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1.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(2): e29012, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35103611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To demonstrate the value of implementation of an artificial intelligence solution in health care service, a winning project of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Hacking Medicine Brazil competition was implemented in an urgent care service for health care professionals at Hospital das Clínicas of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of implementation of the digital solution in the urgent care service, assessing the reduction of nonvalue-added activities and its effect on the nurses' time required for screening and the waiting time for patients to receive medical care. METHODS: This was a single-center, comparative, prospective study designed according to the Public Health England guide "Evaluating Digital Products for Health." A total of 38,042 visits were analyzed over 18 months to determine the impact of implementing the digital solution. Medical care registration, health screening, and waiting time for medical care were compared before and after implementation of the digital solution. RESULTS: The digital solution automated 92% of medical care registrations. The time for health screening increased by approximately 16% during the implementation and in the first 3 months after the implementation. The waiting time for medical care after automation with the digital solution was reduced by approximately 12 minutes compared with that required for visits without automation. The total time savings in the 12 months after implementation was estimated to be 2508 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The digital solution was able to reduce nonvalue-added activities, without a substantial impact on health screening, and further saved waiting time for medical care in an urgent care service in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1322: 115-138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258739

RESUMO

Currently, there are two safe and effective therapeutic strategies for chronic hepatitis B treatment, namely, nucleoside analogs and interferon alpha (pegylated or non-pegylated). These treatments can control viral replication and improve survival; however, they do not eliminate the virus and therefore require long-term continued therapy. In addition, there are significant concerns about virus rebound on discontinuation of therapy and the development of fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma despite therapy. Therefore, the search for new, more effective, and safer antiviral agents that can cure hepatitis B virus (HBV) continues. Anti-HBV drug discovery and development is fundamentally impacted by our current understanding of HBV replication, disease physiopathology, and persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Several HBV replication targets are the basis for novel anti-HBV drug development strategies. Many of them are already in clinical trial phase 1 or 2, while others with promising results are still in preclinical stages. As research intensifies, potential HBV curative therapies and modalities in the pipeline are now on the horizon.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Circular/genética , DNA Circular/farmacologia , DNA Circular/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/genética , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Replicação Viral
3.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A good health care does not only depend on good medical practice, but also needs great management of its resources, which are generally short. In this sense, PROAHSA has been training new health managers since 1972. With the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was clear that medicine will go through a new phase, where telehealth will be present in this "Improved Normal". This report is about how a pilot teleconsultation study was carried out for HCFMUSP patients through the Scrum-like framework. It is to deploy a pilot of remote assistance involving a doctor and a patient in the Ambulatory of Hepatology and Liver Transplantation of HCFMUSP. METHODS: We applied the Scrum-like framework to carry out this work with an interdisciplinary multifunctionality team. RESULTS: A full telemedicine service flow was implemented within eight weeks using existing infrastructure and resources implementing the Scrum methodology. Twenty-three teleconsultations were scheduled and eight guides built. CONCLUSION: Scrum framework has a great potential to improve the training of students and to conclude pilot projects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Telemedicina , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Arch Toxicol ; 95(4): 1475-1487, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759010

RESUMO

Nimesulide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug still marketed in many countries. We aim to analyze the clinical phenotype, outcome, and histological features of nimesulide-induced liver injury (nimesulide-DILI). We analyzed 57 cases recruited from the Spanish and Latin American DILI registries. Causality was assessed by the RUCAM scale. Mean age of the whole case series was 59 years (86% women) with a median time to onset of 40 days. A total of 46 patients (81%) were jaundiced. Nimesulide-DILI pattern was hepatocellular in 38 (67%), mixed in 12 (21%), and cholestatic in 7 (12%) cases. Transaminases were elevated with a mean of nearly 20-fold the upper limit of normality (ULN), while alkaline phosphatase showed a twofold mean elevation above ULN. Total bilirubin showed a mean elevation of 13-fold the ULN. Liver histology was obtained in 14 cases (25%), most of them with a hepatocellular pattern. Median time to recovery was 60 days. Overall, 12 patients (21%) developed acute liver failure (ALF), five (8.8%) died, three underwent liver transplantation (5.3%), and the remaining four resolved. Latency was ≤ 15 days in 12 patients (21%) and one patient developed ALF within 7 days from treatment initiation. Increased total bilirubin and aspartate transaminase levels were independently associated with the development of ALF. In summary, nimesulide-DILI affects mainly women and presents typically with a hepatocellular pattern. It is associated with ALF and death in a high proportion of patients. Shorter (≤ 15 days) duration of therapy does not prevent serious nimesulide hepatotoxicity, making its risk/benefit ratio clearly unfavorable.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Bilirrubina/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Criança , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Colestase/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Icterícia/induzido quimicamente , Icterícia/epidemiologia , América Latina/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Clinics ; 76: e2795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A good health care does not only depend on good medical practice, but also needs great management of its resources, which are generally short. In this sense, PROAHSA has been training new health managers since 1972. With the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was clear that medicine will go through a new phase, where telehealth will be present in this "Improved Normal". This report is about how a pilot teleconsultation study was carried out for HCFMUSP patients through the Scrum-like framework. It is to deploy a pilot of remote assistance involving a doctor and a patient in the Ambulatory of Hepatology and Liver Transplantation of HCFMUSP. METHODS: We applied the Scrum-like framework to carry out this work with an interdisciplinary multifunctionality team. RESULTS: A full telemedicine service flow was implemented within eight weeks using existing infrastructure and resources implementing the Scrum methodology. Twenty-three teleconsultations were scheduled and eight guides built. CONCLUSION: Scrum framework has a great potential to improve the training of students and to conclude pilot projects.


