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1.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by excessive desmoplasia and autophagy-dependent tumorigenic growth. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) as a predominant stromal cell type play a critical role in PDAC biology. We have previously reported that autophagy facilitates PSC activation, however, the mechanism remains unknown. We investigated the mechanism of autophagy in PSC activation. METHODS: We compared gene expression profiles between patient-derived PSCs from pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis using a microarray. The stromal expression of target gene in specimen of PDAC patients (n = 63) was analyzed. The effect of target gene on autophagy and activation of PSCs was investigated by small interfering RNAs transfection, and the relationship between autophagy and ER stress was investigated. We analyzed the growth and fibrosis of xenografted tumor by orthotopic models. RESULTS: In analysis of gene expression microarray, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) upregulated in cancer-associated PSCs was identified as the target gene. High stromal ERAP2 expression is associated with a poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown of ERAP2 inhibited unfolded protein response mediated autophagy, and led to inactivation of PSCs, thereby attenuating tumor-stromal interactions by inhibiting production of IL-6 and fibronectin. In vivo, the promoting effect of PSCs on xenografted tumor growth and fibrosis was inhibited by ERAP2 knockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of PSCs activation regulated by autophagy. ERAP2 as a promising therapeutic target may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of PDAC.

2.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-17, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486463

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as new therapeutic options for refractory cancer, they are only effective in select patients. Tumor antigen-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine therapy activates tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, making it an important immunotherapeutic strategy. Salivary ductal carcinoma (SDC) carries a poor prognosis, including poor long-term survival after metastasis or recurrence. In this study, we reported a case of refractory metastatic SDC that was treated with a tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine followed by a single injection of low-dose nivolumab, and a durable complete response was achieved. We retrospectively analyzed the immunological factors that contributed to these long-lasting clinical effects. First, we performed neoantigen analysis using resected metastatic tumor specimens obtained before treatment. We found that the tumor had 256 non-synonymous mutations and 669 class I high-affinity binding neoantigen peptides. Using synthetic neoantigen peptides and ELISpot analysis, we found that peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes cryopreserved before treatment contained pre-existing neoantigen-specific T cells, and the cells obtained after treatment exhibited greater reactivity to neoantigens than those obtained before treatment. Our results collectively suggest that the rapid and long-lasting effect of this combination therapy in our patient may have resulted from the presence of pre-existing neoantigen-specific T cells and stimulation and expansion of those cells following tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine and ICI therapy.

3.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 4047-4052, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling plays a role in inducing malignant phenotypes in several aggressive types of cancers. To create a conclusive therapy targeting TrkB/BDNF signaling in solid refractory cancers, the biological significance of TrkB/BDNF signaling was analyzed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three PDAC cell lines were used as target cells to investigate proliferation and invasiveness. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the TrkB tyrosine kinase inhibitor k252a were used as TrkB/BDNF signaling inhibitors. RESULTS: All PDAC cell lines expressed TrkB and BDNF. When TrkB and BDNF were inhibited by siRNA or k252a, the invasiveness of PANC-1 and SUIT-2 cells significantly decreased. When TrkB was inhibited by siRNA or k252a, proliferation was significantly inhibited in PDAC cells. CONCLUSION: TrkB/BDNF signaling may be a new therapeutic target for PDAC. Therapies targeting TrkB/BDNF signaling may be a conclusive cancer therapy for refractory solid cancer.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkB/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 4101-4115, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Neoantigens are tumor-specific antigens that emerge due to gene mutations in tumor cells, and are highly antigenic epitopes that escape central immune tolerance in the thymus, making cancer vaccine therapy a desirable option. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor neoantigens were predicted in 17 patients with advanced cancer. They were resistant to the standard treatment regime, and their synthetic peptides were pulsed to the patient's monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), and administered to the patient's lymph nodes via ultrasound. RESULTS: Some patients showed sustained tumor shrinkage after this treatment, while some did not respond, showing no ELISpot reaction. Although the number of mutations and the predicted neoantigen epitopes differed between patients, the clinical effect depended more on the presence or absence of an immune response after vaccination rather than the number of neoantigens. CONCLUSION: Intranodal neoantigen peptide-pulsed DC vaccine administration therapy has clinical and immunological efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas , Neoplasias/terapia , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115931

