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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 538, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is well known to produce a blinding keratitis and serious brain infection known as encephalitis. Effective treatment is problematic, and can continue up to a year, and even then, recurrence can ensue. Partly, this is due to the capability of vegetative amoebae to convert into resistant cysts. Cysts can persist in an inactive form for decades while retaining their pathogenicity. It is not clear how Acanthamoeba cysts monitor environmental changes, and determine favourable conditions leading to their emergence as viable trophozoites. METHODS: The role of ion transporters in the encystation and excystation of Acanthamoeba remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of sodium, potassium and calcium ion transporters as well as proton pump inhibitors on A. castellanii encystation and excystation and their effects on trophozoites. RESULTS: Remarkably 3',4'-dichlorobenzamil hydrochloride a sodium-calcium exchange inhibitor, completely abolished excystation of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, lanthanum oxide and stevioside hydrate, both potassium transport inhibitors, resulted in the partial inhibition of Acanthamoeba excystation. Conversely, none of the ion transport inhibitors affected encystation or had any effects on Acanthamoeba trophozoites viability. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that ion transporters are involved in sensory perception of A. castellanii suggesting their value as potential therapeutic targets to block cellular differentiation that presents a significant challenge in the successful prognosis of Acanthamoeba infections.

2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 55(7): 1989-1997, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28404683

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), while Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is an acute infection that lasts a few days, while GAE is a chronic to subacute infection that can last up to several months. Here, we present a literature review of 86 case reports from 1968 to 2016, in order to explore the affinity of these amoebae for particular sites of the brain, diagnostic modalities, treatment options, and disease outcomes in a comparative manner.


Assuntos
Amebíase/patologia , Balamuthia mandrillaris/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/parasitologia , Naegleria fowleri/isolamento & purificação , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 8(4): 687-688, 2017 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225265

RESUMO

Brain infections due to Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri often lead to death. Despite differences in the preferential sites of infection in the brain, the mode of delivery of drugs is often intravenous. Here, we discuss targeted therapeutic approach to affect parasite viability without affecting the host cells, with an eye to improve formulation of drugs and/or administration of drugs against brain-eating amoebae.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
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