Assuntos
Humanos , Telemedicina , COVID-19 , Internato e Residência , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(5): 434-451, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | Coleciona SUS, LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1142552

RESUMO

Abstract Chronic hepatitis B is an important health problem that can progress to cirrhosis and complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma. There is approximately 290 million of people with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide, however only 10% of patients are currently identified.Most part of Brazil is considered of low prevalence of HBV infection but there are some regions with higher frequency of carriers. Unfortunately, many infected patients are not yet identified nor evaluated for treatment.The Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases (SBI) and the Brazilian Society of Hepatology worked together to elaborate a guideline for diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B. The document includes information regarding the population to be tested, diagnostic tools, indications of treatment, therapeutic schemes and also how to handle HBV infection in specific situations (pregnancy, children, immunosuppression, etc).Delta infection is also part of the guideline, since it is an important infection in some parts of the country.

7.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 253, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care costs are growing faster than the rest of the global economy, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Countries' health expenditures include paying for general medicine, diagnostic procedures, hospitalizations and surgeries, as well as medications and prescribed treatment. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare autoimmune liver disease and the first line available treatment is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), however, direct and indirect treatment costs are expensive. Main aim of this trial was to assess if the therapeutic efficacy of UDCA manufactured by the university hospital is equivalent to that of standard UDCA and treatment cost reduction in patients with PBC. METHODS: It is a prospective, interventional, randomized, and crossover study in patients diagnosed with PBC. UDCA 300 mg tablets and capsules were developed and manufactured by the university hospital. Thirty patients under treatment with standard UDCA, in stable doses were randomized in sequence A and B, 15 patients in each arm. The groups were treated for 12 weeks and after, the UDCA formulation was changed, following for another 12 weeks of continuous therapy (tablets and capsules / capsules and tablets). Laboratory tests were performed at time T0 (beginning of treatment), T1 (at the 12 week-therapy, before the crossing-over) and T2 (end of treatment). The evaluation was done by comparing the hepatic parameters ALP, GGT, ALT, AST and total bilirubin, also considering the adverse events. The comparison of costs was based on price of the manufactured UDCA and standard UDCA price of the hospital. RESULTS: Hospital reduced 66.1% the PBC treatment costs using manufactured UDCA. There were no differences in the biochemical parameters between sequence (A and B) and tablets or capsules of UDCA formulations applied in the treatment of PBC. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that there was no significant difference between manufactured UDCA (capsule and tablet) and standard UDCA. Hospital reduced the PBC treatment costs using the manufactured UDCA by the university hospital. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03489889 retrospectively registered on January 12th, 2018; Ethics Committee approved the study (ID: 1.790.088) on October 25th, 2016.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Biliar , Colagogos e Coleréticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Hospitais , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico
8.
Pharmacogenomics ; 21(9): 575-586, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486903

