Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 182
Filtrar
1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a risk score for deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary-care referral hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 7,352 patients from the European multicenter coronary artery bypass grafting (E-CABG) registry. INTERVENTION: Isolated CABG. METHODS: An additive risk score (the E-CABG DSWI score) was estimated from the derivation data set (66.7% of patients), and its performance was assessed in the validation data set (33.3% of patients). RESULTS: DSWI occurred in 181 (2.5%) patients and increased 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.275; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.804-6.517). Female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.804; 95% CI, 1.161-2.802), body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR, 1.729; 95% CI, 1.166-2.562), glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR, 2.410; 95% CI, 1.413-4.111), diabetes (OR, 1.741; 95% CI, 1.178-2.573), pulmonary disease (OR, 1.935; 95% CI, 1.178-3.180), atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.854; 95% CI, 1.096-3.138), critical preoperative state (OR, 2.196; 95% CI, 1.209-3.891), and bilateral internal mammary artery grafting (OR, 2.088; 95% CI, 1.422-3.066) were predictors of DSWI (derivation data set). An additive risk score was calculated by assigning 1 point to each of these independent risk factors for DSWI. In the validation data set, the rate of DSWI increased along with the E-CABG DSWI scores (score of 0, 1.0%; score of 1, 1.8%; score of 2, 2.2%; score of 3, 6.9%; score ≥4: 12.1%; P < .0001). Net reclassification improvement, integrated discrimination improvement, and decision curve analysis showed that the E-CABG DSWI score performed better than other risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: DSWI is associated with poor outcome after CABG, and its risk can be stratified using the E-CABG DSWI score. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02319083.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(1): 294-301, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epiaortic ultrasonography (EAU) is a valid imaging method to detect atherosclerotic changes of the ascending aorta and to guide surgical strategies for the prevention of cerebral embolism in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, its use is not widespread. METHODS: The impact of EAU on the outcome after isolated CABG was investigated in patients from the European Multicenter Study on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (E-CABG) registry. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was performed to substantiate the findings of this observational study. RESULTS: EAU was performed intraoperatively in 673 of 7241 patients (9.3%) from the E-CABG registry. In the overall series, the rates of stroke without and with aortic manipulation were 0.3% and 1.3%, respectively (P = .003). In 660 propensity score-matched pairs, EAU was associated with significantly lower risk of stroke (0.6% vs 2.6%, P = .007). A literature search yielded 5 studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. These studies, along with the present one, included 11,496 patients, of whom 3026 (25.7%) underwent intraoperative EAU. Their rate of postoperative stroke was significantly lower than in patients not investigated with EAU (pooled rate, 0.6% vs 1.9%; risk ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.66; I2 = 0%). On the basis of these pooled rates, the number needed to treat to prevent 1 stroke is 76.9. CONCLUSIONS: Avoiding aortic manipulation is associated with the lowest risk of stroke in patients undergoing CABG. When manipulation of the ascending aorta is planned, EAU is effective in guiding the surgical strategy to reduce the risk for embolic stroke in these patients.

6.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7115-7125, 2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542787

RESUMO

In this systematic review article, we aim to summarize the most up-to-date evidence regarding elevations of cardiac troponin, especially in clinical scenarios other than obstructive coronary artery disease. The accurate interpretation of raised cardiac troponin is challenging because it relies on unconfirmed postulations and dogmatic knowledge (e.g., the exclusive provenience of cardiac troponin from cardiac myocytes), based on which every troponin elevation is assumed to definitely indicate myocardial damage. Indeed, the investigation of the pathophysiologic mechanism leading to the release in the bloodstream of cardiac biomarkers should be the first step of the diagnostic process to fully understand the clinical significance of the elevated serum levels and identify the best management. A prominent effort should be put in place to identify the contribution of potential confounding factors, both cardiac and non-cardiac in etiology, with the ability to affect synthesis and clearance of cardiac biomarkers. Regardless of the underlying cause, it is well established that cardiovascular biomarkers are increasingly useful to further risk stratification and prognosticate patients. Accordingly, we sought to clarify the meaning and impact of elevated cardiac troponin in those frequently encountered real-world scenarios presenting clinicians with a diagnostic dilemma, with the final goal of facilitating the diagnosis and help optimize individually tailored treatment strategies.