RESUMO

There are no human cancer cell lines of external auditory canal origin available for research use. This report describes the establishment of a culture condition for external auditory canal squamous cell carcinoma, derived from human tumor tissue. Successive squamous cell carcinoma colonies were dissociated by trypsin, subcultured, and maintained on a feeder layer (MMC-TIG-1-20), yielding a clonally proliferating cell culture. Two morphological types of colony were observed: (a) densely packed colonies and (b) colonies with indistinct boundaries characterized by cell-cell complexes with fibroblast feeder cells. The SCC-like characteristics of these cells were evidenced by positivity for p53, SCCA1/2, cytokeratin, and vimentin, and cancer stem cell properties were indicated by positivity for CD44, CD133, Oct3/4, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). One of the unique properties of cell cultures is their tendency to form steric colonies in vitro on feeder layer cells. In addition, in the presence of fresh macrophages, the cells very slowly transform to break away from colonies as free cells, a process that resembles the epidermal-mesenchymal transition, whereby cell-cell interactions are weakened and migration activity is enhanced. These factors are purported to play a key role in cancer cell metastasis.

6.
Transl Oncol ; 14(9): 101152, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134073

RESUMO

In our previous study, we found that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 3 (PTPN3), which is expressed in lymphocytes, enhances lymphocyte activation, suggesting PTPN3 may act as an immune checkpoint molecule. However, PTPN3 is also expressed in various cancers, and the biological significance of PTPN3 in cancer cells is still not well understood, especially for lung neuroendocrine tumor (NET).Therefore, we analyzed the biological significance of PTPN3 in small cell lung cancer and examined the potential for PTPN3 inhibitory treatment as a cancer treatment approach in lung NET including small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC). Experiments in a mouse xenograft model using allo lymphocytes showed that PTPN3 inhibition in SCLC cells enhanced the anti-tumor effect of PTPN3-suppressed activated lymphocytes. In addition, PTPN3 was associated with increased vascularization, decreased CD8/FOXP3 ratio and cellular immunosuppression in SCLC clinical specimens. Experiments in a mouse xenograft model using autocrine lymphocytes also showed that PTPN3 inhibition in LCNEC cells augmented the anti-tumor effect of PTPN3-suppressed activated lymphocytes. In vitro experiments showed that PTPN3 is involved in the induction of malignant traits such as proliferation, invasion and migration. Signaling from PTPN3 is mediated by MAPK and PI3K signals via tyrosine kinase phosphorylation through CACNA1G calcium channel. Our results show that PTPN3 suppression is associated with lymphocyte activation and cancer suppression in lung NET. These results suggest that PTPN3 suppression could be a new method of cancer treatment and a major step in the development of new cancer immunotherapies.

7.
Oncol Rep ; 45(3): 997-1010, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650666

RESUMO

We previously reported that Hedgehog (Hh) signal was enhanced in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and was involved in the induction of malignant phenotype of GBC. In recent years, therapeutics that target Hh signaling have focused on molecules downstream of smoothened (SMO). The three transcription factors in the Hh signal pathway, glioma­associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1), GLI2, and GLI3, function downstream of SMO, but their biological role in GBC remains unclear. In the present study, the biological significance of GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3 were analyzed with the aim of developing novel treatments for GBC. It was revealed that GLI2, but not GLI1 or GLI3, was involved in the cell cycle­mediated proliferative capacity in GBC and that GLI2, but not GLI1 or GLI3, was involved in the enhanced invasive capacity through epithelial­mesenchymal transition. Further analyses revealed that GLI2 may function in mediating gemcitabine sensitivity and that GLI2 was involved in the promotion of fibrosis in a mouse xenograft model. Immunohistochemical staining of 66 surgically resected GBC tissues revealed that GLI2­high expression patients had fewer numbers of CD3+ and CD8+ tumor­infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and increased programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD­L1) expression in cancer cells. These results suggest that GLI2, but not GLI1 or GLI3, is involved in proliferation, invasion, fibrosis, PD­L1 expression, and TILs in GBC and could be a novel therapeutic target. The results of this study provide a significant contribution to the development of a new treatment for refractory GBC, which has few therapeutic options.