RESUMO

Background & aim: Genetic variability in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) genes contributes to the high heterogeneity of drug responses. The present study investigated polymorphisms of ADME genes frequencies and compared the findings with populations from other continents, available in the 1000 Genome Project (1 KGP) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) databases. Methodology & results: We conducted a study of 100 patients in Brazil and a total of 2003 SNPs were evaluated by targeted next-generation sequencing in 148 genes, including Phase I enzymes (n = 50), Phase II enzymes (n = 38) and drug transporters (n = 60). Overall, the distribution of minor allele frequency (MAF) suggests that the distribution of 2003 SNPs is similar between Brazilian cohort, 1 KGP and ExAC; however, we found moderate SNP allele-frequency divergence between Brazilian cohort and both 1000 KGP and ExAC. These differences were observed in several relevant genes including CYP3A4, NAT2 and SLCO1B1. Conclusion: We concluded that the Brazilian population needs clinical assessment of drug treatment based on individual genotype rather than ethnicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Farmacogenética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacocinética
10.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(5): 496-514, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185517

RESUMO

Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are the main drug category used in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment. Despite the fact that NAs have a favourable safety profile, undesired adverse events (AEs) may occur during the treatment of CHB. Given the eminent number of patients currently receiving NAs, even a small risk of any of these toxicities can represent a major medical issue. The main objective of this review was to analyse information available on AEs associated with the use of NAs in published studies. We choose the following MesH terms for this systematic review: chronic hepatitis B, side effects and treatment. All articles published from 1 January 1990 up to 19 February 2018 in MEDLINE of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and LILACS databases were searched. A total of 120 articles were selected for analysis, comprising 6419 patients treated with lamivudine (LAM), 5947 with entecavir (ETV), 3566 with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), 3096 with telbivudine (LdT), 1178 with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and 876 with tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). The most common AEs in all NAs assessed were abdominal pain/discomfort, nasopharyngitis/upper respiratory tract infections, fatigue, and headache. TAF displays the highest density of AEs per patient treated among NAs (1.14 AE/treated patient). In conclusion, treatment of CHB with NAs is safe, with a low incidence of AEs. Despite the general understanding TAF being safer than TDF, the number of patients treated with TAF still is too small in comparison to other NAs to consolidate an accurate safety profile. PROSPERO Registration No. CRD42018086471.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Nucleosídeos/administração & dosagem , Nucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Nucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Nucleotídeos/efeitos adversos
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 64(2): 154-158, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641674

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is an important public health problem in the world and one of the forms of contagion would be through vertical transmission. Precose diagnosis allows the adoption of prophylaxis measures, which results in prevention in more than 90% of cases. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalences of vertical transmission and compare two generations (mother/patient and patient/child). METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study, which included 101 patients. The interviews were performed through the application of the instrument of data collection and information of the physical file before the medical consultation. RESULTS: The mean ± SD of age was 50.9 ± 13.1 years, the male gender predominated, with 56.4% of the patients, and the predominance was white, with 43.6%. Vertical transmission between mother and patient occurred in 17.8% and between patient and child, in 7.9%. In all of the eight cases of vertical transmission, the diagnosis was after the birth of children infected with HBV, and in 3/8 (37.5%), there was more than one case of infection by this mechanism per patient, totaling 13 children with the disease. CONCLUSION: There was a reduction in vertical transmission, showing that preventive measures were effective.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brasil/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(2): 154-158, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-896434

RESUMO

Summary Introduction: Hepatitis B is an important public health problem in the world and one of the forms of contagion would be through vertical transmission. Precose diagnosis allows the adoption of prophylaxis measures, which results in prevention in more than 90% of cases. Objective: To describe the prevalences of vertical transmission and compare two generations (mother/patient and patient/child). Method: This was a cross-sectional study, which included 101 patients. The interviews were performed through the application of the instrument of data collection and information of the physical file before the medical consultation. Results: The mean ± SD of age was 50.9 ± 13.1 years, the male gender predominated, with 56.4% of the patients, and the predominance was white, with 43.6%. Vertical transmission between mother and patient occurred in 17.8% and between patient and child, in 7.9%. In all of the eight cases of vertical transmission, the diagnosis was after the birth of children infected with HBV, and in 3/8 (37.5%), there was more than one case of infection by this mechanism per patient, totaling 13 children with the disease. Conclusion: There was a reduction in vertical transmission, showing that preventive measures were effective.


