-CME were compared with 16 consecutive cases of O-CME. Images were graded by 2 masked retinal specialists based on the presence of pre-specified OCT characteristics such as CME centered around fovea, outer retinal cysts more prominent compared with inner retinal cysts, continuous outer plexiform layer (OPL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL), intact outer retina layer, attenuation of outer retina layers by overlying retinal layers, and the presence of subretinal fluid. RESULTS: Comparing 19 and 16 SD-OCT images of T-CME and O-CME, respectively, T-CME showed a significantly higher rate of the continuous OPL and IPL layer and a higher composite score of the various pre-specified OCT features. All other individual features showed no significant difference between T-CME and O-CME. All our patients had T-CME that had vague petalloid patterns on the late-stage FFA, with late leakage on ICGA. OCT angiography in one case showed an intact foveal avascular zone. CONCLUSIONS: T-CME is a rare but important complication of taxane chemotherapy. Specific OCT features such as an intact continuous OPL and IPL layer combined with other OCT features can help distinguish T-CME from O-CME, and early diagnosis is clinically important as cessation of taxanes before the retinal layers are disrupted may prevent permanent vision loss.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Feminino , Humanos , Macula Lutea , Edema Macular/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
J Spec Oper Med ; 17(4): 52-55, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29256195

RESUMO

The US Army Special Operations Command and Army Medical Command are at a critical junction in Army medical training. Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF) will receive Forward Resuscitative Surgical Teams (FRSTs) in the near future and must establish a training model to enable successful support for ARSOF operations. The military has been directed by Congress through the 2017 National Defense Authorization Act to embed trauma combat casualty care teams in civilian trauma centers. ARSOF FRSTs should be embedded in the nation's leading civilian trauma centers to build and sustain true expertise in delivering trauma care on the battlefield. The SOF Truths provide valuable insights into the required conditions for success of this new training paradigm.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Medicina Militar/educação , Militares , Centros de Traumatologia , Traumatologia/educação , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/terapia , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
6.
Front Neurol ; 6: 49, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25852633

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms. A challenge in research on this topic has been the need for improved assessment tools to empirically evaluate the risk associated with repeated exposure to blast overpressure levels commonly considered to be too low in magnitude to cause acute injury. Evaluation of serum-based neurotrauma biomarkers provides an objective measure that is logistically feasible for use in field training environments. Among candidate biomarkers, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has some empirical support and was evaluated in this study. We used daily blood draws to examine acute change in UCH-L1 among 108 healthy military personnel who were exposed to repeated low-level blast across a 2-week period. These research volunteers also wore pressure sensors to record blast exposures, wrist actigraphs to monitor sleep patterns, and completed daily behavioral assessments of symptomology, postural stability, and neurocognitive function. UCH-L1 levels were elevated as a function of participating in the 2-week training with explosives, but the correlation of UCH-L1 elevation and blast magnitude was weak and inconsistent. Also, UCH-L1 elevations did not correlate with deficits in behavioral measures. These results provide some support for including UCH-L1 as a measure of central nervous system effects from exposure to low-level blast. However, the weak relation observed suggests that additional indicators of blast effect are needed.

7.
JAMA ; 304(5): 553-62, 2010 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20682935

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Studies from the Eastern Region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) have provided anecdotal reports of sexual violence. This study offers a population-based assessment of the prevalence of sexual violence and human rights abuses in specific territories within Eastern DRC. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of and correlations with sexual violence and human rights violations on residents of specific territories of Eastern DRC including information on basic needs, health care access, and physical and mental health. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional, population-based, cluster survey of 998 adults aged 18 years or older using structured interviews and questionnaires, conducted over a 4-week period in March 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sexual violence prevalence and characteristics, symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), human rights abuses, and physical and mental health needs among Congolese adults in specific territories of Eastern DRC. RESULTS: Of the 1005 households surveyed 998 households participated, yielding a response rate of 98.9%. Rates of reported sexual violence were 39.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.2%-47.2%; n = 224/586) among women and 23.6% (95% CI, 17.3%-29.9%; n = 107/399) among men. Women reported to have perpetrated conflict-related sexual violence in 41.1% (95% CI, 25.6%-56.6%; n = 54/148) of female cases and 10.0% (95% CI, 1.5%-18.4%; n = 8/66) of male cases. Sixty-seven percent (95% CI, 59.0%-74.5%; n = 615/998) of households reported incidents of conflict-related human rights abuses. Forty-one percent (95% CI, 35.3%-45.8%; n = 374/991) of the represented adult population met symptom criteria for MDD and 50.1% (95% CI, 43.8%-56.3%; n = 470/989) for PTSD. CONCLUSION: Self-reported sexual violence and other human rights violations were prevalent in specific territories of Eastern DRC and were associated with physical and mental health outcomes.


Assuntos
Violações dos Direitos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Conflito Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Violações dos Direitos Humanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia
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