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1.
APMIS ; 128(1): 41-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692136

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequently reported zoonoses worldwide. The well-documented increase in the ciprofloxacin resistance has increased the importance of rapid detection of the resistance. The incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance was investigated using real-time PCR. Identification of one hundred and fifty-eight strains was performed by PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin was determined by Epsilometer test. Following the confirmation of the efficiencies of singleplex real-time PCR methods using two different probes, a cytosine to thymine point mutation at codon 86 was detected by allelic discrimination. Of the 158 strains, 114 (72.2%) were determined to be resistant to ciprofloxacin. The MIC50 and the MIC90 of ciprofloxacin were found to be 8 and ≥32 mg/L, respectively. By real-time PCR, the presence of the mutation was confirmed in all, but one, resistant strains and the absence of the mutation was demonstrated in all, but one, susceptible strains. The rate of resistance is high among C. jejuni strains and ciprofloxacin should not be used in the treatment of such infections in Turkey. A cytosine to thymine mutation is the most frequently detected mechanism for the resistance. Real-time PCR can be used for the quick screening of the resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mutação Puntual , Alelos , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Turquia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27405131

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen isolated from respiratory tract samples in cystic fibrosis (CF) cases. Rate of infection with S. aureus small-colony variants (SCVs) also is increasing in CF patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility and genotypic property of S. aureus SCVs in respiratory tract samples of CF patients admitted to Istanbul Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Turkey. Among 305 respiratory tract samples from 84 CF patients, normal S. aureus isolates were present in 71% of the CF patients and S. aureus SCVs in 21%. The highest antibiotic resistance was against penicillin (82%) followed by clarithromycin (21%) in S. aureus SCVs, while resistance to levofloxacin was low (2%) in normal S. aureus isolates but was 16% in S. aureus SCVs. No mecA and mecC were detected. The S. aureus strains constituted 24 different genotypes based on pulsed field gel-electrophoresis assay. The possible existence of S. aureus SCVs that are more resistant to antibiotis than normal S. aureus should be taken into considerstion when treating CF patients for this pernicious bacterial infection.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Criança , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Turquia/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26513928

RESUMO

Resistance of 235 Haemophilus influenzae clinical isolates from Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital, Turkey were determined against 19 antibiotics by disc diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of those found resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxim, chloramphenicol and meropenem were measured using E-test. Ampicillin-resistant isolates producing beta-lactamase as demonstrated by a nitrocefin assay were analyzed for the presence of TEM-1 and ROB-1 genes by PCR. Eleven percent of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg/ml), of which 73% were beta-lactamase positive and carried TEM-1 gene, but none were positive for ROB-1 gene. All isolates susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate (20/10 µg/ml), azithromycin (15 µg/ml), aztreonam (30 µg/ml), cefotaxime (30 µg/ml), ceftriaxone (30 µg/ml), ciprofloxacin (5 µg/ml), levofloxacin (5 µg/ml), and telithromycin (15 µg/ml) but 24%, 15%, 4%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.25/23.75 µg/ml), tetracycline (30 µg/ml), cefaclor (30 µg/ml), clarithromycin (15 µg/ml), cefuroxime (30 µg/ml), meropenem (10 µg/ml), chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (10/10 µg/ml), nalidixic acid (30 µg/ml), and fosfomycin (30 µg/ml), respectively. MIC values of three cefuroxime-resistant isolates was 24, 48 and > 256 µg/ml, respectively; of two meropenem-resistant strains > 256 µg/ml; and of two chloramphenicol-susceptible isolates (by disc diffusion method) 6 µg/ml (considered as intermediate susceptible). Multiple- antibiotics resistance was detected in 15% of the strains, with resistance to 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics in 8.5%, 4%, 2%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the isolates, respectively. By identifying beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae, empirical therapy with beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations and second generation cephalosporins would be inappropriate for such patients (approximately 3%). Our findings will contribute to the epidemiological and clinical data regarding H. influenzae infection in Turkey.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus influenzae/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Turquia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24964661