8.
Immunol Invest ; 50(5): 562-579, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660279

RESUMO

Chemorefractory ovarian cancer has limited therapeutic options. Hence, new types of treatment including neoantigen-specific immunotherapy need to be investigated. Neoantigens represent promising targets for personalized cancer immunotherapy. We here describe the clinical and immunological effects of a neoantigen peptide-loaded DC-based immunotherapy in a patient with recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer. A 71-year-old female patient with chemorefractory ovarian cancer and malignant ascites received intranodal vaccination of DCs loaded with four neoantigen peptides that were predicted by our immunogenomic pipeline. Following four rounds of vaccinations with this therapy, CA-125 levels were remarkably declined and tumor cells in the ascites were also decreased. Concordantly, the tumor-related symptoms such as respiratory discomfort improved without any adverse reactions. The reactivity against one HLA-A2402-restricted neoantigen peptide derived from a mutated PPM1 F protein was detected in lymphocytes from peripheral blood by IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Furthermore, the neoantigen (PPM1 F mutant)-specific TCRs were detected in the tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes post-vaccination. Our results showed that vaccination with intranodal injection of neoantigen peptide-loaded DCs may have clinical and immunological impacts on cancer treatment.

9.
Cell Immunol ; 358: 104237, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137650

RESUMO

We previously reported that protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 3 (PTPN3), which is upregulated in activated lymphocytes, acts as an immune checkpoint. However, the mechanism by which PTPN3 expression is enhanced in activated lymphocytes is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of PTPN3 expression in activated lymphocytes with a view for developing a novel immune checkpoint inhibitor that suppresses PTPN3. Through the activation process, lymphocytes showed enhanced NFκB activation as well as increased PTPN3 expression. NFκB enhanced proliferation, migration, and cytotoxicity of lymphocytes. Furthermore, NFκB enhanced PTPN3 expression and tyrosine kinase activation. TGFß reduced PTPN3 expression and NFκB activation in the cancer microenvironment, and suppressed the biological activity of lymphocytes. The results of this study are expected to provide significant implications for improving existing immunotherapy and developing novel immunotherapy.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/fisiologia , Fosforilação/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 3/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia
10.
Cancer Lett ; 484: 9-15, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380129

RESUMO

Chemotherapy and immunotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have limited success. One reason for this is thought to be the cancer microenvironment surrounding PDAC. Hypoxia is a feature of the cancer microenvironment. Under hypoxia, different various molecules and signaling pathways are activated compared with normoxia. To develop a new effective therapeutic strategy for PDAC, we need to target these hypoxic conditions to overcome PDAC. To inhibit the malignant phenotype, the cellular changes that occur under hypoxia should be elucidated. Various molecules and signaling that are activated by hypoxia may contribute to the induction of malignant phenotypes of PDAC such as proliferation, invasion, tumorigenesis, chemosensitivity, and autophagy. If we can develop therapeutic approaches to target one of these molecules or signaling pathways, we may proceed to the next therapeutic step of successfully treating refractory PDAC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hipóxia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Cancer ; 11(8): 2289-2302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127956

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a characteristic feature of the tumor microenvironment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We have recently explored new targeting molecules and pathways in PDAC cells under hypoxic conditions. In this study, we performed a microarray experiment to analyze the genes up-regulated in PDAC cell lines under hypoxia compared to normoxia, and identified human family with sequence similarity 115, member C (FAM115C) as a candidate gene for further study. Our data showed that FAM115C was overexpressed in PDAC cell lines under hypoxia, and FAM115C inhibition promoted PDAC cell migration and invasion in vitro. FAM115C inhibition did not affect tumor cell proliferation in PDAC. Immunohistochemically, FAM115C expression was observed ubiquitously in normal pancreas, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC tissue, and it was located mainly in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm of cells. In qPCR analysis, high expression of FAM115C was correlated with better prognosis in patients with PDAC. Our findings suggest that FAM115C could be a novel tumor suppressor associated with prolonged survival in patients with PDAC.