7.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 25: 139-152, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Urocortin (Ucn) is a member of the hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor family and has been shown to reduce cell death in the heart caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor known to function as a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factor, whose activation depends on a variety of cytokines, including IL-6. A recent study demonstrated that urocortin induced IL-6 release from cardiomyocytes in a CRF-R2-dependent manner, suggesting a possible link between CRF-R2 stimulation and STAT3 activation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Experimental work was carried out in HL-1 cardiac myocytes exposed to serum starvation for 16-24 h. RESULTS Ucn stimulation led to IL-6 expression and release from mouse atrial HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Ucn treatment led to rapid phosphorylation of JAK2, which was blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or the JAK inhibitor AG490. Urocortin treatment induced STAT3 phosphorylation at Y705 and S727 through transactivation of JAK2 in an IL-6-dependent manner, but had no effect on STAT1 activity. Kinase inhibition experiments revealed that urocortin induces STAT3 S727 phosphorylation through ERK1/2 and Y705 phosphorylation through Src tyrosine kinase. In line with this finding, urocortin failed to induce phosphorylation of Y705 residue in SYF cells bearing null mutation of Src, while phosphorylation of S727 residue was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS Here, we have shown that Ucn induces activation of STAT3 through diverging signaling pathways. Full understanding of these signaling pathways will help fully exploit the cardioprotective properties of endogenous and exogenous Ucn.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Urocortinas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , DNA/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfosserina/metabolismo , Fosfotirosina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Urocortinas/farmacologia
8.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 62-67, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess early and late mortality in patients with isolated acute tricuspid valve infective endocarditis (TVIE) using data from a multicenter registry. METHODS: From 1983 to 2018, isolated acute TVIE was surgically treated in 157 (3.8%) patients [mean age 47 ±â€¯16 years (range 15-86 years), 25% females]. Of these, 142 (90%) had native tricuspid regurgitation, 7 (5%) native tricuspid valve (TV) steno-regurgitation, and 8 (5%) prosthetic TVIE. Intravenous drug use (IVDU) was recorded in 38% of patients, infection involved cardiac implantable electronic device leads in 21%, and vascular catheters for dialysis in 1%; in the remaining cases, the cause was unknown. The primary endpoint was in-hospital outcome, long-term freedom from recurrence and overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, 77 (49%) patients underwent TV repair, 72 (46%) TV replacement, and 8 (5%) prosthetic TV replacement. Early mortality was 11% (n = 17). Expected early mortality according to EndoSCORE was 12%, with age (odds ratio 1.06) and redo (odds ratio 6.64) as risk factors. Late deaths occurred in 31 patients and TVIE recurrences in 4. Survival rates at 10, 20, and 25 years were 66%, 60%, and 44%, respectively. Risk factors were age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.06], mycotic TVIE (HR 4.2), IVDU (HR 4.90), infected prosthesis replacement (HR 4.4), and presence of cardiac implantable electronic device leads (HR 3.0). No significant difference was found in valve repair vs. replacement and in IVDUs vs. non-IVDUs. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with isolated acute TVIE undergoing surgical treatment show acceptable early and late outcomes. TVIE recurrence was low, and repair of the affected valve does not seem to confer any advantage either at early or long term up to 25 years.

9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 107(6): 1690-1698, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated perioperative bleeding after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients preoperatively treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel, stratified by discontinuation of these P2Y12 inhibitors. METHODS: All patients from the prospective, European Multicenter Registry on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (E-CABG) treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel undergoing isolated primary CABG were eligible. The primary outcome measure was severe or massive bleeding defined according to the Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding, stratified by P2Y12 inhibitor discontinuation. Secondary outcome measures included four additional definitions of major bleeding. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for differences in preoperative and perioperative covariates. RESULTS: Of 2,311 patients who were included, 1,293 (55.9%) received clopidogrel and 1,018 (44.1%) ticagrelor preoperatively. Mean time between discontinuation and the operation was 4.5 ± 3.2 days for clopidogrel and 4.9 ± 3.0 days for ticagrelor. In the propensity score-matched cohort, ticagrelor-treated patients had a higher incidence of major bleeding according to Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding when ticagrelor was discontinued 0 to 2 days compared with 3 days before the operation (16.0% vs 2.7%, p = 0.003). Clopidogrel-treated patients had a higher incidence of major bleeding according to the Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding when clopidogrel was discontinued 0 to 3 days compared with 4 to 5 days before the operation (15.6% vs 8.3%, p = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: In patients receiving ticagrelor 2 days before CABG and in those receiving clopidogrel 3 days before CABG, there was an increased rate of severe bleeding. Postponing nonemergent CABG for at least 3 days after discontinuation of ticagrelor and 4 days after clopidogrel should be considered.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem
10.
Epilepsy Res ; 153: 79-82, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846346