RESUMO

Five OXA-48 producing Klebsiella oxytoca strains isolated in April-July 2010 were analyzed. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using disc diffusion method and VITEK 2 system. Carbapenemase activity was investigated using the Modified Hodge test. Beta-lactamase genes were detected by PCR and blaOXA-48 was sequenced. Genetic relatedness between K. oxytoca isolates was investigated by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Carbapenemase activity was detected in 5 isolates by Modified Hodge test. Although all strains were resistant to ertapenem and imipenem, only one strain was also resistant to meropenem. BlaOXA-48 in 4 isolates harbored 2 or 3 other ESBL types, namely, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, or blaVEB. PFGE revealed 3 different pulso-types among the K. oxytoca isolates. The presence of OXA-48 carbapenemase in other species of clinical isolates should also be considered.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/transmissão , Klebsiella oxytoca/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella oxytoca/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella oxytoca/enzimologia , Klebsiella oxytoca/genética , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia
5.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 47(3): 442-60, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23971922

RESUMO

Bacteria in Salmonella genus are separated into more than 2600 serovars. It is important that the isolated serovars and their sources are known in a certain country. This will help the identification of new Salmonella serovars that will be isolated later on. Since there is no Salmonella reference center in Turkey, Salmonella serovars isolated in Turkey were mainly reported by the articles of Aksoycan's manuscripts in various years, and in the list of Töreci and Ang in 1991. The aim of this meta-analysis was to detect and prepare a list for all the Salmonella serovars isolated from human and non-human samples in Turkey up to the end of 2011. In creating this serovar list, libraries, personal and institutional archives, theses, publication lists, books published after scientific meetings and congresses, and international and local periodicals have been explored, and members of Turkish Microbiology Society are communicated via the web site of the society and personal e-mail addresses, and their publications regarding Salmonella serovars were requested. The list also includes the modifications on the names and antigenic formulae of the serovars that were carried out in recent years. The number of serovars isolated in Turkey up to the end of 2011 is 129. Fifty three of them were isolated from humans, 38 from humans and non-human samples, and 38 from non-human samples. The total number of serovars isolated from humans is 91. Twenty seven serovars from serogrup 0:4 (B); 23 serovars from serogrup 0:7 (C1); 25 serovars from serogrup 0:8 (C2-C3); 16 serovars from serogrup 0:9 (D1); 8 serovars from serogrup 0:3,10 (E1) and 5 serovars from serogrup 0:28 (M) have been reported. Only two of the more than 2600 serovars known were isolated firstly in Turkey: S. Istanbul (8:z10: e,n,x) in 1969 and S. Adana (43:z10:1,5) in 1977. Previously, serovars containing 1 and 25 O antigen of S. Boecker ([1],6,14,[25]) were isolated in 1967 and 1971 for the first time in Turkey. In 1967, a serovar containing T1 antigen that appears during S-R alteration in Salmonella, with (T1: b: e,n,x) antigen formula has been isolated from non-human samples and was reported to be a probable S-R alteration of Salmonella Benfica. Furthermore, non-motile isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serogrup 0:7 (C1) and serogrup 0:9 (D) were reported as well. While reporting a new Salmonella isolation in a country one should not be content with only giving the name of the serovar, but also emphasize the antigenic structure and the identification method clearly.


Assuntos
Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/análise , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Humanos , Salmonella/imunologia , Turquia
6.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 43(5): 1178-85, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23431824

RESUMO

Bacterial isolates producing Class D OXA-48 carbapenemase may be missed in routine laboratory testing, allowing them to spread undetected. The purpose of the present study was to detect bla(OXA-48) among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates collected from a university hospital, Turkey. Ninety-two ESBL-producing isolates (66 E. coli, 26 K. pneumoniae) were obtained in 2010. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using the disc diffusion method and VITEK 2 system. Carbapenemase activity was screened using modified Hodge test. Beta-lactamase genes were detected by PCR and bla(OXA-48)-positive amplicons were sequenced. Genetic relatedness among K. pneumoniae isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE). Carbapenemase activity was detected in 1 E. coli and 9 K. pneumoniae isolates and 8 of the K. pneumoniae plus the E. coli isolates were resistant to ertapenem. Three K. pneumoniae and 1 E. coli isolates were resistant to imipenem. All 10 isolates were susceptible to meropenem. bla(OXA-48) was present in all 10 isolates. Additionally, 9 isolates contained at least one beta-lactamase gene, including bla(SHV') bla(CTX-M) and bla(VEB) type. PFGE revealed different karyotypes among 9 K. pneumoniae isolates suggesting that the dissemination of bla(OXA-48) gene was not spread by a single K. pneumoniae clone. Thus OXA-48-producing isolates found in carbapenem-susceptible strains according to CLSI guidelines.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Turquia/epidemiologia
7.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 45(3): 430-45, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21935776