12.
J Immunother ; 43(4): 121-133, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834207

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is resistant to immunotherapy. As a factor of resistance, the dense fibrosis of this cancer acts as a barrier to inhibit immune cell infiltration into a tumor. We examined the influence of a Hedgehog signal inhibitor, Patched 1-interacting peptide, on fibrosis, infiltration of immune cells, and immunotherapeutic effects on PDAC. We found that this peptide inhibited proliferation and migration of cancer-associated fibroblasts and cancer cells. Furthermore, this peptide reduced the production of extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor ß1 in cancer-associated fibroblasts and induced expression of HLA-ABC in PDAC cells and interferon-γ in lymphocytes. In vivo, the peptide suppressed fibrosis of PDAC and increased immune cell infiltration into tumors. The combination of this peptide and an anti-programmed death-1 antibody augmented the antitumor effect, and this combination showed the same effect in experiments using cancer cells and autologous lymphocytes. These results indicate that, in addition to the direct effect of tumor suppression, the Patched 1-interacting peptide increases the infiltration of immune cells by reducing fibrosis of PDAC and consequently enhances the effect of immunotherapy. Therefore, treatment with this peptide may be a novel therapy with 2 different mechanisms: direct tumor suppression and enhancing the immune response against PDAC.

13.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(10): 1649-1660, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562536