RESUMO

Wearable automated seizure detection devices offer a high potential to improve seizure management, through continuous ambulatory monitoring, accurate seizure counts, and real-time alerts for prompt intervention. More importantly, these devices can be a life-saving help for people with a higher risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), especially in case of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The Embrace and E4 wristbands (Empatica) are the first commercially available multimodal wristbands that were designed to sense the physiological hallmarks of ongoing GTCS: while Embrace only embeds a machine learning-based detection algorithm, both E4 and Embrace devices are equipped with motion (accelerometers, ACC) and electrodermal activity (EDA) sensors and both the devices received medical clearance (E4 from EU CE, Embrace from EU CE and US FDA). The aim of this contribution is to provide updated evidence of the effectiveness of GTCS detection and monitoring relying on the combination of ACM and EDA sensors. A machine learning algorithm able to recognize ACC and EDA signatures of GTCS-like events has been developed on E4 data, labeled using gold-standard video-EEG examined by epileptologists in clinical centers, and has undergone continuous improvement. While keeping an elevated sensitivity to GTCS (92-100%), algorithm improvements and growing data availability led to lower false alarm rate (FAR) from the initial ˜2 down to 0.2-1 false alarms per day, as showed by retrospective and prospective analyses in inpatient settings. Algorithm adjustment to better discriminate real-life physical activities from GTCS, has brought the initial FAR of ˜6 on outpatient real life settings, down to values comparable to best-case clinical settings (FAR < 0.5), with comparable sensitivity. Moreover, using multimodal sensing, it has been possible not only to detect GTCS but also to quantify seizure-induced autonomic dysfunction, based on automatic features of abnormal motion and EDA. The latter biosignal correlates with the duration of post-ictal generalized EEG suppression, a biomarker observed in 100% of monitored SUDEP cases.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/instrumentação , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Punho/inervação , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Eletroencefalografia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Aprendizado de Máquina
11.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(12): 1881-1887, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) might be more effective than fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to reduce red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirement after cardiac surgery. METHODS: This is a comparative analysis of 416 patients who received FFP postoperatively and 119 patients who received PCC with or without FFP after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). RESULTS: Mixed-effects regression analyses adjusted for multiple covariates and participating centres showed that PCC significantly decreased RBC transfusion (67.2% vs. 87.5%, adjusted OR 0.319, 95%CI 0.136-0.752) and platelet transfusion requirements (11.8% vs. 45.2%, adjusted OR 0.238, 95%CI 0.097-0.566) compared with FFP. The PCC cohort received a mean of 2.7±3.7 (median, 2.0, IQR 4) units of RBC and the FFP cohort received a mean of 4.9±6.3 (median, 3.0, IQR 4) units of RBC (adjusted coefficient, -1.926, 95%CI -3.357-0.494). The use of PCC increased the risk of KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) acute kidney injury (41.4% vs. 28.2%, adjusted OR 2.300, 1.203-4.400), but not of KDIGO acute kidney injury stage 3 (6.0% vs. 8.0%, OR 0.850, 95%CI 0.258-2.796) when compared with the FFP cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the use of PCC compared with FFP may reduce the need of blood transfusion after CABG.