RESUMO

Increasing multidrug resistance in nosocomial Enterococcus strains from all over the world recently enhances the need for further investigation of enterococci, especially their virulence factors. There are still many lacking parts about virulence factors of clinical enterococcus isolates. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance and the presence of potential virulence factors of 91 Enterococcus strains (59 E.faecalis, 31 E.faecium and 1 E.gallinarum) isolated from urine cultures of inpatients between January 2008-June 2010 in our hospital and also to evaluate whether a correlation existed between antibiotic resistance and potential virulence factors. The genes which encoded virulence factors of enterococci; aggregation substance (AS), enterococcal surface protein (ESP) and hyaluronidase (HYL) (asa1, esp, hyl respectively) were studied by molecular methods and haemolysin production and gelatinase activity were studied by phenotypic methods. Vancomycin resistant strains were checked for the presence of vanA and vanB genes. Eight (25.8%) E.faecium isolates were found glycopeptide resistant. In seven of these isolates resistance type was vanA and in one it was neither vanA nor vanB. High-level gentamicin and high-level streptomycin resistance rates were 74.2% and 61.3% in E.faecium strains and were 22% ve 27.1% in E.faecalis strains, respectively. Beta-lactamase production and linezolid resistance were not detected in any of the strains. E.faecium isolates were more resistant (p< 0.001-0.013) than E.faecalis isolates to all tested antibiotics except tetracycline, minocycline, doxycycline and streptogramin (p< 0.001). hyl gene positivity (p< 0.001) was found higher in E.faecium isolates whereas esp (p= 0.003) and asa1 (p< 0.001) gene positivity, haemolysin production (p=0.014) and gelatinase activity (p= 0.029) were higher in E.faecalis isolates. AS and ESP were the most frequent virulence factors, with the rates of 26.7% and 25.6%, respectively. There were 32 (35.6%) strains without any of the investigated virulence factors. We have also detected that asa1 gene positive E.faecalis isolates were more resistant to ciprofloxacin (p= 0.001), norfloxacin (p= 0.006) and levofloxacin (p= 0.001) than asa1 gene negative isolates; esp gene positive E.faecalis isolates were more resistant to doxycycline (p= 0.043) than esp gene negative isolates and hyl gene positive E.faecium isolates were more resistant to nitrofurantoine (p= 0.011) than hyl gene negative isolates. This was the first clinical sample originated study, investigating the corelation between antibiotic resistance and virulence factors in urinary Enterococcus isolates in Turkey.


Assuntos
Bacteriúria/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/patogenicidade , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/genética , Enterococcus faecium/patogenicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Turquia , Fatores de Virulência/genética
8.
New Microbiol ; 34(2): 225-8, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21617836

RESUMO

An extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Providencia stuartii isolate was studied. A qnrA1 gene co-expressing blaVEB-1 gene was detected. Both genes were transferred to the recipient strain. The ciprofloxacin MIC of recipient strain increased tenfold. The blaVEB-1 gene persisted in microorganisms in Turkey but it also spread with PMQR genes to other species. The combination of PMQR with multidrug resistant isolates producing ESBLs may compromise the use of valuable antibiotics. Serious efforts are necessary to detect PMQR determinants not only with common B-lactamases in widespread pathogens but also with uncommon forms that are encountered infrequently.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Plasmídeos/genética , Providencia/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Providencia/genética , Providencia/isolamento & purificação , Providencia/metabolismo
9.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 61(4): 310-2, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18653977