RESUMO

It has been shown that protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type (PTPN) 3 inhibits T-cell activation. However, there is no definitive conclusion about how the inhibition of PTPN3 in lymphocytes affects immune functions in human lymphocytes. In the present study, we showed that PTPN3 inhibition significantly contributes to the enhanced activation of activated human lymphocytes. The PTPN3 expression of lymphocytes was significantly increased through the activation process using IL-2 and anti-CD3 mAb. Interestingly, inhibiting the PTPN3 expression in activated lymphocytes significantly augmented the proliferation, migration, and cytotoxicity through the phosphorylation of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP-70), lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). Lymphocyte activation by PTPN3 inhibition was observed only in activated CD3+ T cells and not in NK cells or resting T cells. In therapy experiments using autologous tumors and lymphocytes, PTPN3 inhibition significantly augmented the number of tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes and the cytotoxicity of activated lymphocytes. Our results strongly imply that PTPN3 acts as an immune checkpoint in activated lymphocytes and that PTPN3 inhibitor may be a new non-antibody-type immune checkpoint inhibitor for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Ativação Linfocitária , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fosforilação , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Proteína-Tirosina Quinase ZAP-70/metabolismo
14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(7): 2104-2111, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal neoplasm because of difficulties in early detection. Several studies have recently suggested that exosomes may have potential as novel biomarkers. This study aimed to isolate exosomes from pancreatic juice and to investigate whether exosomal microRNAs (ex-miRs) could be used as biomarkers for PDAC. METHODS: Pancreatic juice was collected from patients with PDAC and chronic pancreatitis (CP) by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography. Exosomes were extracted by ultracentrifugation. The presence of exosomes was confirmed by electron microscopy and Western blotting using anti-CD63, -CD81, and -TSG101 antibodies. Relative levels of ex-miR-21 and ex-miR-155 were quantified and compared between PDAC and CP patients. RESULTS: A total of 35 pancreatic juice samples (27 PDAC and 8 CP) were collected. Relative levels of both ex-miR-21 and ex-miR-155 were significantly higher in PDAC patients compared with CP patients (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). By contrast, no significant difference was apparent in relative levels of miR-21 and miR-155 in whole pancreatic juice from PDAC patients compared with CP patients (p = 0.08 and p = 0.61, respectively). Ex-miR-21 and ex-miR-155 levels discriminated PDAC patients from CP patients with area under the curve values of 0.90 and 0.89, respectively. The accuracies of ex-miR-21 levels, ex-miR-155 levels, and pancreatic juice cytology were 83%, 89%, and 74%, respectively. When combining the results of ex-miR profiling with pancreatic juice cytology, the accuracy was improved to 91%. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully extracted exosomes from pancreatic juice. Ex-miRs, including ex-miR-21 and ex-miR-155, in pancreatic juice may be developed as biomarkers for PDAC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Exossomos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Suco Pancreático/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Pancreatite Crônica/genética , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Anticancer Res ; 39(3): 1179-1184, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains one of deadliest types of cancers. Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) is a key chemotherapeutic agent for SCLC, however, its therapeutic effect is limited. Recently, hypoxia in the cancer microenvironment has been suggested to influence the effect of cancer therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using small interfering RNA inhibition of leukocyte common antigen-related interacting protein alpha 4 (liprin-α4), and of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, proliferation, invasion, migration and chemosensitivity were investigated in SBC-5 SCLC cells, under normoxia and hypoxia. RESULTS: Liprin-α4 was found to contribute to proliferation, but not migration and invasion of SBC-5 cells both under normoxia and hypoxia. Inhibition of liprin-α4 increased chemosensitivity of SBC-5 cells under hypoxia. Liprin-α4 signaling occurs through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways via activation of HIF1α expression. Inhibition of HIF1α reduced proliferation and increased chemosensitivity of SBC-5 cells under hypoxia. CONCLUSION: Liprin-α4 inhibition may enhance the effect of CDDP and liprin-α4 might be a novel therapeutic target in SCLC.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/terapia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo
16.
Surg Case Rep ; 4(1): 115, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is one of the refractory diseases. Multidisciplinary approach including immunotherapy for such cancers has received much attention in recent years. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old man underwent an extended cholecystectomy for GBC (pathological stage II, T2 N0 M0, [per UICC 7th edition]) that was incidentally found during cholelithiasis surgery, and was then treated with adjuvant gemcitabine (GEM). Three months later, when a recurrence-suspected lesion was detected in segment 5 (S5) of his liver, we started adoptive immunotherapies with cytokine-activated killer (CAK) cell infusions, combined with chemotherapy. After a year of adjuvant immunochemotherapy, the S5 lesion disappeared on imaging, but lesions suspected metastatic recurrence again appeared in S7 and S8 at 4 years and 6 months post-surgery, for which GEM and cisplatin (CDDP) were administered as second-line chemotherapy. Immunochemotherapy produced stable disease (per RECIST) for 9 months, when tumor growth was detected; open microwave coagulo-necrotic therapy (MCN) was performed for these lesions. Three years after MCN, a solitary liver metastasis was detected in S4. MCN was conducted again, and peritoneal dissemination was found intraoperatively. A month after the second MCN, the patient's carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level had increased. Therefore, GEM and tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil potassium (TS-1) were administered as third-line chemotherapy. We also switched the adoptive immunotherapy for tumor-associated antigen-pulsed dendritic cell-activated killer (DAK) cell immunotherapy. After nine courses of GEM and TS-1 administration, CEA had decreased to a normal level. At the time of reporting, 9 years and 6 months have passed since the initial surgery, and 18 months have passed since the peritoneal metastasis was detected. GEM and CDDP are currently administered as fourth-line chemotherapy because of re-increased CEA. Although an undeniable metastasis was found in his para-aortic lymph node, this patient visits our clinic regularly for immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: We here report a rare case of long-term survival of recurrent GBC well controlled by multidisciplinary therapy. Immunotherapy may be a promising modality among multidisciplinary methods for advanced cancer.