Resumo Introdução: A hepatite B é um importante problema de saúde pública no mundo e uma das formas de contágio seria através da transmissão vertical. O diagnóstico precoce possibilita a adoção de medidas de profilaxia, o que resulta na prevenção em mais de 90% dos casos. Objetivo: Descrever as prevalências de transmissão vertical e comparar duas gerações (mãe/paciente e paciente/filho). Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, que incluiu 101 pacientes. As entrevistas foram realizadas por meio da aplicação do instrumento de coleta de dados e informações do prontuário físico antes da consulta médica. Resultados: A média ± DP de idade foi de 50,9 ± 13,1 anos, houve predomínio do gênero masculino, com 56,4% dos pacientes, e predominou a cor branca, com 43,6%. A transmissão vertical entre mãe do paciente/paciente ocorreu em 17,8% e entre paciente/filho, em 7,9%. Em todos os oito casos de transmissão vertical, o diagnóstico foi posterior ao nascimento dos filhos infectados por HBV; em 3/8 (37,5%), houve mais de um caso de infecção por esse mecanismo por paciente, totalizando 13 filhos com a doença. Conclusão: Houve uma redução na transmissão vertical, mostrando que as medidas preventivas foram efetivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B Crônica/transmissão , Brasil/etnologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603727

RESUMO

Translational medicine has become a priority, but there is still a big difference between the arrival of new treatments and investment. Basic science should not be neglected because the translation from basic research is not sustained in the absence of basic research. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the translational medicine in the liver transplant field: liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), immunosuppression, clinical and surgical complications, small-for-size syndrome (SFSS), rejection, and ongoing innovations (liver machine, liver preservation, artificial livers, and regenerative medicine). We performed a systematic literature review that were updated in October 2016. The searches were performed in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Review, PubMed/Medline, Embase, and LILACS databases. All the selected studies on the management of translational medical research in liver transplantation (LT) were analyzed. Initially the search found 773 articles. Methodological viewing and analysis of the articles, followed by the application of scientific models, including translational medicine in the liver transplant field. In conclusions, this review demonstrates the application of scientific research with translation medical benefits regarding the LT. The literature has a great tendency, improvements and investments in the study of translational medicine in LT. Innovative studies and technologies from basic science help to clarify clinical doubts. Moreover, evidence increases the importance of scientific research in quality of clinical practice care.

16.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 72(7): 405-410, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES:: To present the clinical features and outcomes of outpatients who suffer from refractory ascites. METHODS:: This prospective observational study consecutively enrolled patients with cirrhotic ascites who submitted to a clinical evaluation, a sodium restriction diet, biochemical blood tests, 24 hour urine tests and an ascitic fluid analysis. All patients received a multidisciplinary evaluation and diuretic treatment. Patients who did not respond to the diuretic treatment were controlled by therapeutic serial paracentesis, and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was indicated for patients who required therapeutic serial paracentesis up to twice a month. RESULTS:: The most common etiology of cirrhosis in both groups was alcoholism [49 refractory (R) and 11 non-refractory ascites (NR)]. The majority of patients in the refractory group had Child-Pugh class B cirrhosis (p=0.034). The nutritional assessment showed protein-energy malnutrition in 81.6% of the patients in the R group and 35.5% of the patients in the NR group, while hepatic encephalopathy, hernia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, upper digestive hemorrhage and type 2 hepatorenal syndrome were present in 51%, 44.9%, 38.8%, 38.8% and 26.5% of the patients in the R group and 9.1%, 18.2%, 0%, 0% and 0% of the patients in the NR group, respectively (p=0.016, p=0.173, p=0.012, p=0.012, and p=0.100, respectively). Mortality occurred in 28.6% of the patients in the R group and in 9.1% of the patients in the NR group (p=0.262). CONCLUSION:: Patients with refractory ascites were malnourished, suffered from hernias, had a high prevalence of complications and had a high postoperative death frequency, which was mostly due to infectious processes.


Assuntos
Ascite/cirurgia , Paracentese , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Autops Case Rep ; 7(2): 35-42, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740837

RESUMO

The standard therapy for some autoimmune diseases consists of a combination of corticosteroids and thiopurines. In non-responders to thiopurine drugs, the measurement of the metabolites of azathioprine, 6-thioguanine, and 6-methylmercaptopurine, can be a useful tool. The measurement has been used during the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases and, less commonly, in autoimmune hepatitis. Many patients preferentially metabolize thiopurines to 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP), which is potentially hepatotoxic, instead of 6-thioguanine, the active immunosuppressive metabolite. The addition of allopurinol shifts the metabolism of thiopurine towards 6-thioguanine, improving the immunosuppressive effect. We present the case of a 51-year-old female with autoimmune hepatitis who had a biochemical response after azathioprine and prednisone treatment without histological remission, and who preferentially shunted to 6-MMP. After the addition of allopurinol, the patient's 6-thioguanine levels increased, and she reached histological remission with a reduction of 67% of the original dose of azathioprine. The patient did not develop clinical manifestations as a consequence of her increased immunosuppressive state. We also review the relevant literature related to this issue. In conclusion, the addition of allopurinol to thiopurine seems to be an option for those patients who do not reach histological remission and who have a skewed thiopurine metabolite profile.

