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Food Chem ; 337: 127753, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777566


The effects of treatment with melatonin on ripening of 'Fuji' apples during storage at 1 °C for 56 d were investigated. The apples were harvested at the commercial ripening stage and treated with 1 mmol L-1 melatonin. Compared with the control, melatonin treated apples had significant reduced ethylene production (28 d-56 d) and weight loss (14 d-56 d) during storage (p < 0.05). Also, the melatonin treatment maintained better apple skin structure throughout storage. The reduced ethylene production was regulated by the decreased expressions of MdACO1, MdACS1, MdAP2.4 and MdERF109, based on RNA-Seq analysis, which was validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Moreover, the activity of 3 enzymes, including peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were significantly increased in melatonin treated fruit (p < 0.05). Taken together, this study highlights the inhibitory effects of melatonin in ethylene biosynthesis and factors influencing postharvest quality in apple.

PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990828


Early ripening apples are usually used for fresh marketing because of short storage life, although they are with high acid and low sugar contents. Understanding the malate metabolism in fleshy fruit and underpinning process during ripening is crucial for particular crop improvement where acidity is a concern for direct consumption or further processing. In this research, a traditional Chinese apple cultivar 'Hongyu', which belongs to early ripening apple cultivar, were freshly harvested at commercial maturity stage (120 Days after full bloom) and used for different storage temperature (4°C, 20°C) and UV-C treatment (following storage at 20°C after treatment). Simple sugars (glucose, sucrose, and fructose) and organic acids (malic, and oxalic) were assessed after 14 d of storage. Compared to fruits stored at 20°C, the malate content in fruits stored at 4°C significantly higher, while it was decreased significantly in UV-C treated fruits stored at 20°C after 14 d of storage. The sugar content was almost similar throughout the UV-C-treated fruits and fruits stored at different temperature. The higher ratios of total sugars to total organic acids in UV-C treated fruits after 14 d suggest that UV-C treatment has the potential to improve the taste of early ripening apple cultivars. Considering the significant difference in malate the samples at 14 d of storage were subjected for RNA-seq analysis. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the phenomena underlying this change were governed by metabolism of malate by the regulation of NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PEPCK) in apple during postharvest storage. This transcriptome profiling results have specified the transcript regulation of malate metabolism and lead to possible taste improvement without affecting the other fruit quality attributes.

Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Malato Desidrogenase/biossíntese , Malatos/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Raios Ultravioleta , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487439


Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) are usually stored at low temperature, which can suppress sprouting and control the occurrence of diseases. However, low temperatures lead potatoes to easily suffer from cold-induced sweetening (CIS), which has a negative effect on food processing. The aim of this research was to investigate potential treatments on controlling CIS in potatoes during postharvest storage. "Atlantic" potatoes were treated with gibberellin and (S)-carvone, respectively, and stored at 4 °C for 90 days. The results showed that gibberellin can significantly accelerate sprouting and sugar accumulation by regulating expressions of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), ß-amylase (BAM1/2), UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) and invertase inhibitor (INH1/2) genes. The opposite effects were found in the (S)-carvone treatment group, where CIS was inhibited by modulation of the expressions of GBSS and INH1/2 genes. In summary, gibberellin treatment can promote sugar accumulation while (S)-carvone treatment has some effects on alleviating sugar accumulation. Thus, (S)-carvone can be considered as a potential inhibitor of some of the sugars which are vital in controlling CIS in potatoes. However, the chemical concentration, treatment time, and also the treatment method needs to be optimized before industrial application.

Conservação de Alimentos , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores
Molecules ; 23(8)2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065188


The 'Hongyu' apple is an early ripening apple cultivar and usually used for fresh marketing. Due to the short ripening period, most of the fruit are harvested at the commercial maturity stage for proper marketing distribution and a longer shelf life. Fruit ripening involves delicate changes to its metabolic and physiological traits through well-organized synchronization of several hormones and regulatory steps. A clear understanding of these hormonal alterations is crucial for extending the period from commercial to physiological ripening. This study was intended to clarify the hormonal alterations and anthocyanin biosynthesis process prior to and immediate after, the harvesting of apple fruit considering the commercial maturity stage. Fruits harvested at 120 Days after flowering (DAF) (HY_4th) was considered as commercially ripened, 110 DAF (HY_3rd) as pre-ripening and 120 DAF followed by five days storage at 20 °C (HY_20 °C_5) as post-ripening samples. Three different stages of fruit were used for transcriptome assembly using RNA-Seq. Results revealed 9187 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the post-ripening samples, which was comparatively lower (922 DEGs) in the pre-ripening fruits. DEGs were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups 'biological process,' 'molecular function' and 'cellular component.' The DEGs were involved in hormonal signaling pathways like ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, gibberellin (GA), brassinosteroid (BR) and anthocyanin biosynthesis pathways such as PAL, 4CL, CHI, DFR, F3H, UFGT. Several transcription factors like the MADS-box gene, MYB, bHLH, NAC, WRKY and HSF were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-ripening fruits. Selected DEGs were subjected to gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results were consistent with those of RNA-Seq. Our data suggested that in addition to ethylene, ABA and other hormones also play key roles in regulating apple fruit ripening and may interact with the ethylene signaling process. Additionally, our data provided an exhibition of the expression pattern of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway.

Antocianinas/biossíntese , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Ácido Abscísico/biossíntese , Ácido Abscísico/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Brassinosteroides/biossíntese , Etilenos/biossíntese , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Giberelinas/biossíntese , Giberelinas/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo