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1.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to higher levels of melatonin may be associated with lower breast cancer risk, but epidemiologic evidence has been limited. We examined the relationship in a case-control study nested within the Diagnostisch Onderzoek Mammacarcinoom (DOM) study and conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies. METHODS: Concentrations of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) in prediagnostic first morning urine voids were measured in 274 postmenopausal women diagnosed with breast cancer and 274 matched controls from the DOM study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable adjusted ORs of breast cancer for thirds of aMT6s. Meta-analysis of this and previous prospective studies of urinary melatonin with breast cancer risk estimated the inverse-variance weighted averages of study-specific log RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest levels of aMT6s. RESULTS: In the DOM study, the ORs of breast cancer for the middle and highest versus lowest thirds of aMT6s were 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-1.09] and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.44-1.19), respectively. In the meta-analysis of the DOM study with six previous studies (2,296 cases), RR of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest levels of aMT6s was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: Results from the DOM study, together with the published prospective data, do not support a strong association of melatonin with breast cancer risk. IMPACT: This study adds to the relatively scarce prospective data on melatonin in relation to breast cancer risk. The totality of the prospective evidence does not clearly show an association between melatonin and breast cancer risk, but further data are needed to be able to exclude a modest association.

3.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173903

RESUMO

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by antral stage ovarian follicles in women. Consequently, circulating AMH levels are detectable until menopause. Variation in age-specific AMH levels has been associated with breast cancer and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), amongst other diseases. Identification of genetic variants underlying variation in AMH levels could provide clues about the physiological mechanisms that explain these AMH-disease associations. To date, only one variant in MCM8 has been identified to be associated with circulating AMH levels in women. We aimed to identify additional variants for AMH through a GWAS meta-analysis including data from 7049 premenopausal women of European ancestry, which more than doubles the sample size of the largest previous GWAS. We identified four loci associated with AMH levels at p < 5×10 -8 : the previously reported MCM8 locus and three novel signals in or near AMH, TEX41 , and CDCA7 . The strongest signal was a missense variant in the AMH gene (rs10417628). Most prioritized genes at the other three identified loci were involved in cell cycle regulation. Genetic correlation analyses indicated a strong positive correlation among SNPs for AMH levels and for age at menopause (r g = 0.82, FDR=0.003). Exploratory Mendelian randomization analyses did not support a causal effect of AMH on breast cancer or PCOS risk, but should be interpreted with caution as they may be underpowered and the validity of genetic instruments could not be extensively explored. In conclusion, we identified a variant in the AMH gene and three other loci that may affect circulating AMH levels in women.

4.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 46: 100868, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075722

RESUMO

Behavioral development in children shows large inter-individual variation, and is driven by the interplay between biological, psychological, and environmental processes. However, there is still little insight into how these processes interact. The YOUth cohort specifically focuses on two core characteristics of behavioral development: social competence and self-regulation. Social competence refers to the ability to engage in meaningful interactions with others, whereas self-regulation is the ability to control one's emotions, behavior, and impulses, to balance between reactivity and control of the reaction, and to adjust to the prevailing environment. YOUth is an accelerated population-based longitudinal cohort study with repeated measurements, centering on two groups: YOUth Baby & Child and YOUth Child & Adolescent. YOUth Baby & Child aims to include 3,000 pregnant women, their partners and children, wheras YOUth Child & Adolescent aims to include 2,000 children aged between 8 and 10 years old and their parents. All participants will be followed for at least 6 years, and potentially longer. In this paper we describe in detail the design of this study, the population included, the determinants, intermediate neurocognitive measures and outcomes included in the study. Furthermore, we describe in detail the procedures of inclusion, informed consent, and study participation.

5.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048171

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Given its role in ovarian follicle development, circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered to be a marker of reproductive ageing. Although accelerated reproductive ageing has been associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, research on the relationship between AMH and type 2 diabetes risk is scarce. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether age-specific AMH levels and age-related AMH trajectories are associated with type 2 diabetes risk in women. METHODS: We measured AMH in repeated plasma samples from 3293 female participants (12,460 samples in total), aged 20-59 years at recruitment, from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, a longitudinal study with follow-up visits every 5 years. We calculated age-specific AMH tertiles at baseline to account for the strong AMH-age correlation. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used to assess the association between baseline age-specific AMH tertiles and incident type 2 diabetes. We applied linear mixed models to compare age-related AMH trajectories for women who developed type 2 diabetes with trajectories for women who did not develop diabetes. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 20 years, 163 women developed type 2 diabetes. Lower baseline age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher type 2 diabetes risk (HRT2vsT3 1.24 [95% CI 0.81, 1.92]; HRT1vsT3 1.62 [95% CI 1.06, 2.48]; ptrend = 0.02). These findings seem to be supported by predicted AMH trajectories, which suggested that plasma AMH levels were lower at younger ages in women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not. The trajectories also suggested that AMH levels declined at a slower rate in women who developed type 2 diabetes, although differences in trajectories were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed that lower age-specific AMH levels were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Longitudinal analyses did not show clear evidence of differing AMH trajectories between women who developed type 2 diabetes compared with women who did not, possibly because these analyses were underpowered. Further research is needed to investigate whether AMH is part of the biological mechanism explaining the association between reproductive ageing and type 2 diabetes. Graphical abstract.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1654-1664, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk. METHODS: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR≥5vs1 = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; P trend in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk. IMPACT: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.

8.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e035928, 2020 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic value of non-acute chest pain characteristics for coronary artery disease in women and men referred to outpatient cardiology clinics. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is an observational study performed at outpatient cardiology centres of the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of 1028 patients with non-acute chest pain (505 women). ANALYSIS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four women (5%) and 75 men (15%) were diagnosed with coronary artery disease by invasive coronary angiography or CT angiography during regular care follow-up. Elastic net regression was performed to assess which chest pain characteristics and risk factors were of diagnostic value. The overall model selected age, provocation by temperature or stress, relief at rest and functional class as determinants and was accurate in both sexes (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.85) in women and 0.83 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.88) in men). Both sex-specific models selected age, pressuring nature, radiation, duration, frequency, progress, provocation and relief at rest as determinants. The female model additionally selected dyspnoea, body mass index, hypertension and smoking while the male model additionally selected functional class and diabetes. The sex-specific models performed better than the overall model, but more so in women (AUC: 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96) than in men (AUC: 0.84, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: In both sexes, the diagnostic value of non-acute chest pain characteristics and risk factors for coronary artery disease was high. Provocation, relief at rest and functional class of chest pain were the most powerful diagnostic predictors in both women and men. When stratified by sex the performance of the model improved, mostly in women.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(8): 2042-2052, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243586

RESUMO

A substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises in the fallopian tube and other epithelia of the upper genital tract; these epithelia may incur damage and neoplastic transformation after sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease. We investigated the hypothesis that past STI infection, particularly Chlamydia trachomatis, is associated with higher EOC risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort including 791 cases and 1669 matched controls. Serum antibodies against C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, 18 and 45 were assessed using multiplex fluorescent bead-based serology. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing women with positive vs. negative serology. A total of 40% of the study population was seropositive to at least one STI. Positive serology to C. trachomatis Pgp3 antibodies was not associated with EOC risk overall, but with higher risk of the mucinous histotype (RR = 2.30 [95% CI = 1.22-4.32]). Positive serology for chlamydia heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60-1) was associated with higher risk of EOC overall (1.36 [1.13-1.64]) and with the serous subtype (1.44 [1.12-1.85]). None of the other evaluated STIs were associated with EOC risk overall; however, HSV-2 was associated with higher risk of endometrioid EOC (2.35 [1.24-4.43]). The findings of our study suggest a potential role of C. trachomatis in the carcinogenesis of serous and mucinous EOC, while HSV-2 might promote the development of endometrioid disease.

10.
Maturitas ; 135: 53-67, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252965

RESUMO

Experimental research suggests that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibits tumor growth. Conversely, epidemiological studies suggest that higher AMH concentrations increase breast cancer risk, while associations with other cancers are inconsistent. Therefore, our aim was to provide a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence on AMH levels in relation to different cancer types. We performed a systematic search of PubMed and Embase for publications on circulating AMH in relation to cancer. Methodological quality of articles was assessed using the Study Quality Assessment Tools of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. We included 12 articles on breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer, lymphomas, non-gynaecological cancers, childhood cancer and prostate cancer. Five studies measured AMH prior to cancer diagnosis; the other studies measured AMH after diagnosis but prior to treatment. Higher prediagnosis AMH levels were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Associations with other types of cancer remained inconclusive, although analyses stratified by age hinted at an increased risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer in younger women. Pretreatment AMH levels were lower in women diagnosed with different types of cancer compared with AMH levels in healthy women. However, because we considered most of the studies that established pretreatment AMH levels to be of poor methodological quality, mainly because of inadequate correction for age at measurement and other important confounders, we refrain from definite conclusions based on these results. Future studies with young participants are needed to assess whether and how AMH affects the risk of different cancer types over time.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Maturitas ; 131: 34-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787145

RESUMO

AIMS: Early age at menarche has been reported to be associated with increased risks of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in adulthood, but a late menarche has also been found to be associated with an increased risk of CHD. Both T2D and CHD are important risk factors for developing heart failure (HF). We examined the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and HF incidence in women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Netherlands (EPIC-NL) cohort study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EPIC-NL cohort comprised 28,504 women aged 20-70 years at baseline (1993-1997). Mean age at menarche was 13.3 (standard deviation 1.6) years. During a median follow-up of 15.2 years HF occurred in 631 women. Cox proportional hazard regression models, stratified by cohort and adjusted for potential confounders, were used to investigate the associations between AAM and HF incidence. After confounder adjustment, each year of older age at menarche was associated with a 5% lower risk of HF (hazard ratio 0.95 (95% CI, 0.91-1.00), p-value 0.048). Further adjusting for body mass index (BMI), prevalent CHD, hypertension, or prevalent T2D as potential mediators between early menarche and risk of HF attenuated the associations between AAM and risk of HF to non-significance. CONCLUSION: Older AAM reduced the risk of HF in this study. BMI, prevalent CHD, hypertension and prevalent T2D seemed to mediate this association. Future research with a longer follow-up should establish whether there is an independent effect of AAM on HF risk. Also, further phenotyping of HF cases is necessary to enable whether the associations differ for the various subtypes of HF.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Menarca , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Gastroenterology ; 158(5): 1300-1312.e20, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. METHODS: Serum levels of IGF1 were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow-up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.12; P = 3.3 × 10-4). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI 1.06-1.18; P = 4.2 × 10-5). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in the IGFBP3 gene region (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 200-207, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laterality of epithelial ovarian tumors may reflect the underlying carcinogenic pathways and origins of tumor cells. METHODS: We pooled data from 9 prospective studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Information on measures of tumor size or tumor dominance was extracted from surgical pathology reports or obtained through cancer registries. We defined dominant tumors as those restricted to one ovary or where the dimension of one ovary was at least twice as large as the other, and nondominant tumors as those with similar dimensions across the two ovaries or peritoneal tumors. Competing risks Cox models were used to examine whether associations with reproductive and hormonal risk factors differed by ovarian tumor dominance. RESULTS: Of 1,058 ovarian cancer cases with tumor dominance information, 401 were left-dominant, 363 were right-dominant, and 294 were nondominant. Parity was more strongly inversely associated with risk of dominant than nondominant ovarian cancer (P heterogeneity = 0.004). Ever use of oral contraceptives (OC) was associated with lower risk of dominant tumors, but was not associated with nondominant tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.01). Higher body mass index was associated with higher risk of left-dominant tumors, but not significantly associated with risk of right-dominant or nondominant tumors (P heterogeneity = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that reproductive and hormonal risk factors appear to have a stronger impact on dominant tumors, which may have an ovarian or endometriosis origin. IMPACT: Examining the associations of ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor dominance may help elucidate the mechanisms through which these factors influence ovarian cancer risk.

15.
J Ovarian Res ; 12(1): 116, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer Antigen 125 (CA125) is currently the best available ovarian cancer screening biomarker. However, CA125 has been limited by low sensitivity and specificity in part due to normal variation between individuals. Personal characteristics that influence CA125 could be used to improve its performance as screening biomarker. METHODS: We developed and validated linear and dichotomous (≥35 U/mL) circulating CA125 prediction models in postmenopausal women without ovarian cancer who participated in one of five large population-based studies: Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, n = 26,981), European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, n = 861), the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII, n = 81), and the New England Case Control Study (NEC, n = 923). The prediction models were developed using stepwise regression in PLCO and validated in EPIC, NHS/NHSII and NEC. RESULT: The linear CA125 prediction model, which included age, race, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and duration, parity, hysterectomy, age at menopause, and duration of hormone therapy (HT), explained 5% of the total variance of CA125. The correlation between measured and predicted CA125 was comparable in PLCO testing dataset (r = 0.18) and external validation datasets (r = 0.14). The dichotomous CA125 prediction model included age, race, BMI, smoking status and duration, hysterectomy, time since menopause, and duration of HT with AUC of 0.64 in PLCO and 0.80 in validation dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The linear prediction model explained a small portion of the total variability of CA125, suggesting the need to identify novel predictors of CA125. The dichotomous prediction model showed moderate discriminatory performance which validated well in independent dataset. Our dichotomous model could be valuable in identifying healthy women who may have elevated CA125 levels, which may contribute to reducing false positive tests using CA125 as screening biomarker.


Assuntos
Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue
16.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 240, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We characterised the phenotypic consequence of genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus and compared findings with recent trials of pharmacological inhibitors of PCSK9. METHODS: Published and individual participant level data (300,000+ participants) were combined to construct a weighted PCSK9 gene-centric score (GS). Seventeen randomized placebo controlled PCSK9 inhibitor trials were included, providing data on 79,578 participants. Results were scaled to a one mmol/L lower LDL-C concentration. RESULTS: The PCSK9 GS (comprising 4 SNPs) associations with plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels were consistent in direction with treatment effects. The GS odds ratio (OR) for myocardial infarction (MI) was 0.53 (95% CI 0.42; 0.68), compared to a PCSK9 inhibitor effect of 0.90 (95% CI 0.86; 0.93). For ischemic stroke ORs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.57; 1.22) for the GS, compared to 0.85 (95% CI 0.78; 0.93) in the drug trials. ORs with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were 1.29 (95% CI 1.11; 1.50) for the GS, as compared to 1.00 (95% CI 0.96; 1.04) for incident T2DM in PCSK9 inhibitor trials. No genetic associations were observed for cancer, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or Alzheimer's disease - outcomes for which large-scale trial data were unavailable. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus recapitulates the effects of therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 on major blood lipid fractions and MI. While indicating an increased risk of T2DM, no other possible safety concerns were shown; although precision was moderate.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Regulação para Baixo , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 178, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a promising molecular tool to identify novel etiologic pathways leading to cancer. Using a targeted approach, we prospectively investigated the associations between metabolite concentrations in plasma and breast cancer risk. METHODS: A nested case-control study was established within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort, which included 1624 first primary incident invasive breast cancer cases (with known estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status) and 1624 matched controls. Metabolites (n = 127, acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, sphingolipids) were measured by mass spectrometry in pre-diagnostic plasma samples and tested for associations with breast cancer incidence using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Among women not using hormones at baseline (n = 2248), and after control for multiple tests, concentrations of arginine (odds ratio [OR] per SD = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-0.90), asparagine (OR = 0.83 (0.74-0.92)), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ae C36:3 (OR = 0.83 (0.76-0.90)), aa C36:3 (OR = 0.84 (0.77-0.93)), ae C34:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.94)), ae C36:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78-0.88)), and ae C38:2 (OR = 0.84 (0.76-0.93)) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while the acylcarnitine C2 (OR = 1.23 (1.11-1.35)) was positively associated with disease risk. In the overall population, C2 (OR = 1.15 (1.06-1.24)) and PC ae C36:3 (OR = 0.88 (0.82-0.95)) were associated with risk of breast cancer, and these relationships did not differ by breast cancer subtype, age at diagnosis, fasting status, menopausal status, or adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings point to potentially novel pathways and biomarkers of breast cancer development. Results warrant replication in other epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Metabolômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1076-1085, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is the most promising ovarian cancer screening biomarker to date. Multiple studies reported CA125 levels vary by personal characteristics, which could inform personalized CA125 thresholds. However, this has not been well described in premenopausal women. METHODS: We evaluated predictors of CA125 levels among 815 premenopausal women from the New England Case Control Study (NEC). We developed linear and dichotomous (≥35 U/mL) CA125 prediction models and externally validated an abridged model restricting to available predictors among 473 premenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC). RESULTS: The final linear CA125 prediction model included age, race, tubal ligation, endometriosis, menstrual phase at blood draw, and fibroids, which explained 7% of the total variance of CA125. The correlation between observed and predicted CA125 levels based on the abridged model (including age, race, and menstrual phase at blood draw) had similar correlation coefficients in NEC (r = 0.22) and in EPIC (r = 0.22). The dichotomous CA125 prediction model included age, tubal ligation, endometriosis, prior personal cancer diagnosis, family history of ovarian cancer, number of miscarriages, menstrual phase at blood draw, and smoking status with AUC of 0.83. The abridged dichotomous model (including age, number of miscarriages, menstrual phase at blood draw, and smoking status) showed similar AUCs in NEC (0.73) and in EPIC (0.78). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a combination of factors associated with CA125 levels in premenopausal women. IMPACT: Our model could be valuable in identifying healthy women likely to have elevated CA125 and consequently improve its specificity for ovarian cancer screening.