17.
Anticancer Res ; 38(8): 4543-4547, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is still a deadly type of cancer for which there are few effective therapeutic strategies. Development of a new molecule targeting agent is urgently desired. Previously we showed that recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin-kappa-J region (RBPJ) and mastermind-like 3 (MAML3) are new therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we analyzed whether RBPJ/MAML3 inhibition could also be a new therapeutic strategy for SCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using silencing of RBPJ/MAML3, proliferation, invasion, migration and chemosensitivity of SBC-5 cells were investigated. RESULTS: RBPJ/MAML3 inhibition reduced Smoothened and HES1 expression, suggesting that RBPJ/MAML3 signaling was through Hedgehog and NOTCH pathways. In the analysis of cell functions, RBPJ/MAML3 inhibition significantly reduced proliferation and invasiveness via reduction of expression of matrix metalloproteinases. On the other hand, RBPJ/MAML3 inhibition also reduced chemosensitivity to cis-diamminedichlo-roplatinum and gemcitabine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that RBPJ and MAML3 could be new therapeutic targets for SCLC, however, chemosensitivity may be reduced in combinational use with other chemo-therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Transativadores
18.
Anticancer Res ; 38(7): 4273-4279, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is expressed in various types of cancer, including breast cancer, and is correlated with metastasis, invasion, therapeutic resistance and prognosis. Moreover, several cell surface markers, such as CD44 and EpCAM, are molecular targets on cancer stem-like cells of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether catumaxomab, a clinical-grade bispecific antibody that binds to both EpCAM on tumor cells and CD3 on T-cells, combined with activated T-cells can eliminate chemoresistant triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, a cell line (MUK-BC1) was established from human breast carcinoma cells derived from a patient with chemoresistant and disseminated breast cancer. These EpCAM-positive TNBC cells were almost completely resistant to various drug-mediated cytotoxicities up to a concentration of 10 µg/ml. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with catumaxomab and subsequent addition of interleukin-2/OKT3-activated autologous T-cells eliminated EpCAM-positive TNBC cells. CONCLUSION: Catumaxomab combined with activated T-cells may be a potent therapeutic modality to overcome chemoresistant EpCAM-positive TNBC cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Adulto , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária
19.
Anticancer Res ; 38(5): 2739-2748, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Metronidazole (MNZ) is a common antibiotic that exerts disulfiram-like effects when taken together with alcohol. However, the relationship between MNZ and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity remains unclear. This study investigated whether MNZ reduces cancer stemness by suppressing ALDH activity and accordingly reducing the malignancy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed gemcitabine (GEM)-resistant TFK-1 cells and originally established CCA cell line from a patient with GEM-resistant CCA. Using these cell lines, we analyzed the impacts of MNZ for cancer stem cell markers, invasiveness, and chemosensitivity. RESULTS: MNZ reduced ALDH activity in GEM-resistant CCA cells, leading to decreased invasiveness and enhanced chemosensitivity. MNZ diminished the invasiveness by inducing mesenchymal-epithelial transition and enhancing chemosensitivity by increasing ENT1 (equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1) and reducing RRM1 (ribonucleotide reductase M1). CONCLUSION: MNZ reduced cancer stemness in GEM-resistant CCA cells. Combined GEM and MNZ would be a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer stem-like CAA.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Colangiocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeído Desidrogenase/biossíntese , Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/enzimologia , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Anticancer Res ; 38(4): 1979-1986, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599313

RESUMO

We previously reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (NTRK2/TRKB) signaling contributes to induction of malignant phenotype of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Recently, pan-TRK inhibitors have been evaluated and their dramatic clinical activity is being shown for a variety of cancer types harboring an NTRK rearrangement in phase I trials. ONO-7579 is an oral pan-TRK inhibitor currently under investigation in phase I/II clinical trial for TRK-rearranged solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effect of ONO-7579 using GBC cells with or without KRAS mutant, NOZ, TYGBK-1. Our study showed that ONO-7579 had a suppressive effect on GBC proliferation in TYGBK-1, and on invasive potential and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in TYGBK-1 and NOZ. Our data indicated that ONO-7579 could be a promising treatment option for patients with GBC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Invasividade Neoplásica , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Receptor trkB/biossíntese , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/biossíntese
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