18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 63(5): 401-406, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724036

RESUMO

Since 2010, the Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division of the Central Institute of Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School (HC-FMUSP, in the Portuguese acronym) has been developing specialized electives assistance activities in the Outpatient Specialty Clinic, Secondary Level, in São Paulo NGA-63 Várzea do Carmo. The objective of this study was to analyze the pharmacotherapeutic profile of patients. This is a cross-sectional and retrospective study in which patients were seen at the Hepatology sector and the results were submitted to descriptive statistics. During the study period, 492 patients were treated at the clinic, with a mean age of 58.9 years and frequency of 61.2% female and 74.8% living in São Paulo. This population was served by various other medical specialties (cardiology and endocrine among others) and the major liver diagnoses were: chronic hepatitis B and C and fatty liver. Comorbidities were also identified, such as diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Most patients took their medication in the Basic Health Units. We found that 30% of patients use of more than five medications and the most prescribed were omeprazole 208 (42.3%), metformin 132 (26.8%) and losartan 80 (16.3%). Because it is an adult/elderly population, with several comorbidities and polymedication, it is important to be aware of the rational use of medication. The multidisciplinary team is important in applying correct conducts for the safe use of medicines, to reduce the burden on health spending and improving the quality of life of patients.


Assuntos
Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastroenterologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimedicação , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo
19.
Clinics ; 72(7): 405-410, July 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-890707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present the clinical features and outcomes of outpatients who suffer from refractory ascites. METHODS: This prospective observational study consecutively enrolled patients with cirrhotic ascites who submitted to a clinical evaluation, a sodium restriction diet, biochemical blood tests, 24 hour urine tests and an ascitic fluid analysis. All patients received a multidisciplinary evaluation and diuretic treatment. Patients who did not respond to the diuretic treatment were controlled by therapeutic serial paracentesis, and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was indicated for patients who required therapeutic serial paracentesis up to twice a month. RESULTS: The most common etiology of cirrhosis in both groups was alcoholism [49 refractory (R) and 11 non-refractory ascites (NR)]. The majority of patients in the refractory group had Child-Pugh class B cirrhosis (p=0.034). The nutritional assessment showed protein-energy malnutrition in 81.6% of the patients in the R group and 35.5% of the patients in the NR group, while hepatic encephalopathy, hernia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, upper digestive hemorrhage and type 2 hepatorenal syndrome were present in 51%, 44.9%, 38.8%, 38.8% and 26.5% of the patients in the R group and 9.1%, 18.2%, 0%, 0% and 0% of the patients in the NR group, respectively (p=0.016, p=0.173, p=0.012, p=0.012, and p=0.100, respectively). Mortality occurred in 28.6% of the patients in the R group and in 9.1% of the patients in the NR group (p=0.262). CONCLUSION: Patients with refractory ascites were malnourished, suffered from hernias, had a high prevalence of complications and had a high postoperative death frequency, which was mostly due to infectious processes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ascite/cirurgia , Paracentese , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Autops. Case Rep ; 7(2): 35-42, Apr.-June 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-905231

RESUMO

The standard therapy for some autoimmune diseases consists of a combination of corticosteroids and thiopurines. In non-responders to thiopurine drugs, the measurement of the metabolites of azathioprine, 6-thioguanine, and 6-methylmercaptopurine, can be a useful tool. The measurement has been used during the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases and, less commonly, in autoimmune hepatitis. Many patients preferentially metabolize thiopurines to 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP), which is potentially hepatotoxic, instead of 6-thioguanine, the active immunosuppressive metabolite. The addition of allopurinol shifts the metabolism of thiopurine towards 6-thioguanine, improving the immunosuppressive effect. We present the case of a 51-year-old female with autoimmune hepatitis who had a biochemical response after azathioprine and prednisone treatment without histological remission, and who preferentially shunted to 6-MMP. After the addition of allopurinol, the patient's 6-thioguanine levels increased, and she reached histological remission with a reduction of 67% of the original dose of azathioprine. The patient did not develop clinical manifestations as a consequence of her increased immunosuppressive state. We also review the relevant literature related to this issue. In conclusion, the addition of allopurinol to thiopurine seems to be an option for those patients who do not reach histological remission and who have a skewed thiopurine metabolite profile.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alopurinol/administração & dosagem , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Hepatite Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Alopurinol/metabolismo , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem
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