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to search for three plasmid-encoded, quinolone-resistant determinants: qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS. Thus, 460 Gram-negative strains belonging to 11 different genera (clinical, 347; non-clinical, i.e., from a rectal swab, 113), of which 40% were ciprofloxacin-resistant, were recovered from patients in an intensive care unit at the Istanbul Medical Faculty, Turkey, in the years 2000 and 2006. PCR with primers specific for qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS genes and primers specific for a series of ESBL genes were used. One qnrB1 and two qnrS1 genes were identified in three ESBL-positive isolates, whereas no qnrA-positive strain was found. The qnrB1 determinant was identified in a ciprofloxacin-susceptible Enterobacter cloacae isolate that expressed CTX-M-15 beta-lactamase. Two qnrS1-determinants were found in two ciprofloxacin-susceptible E. cloacae isolates that were clonally related, but that had been isolated from different patients; both of these isolates expressed the same ESBL, CTX-M-3. This study detected the first plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinants qnrB1 and qnrS1, among clinical strains obtained from patients in Turkey.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Plasmídeos/genética , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Turquia/epidemiologia
10.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 60(2-3): 82-6, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17515637

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to type the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates recovered from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of these strains. P. aeruginosa (n=49), and S. maltophilia (n=11) isolates which had been recovered from 16 and 8 patients, respectively, during a 1-year period were investigated. Three primers were used for RAPD-PCR typing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of all isolates was performed by the disc diffusion method. RAPD-PCR analysis revealed 21 (P. aeruginosa) and 9 (S. maltophilia) different genotypes. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility results, the P. aeruginosa and S. maltophilia strains were cumulated into 24 and 11 groups, respectively. The CF patients were colonized or infected with P. aeruginosa strains of single or sometimes multiple genotypes which remained stable over several months. Our results also revealed that cross-colonization might be possible among the patients who are followed up at the same center. Piperacillin-tazobactam for P. aeruginosa and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for S. maltophilia were found to be the most active antibiotics according to our results.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/classificação , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/genética , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolamento & purificação
11.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 60(1): 103-5, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16472366

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD) in Turkish Children who had group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections and those who had not. Thirty-one children and adolescents (the study group) were compared with 28 children and adolescents. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) scores were rated between study group and control group. The mean score, obsession and compulsion scores of CY-BOCS in the study group were significantly higher than they were in the control group (P < 0.05). The GABHS infections should be assessed in the etiology of OCD in children. Considering GABHS infections may help the treatment of OCD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Faringite/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/etiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Faringite/complicações , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estatística como Assunto , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/psicologia , Turquia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 4: 28, 2004 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15329153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, has been used in plastic and reconstructive surgery, to relieve venous congestion and to improve the microrevascularization of flaps. In many countries, wild leeches are still provided from local markets and utilised with antibiotic prophylaxies. In this research, results of identification of bacteria in the transport fluid is reported, oral and intestinal floras and the antibiograms of the identified microorganisms are investigated. Also, to avoid possible infections, the ability of hypochloric acid, a disinfectant, to suppress the relevant microorganisms without changing the life style and behavior of leeches in terms of sucking function, is investigated. METHODS: Bacterial identifications and antibiograms of oral and intestinal flora and transport medium were performed for 10 leeches. The optimum concentration of hypochloric acid which eliminated microorganisms without affecting the viability and sucking function of the leeches were determined by dilution of hypochloric acid to 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 ppm concentrations in different groups of 25 leeches. Finally, 20 leeches were applied atraumatically to the bleeding areas of rats, the duration of suction was determined and compared statistically between the leeches treated and not treated with hypochloric acid solution. RESULTS: Aeromonas hydrophilia was the most commonly identified microorganism and found to be resistant to first generation cephalosporins, frequently used in prophylaxis at surgical wards. In the next stages of the study, the leeches were subjected to a series of diluted hypochloric acid solutions. Although disinfection of the transport material and suppression of the oral flora of hirudo medicinalis were successful in 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 ppm concentrations; 12.5 ppm solution was the greatest concentration in which hirudo medicinalis could survive and sucking function was not affected significantly. CONCLUSIONS: External decontamination of wild leeches with 12.5 ppm hypochloric acid enables bacterial suppression without causing negative effects on leech sucking function and life.


Assuntos
Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Hirudo medicinalis/microbiologia , Ácido Hipocloroso/farmacologia , Aplicação de Sanguessugas/normas , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Aeromonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Hirudo medicinalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
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