Assuntos
Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde da Mulher
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(4): 1275-1285, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Earlier age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the shape of association and role of established cardiovascular risk factors remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the associations between menopausal characteristics and CHD risk; the shape of the association between age at menopause and CHD risk; and the extent to which these associations are explained by established cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We used data from EPIC-CVD, a case-cohort study, which includes data from 23 centres from 10 European countries. We included only women, of whom 10 880 comprise the randomly selected sub-cohort, supplemented with 4522 cases outside the sub-cohort. We conducted Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the underlying time scale, stratified by country and adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: After confounder and intermediate adjustment, post-menopausal women were not at higher CHD risk compared with pre-menopausal women. Among post-menopausal women, earlier menopause was linearly associated with higher CHD risk [HRconfounder and intermediate adjusted per-year decrease = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.03, p = 0.001]. Women with a surgical menopause were at higher risk of CHD compared with those with natural menopause (HRconfounder-adjusted = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.10-1.42, p < 0.001), but this attenuated after additional adjustment for age at menopause and intermediates (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.96-1.29, p = 0.15). A proportion of the association was explained by cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier and surgical menopause were associated with higher CHD risk. These associations could partially be explained by differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These women might benefit from close monitoring of cardiovascular risk factors and disease.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Menopausa , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
20.
Heart ; 105(4): 330-336, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Compare the predictive performance of Framingham Risk Score (FRS), Pooled Cohort Equations (PCEs) and Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) model between women with and without a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hHDP) and determine the effects of recalibration and refitting on predictive performance. METHODS: We included 29 751 women, 6302 with hHDP and 17 369 without. We assessed whether models accurately predicted observed 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (calibration) and whether they accurately distinguished between women developing CVD during follow-up and not (discrimination), separately for women with and without hHDP. We also recalibrated (updating intercept and slope) and refitted (recalculating coefficients) the models. RESULTS: Original FRS and PCEs overpredicted 10-year CVD risks, with expected:observed (E:O) ratios ranging from 1.51 (for FRS in women with hHDP) to 2.29 (for PCEs in women without hHDP), while E:O ratios were close to 1 for SCORE. Overprediction attenuated slightly after recalibration for FRS and PCEs in both hHDP groups. Discrimination was reasonable for all models, with C-statistics ranging from 0.70-0.81 (women with hHDP) and 0.72-0.74 (women without hHDP). C-statistics improved slightly after refitting 0.71-0.83 (with hHDP) and 0.73-0.80 (without hHDP). The E:O ratio of the original PCE model was statistically significantly better in women with hHDP compared with women without hHDP. CONCLUSIONS: SCORE performed best in terms of both calibration and discrimination, while FRS and PCEs overpredicted risk in women with and without hHDP, but improved after recalibrating and refitting the models. No separate model for women with hHDP seems necessary, despite their higher baseline risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Fatores de Risco
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