12.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 25: 33-44, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Although originally described as a survival mechanism, it is unknown whether and to what extent autophagy is implicated in the terminal stages of heart failure. Here, we studied magnitude and evolution of autophagy in patients with intractable heart failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS Myocardial samples were obtained from 22 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were undergoing cardiac transplantation. Hearts from 11 patients who died from non-cardiac causes were used as control samples. Autophagy was evaluated by immunostaining with a monoclonal microtubule associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II antibody, while the relationship of autophagy with apoptosis and oncosis was assessed by double staining with TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase - mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling) assay and complement 9 (C9) immunological staining, respectively. In addition, several necroptotic markers, including RIP1 and RIP3 (receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3), anti-C3 (cleaved-caspase-3), and anti-NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Anti-LC3-II staining was detected in 8.7±1.6% of the heart failure patient heart samples and in 1.2±0.3% of control patient heart samples. Vacuole formation started at one nuclear pole, before becoming bipolar and involving the cytosol. Subsequently, the autophagic process extended also to the nuclei, which underwent a progressive vacuolization and disintegration, assuming a peculiar "strawberry like appearance". Myocytes with extensive vacuole formation exhibited nuclear degeneration, which was associated with TUNEL, C3, C9, RIP1, and RIP3 positive staining. Conversely, myocytes with less extensive vacuole formation showed RIP1 and NF-κB positive staining, though not positivity for other cell death markers. CONCLUSIONS Autophagy was extensively detected in end-stage heart failure and its progression, resulted in secondary cell death, with occurrence of oncosis and necroptosis exceeding that of apoptosis. Conversely, activation of the RIP1/NF-κB pathway was associated with cell survival.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Caspase 3/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/fisiologia , Necrose/fisiopatologia , Complexo de Proteínas Formadoras de Poros Nucleares/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Platelets ; 30(4): 480-486, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676943

RESUMO

The impact of thrombocytopenia on postoperative bleeding and other major adverse events after cardiac surgery is unclear. This issue was investigated in a series of patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from the prospective, multicenter E-CABG registry. Preoperative thrombocytopenia was defined as preoperative platelet count <150 × 109/L and it was considered moderate-severe when preoperative platelet count was <100 × 109/L. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analysis was performed to adjust the effect of thrombocytopenia on outcomes for baseline and operative covariates as well as for interinstitutional differences in patient-blood management. Among 7189 patients included in this analysis, 599 (8.3%) had preoperative thrombocytopenia. Patient with preoperative thrombocytopenia had an increased chest drainage output at 12 h (mean, 519 vs. 456 mL, adjusted coeff. 39, 95%CI 18-60) and rates of severe-massive bleeding (Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding (UDPB) severity grades 3-4: 12.7% vs. 8.1%, adjusted OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.11-1.93; E-CABG bleeding severity grades 2-3: 10.4% vs. 6.1%, adjusted OR 1.78, 95%CI 1.30-2.43). Thrombocytopenia was associated with an increased risk of hospital/30-day death (3.2% vs. 1.9%, adjusted OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.20-3.42), 1-year death (5.7% vs. 3.4%, adjusted HR 1.68, 95%CI 1.16-2.44), deep sternal wound infection (3.5% vs. 2.4%, adjusted OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.66), acute kidney injury (28.1% vs. 22.2%, OR 1.45, 1.18-1.78), and prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (mean, 3.6 vs 2.8 days, adjusted coeff. 0.74, 95%CI 0.40-1.09). Similar results were observed in a subset of patients with moderate-severe thrombocytopenia (51 patients, 0.7%). In particular, these patients had a markedly higher rate of acute kidney injury (40%, adjusted OR, 1.94, 95%CI 1.05-3.57), resternotomy for bleeding (7.8%, adjusted OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.20-10.21), and severe-massive bleeding (UDPB severity grades 3-4: 23.5%, adjusted OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.52-6.22; E-CABG bleeding severity grades 2-3: 23.5%, adjusted OR 4.43, 95%CI 2.15-9.15) compared to patients with normal preoperative platelet count. Mild preoperative thrombocytopenia is associated with increased risk of severe-massive bleeding, mortality, and other major adverse events after CABG. Such risks are markedly increased in patients with moderate-severe preoperative thrombocytopenia.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Trombocitopenia/patologia
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(4): 565-570, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527774

RESUMO

The perioperative bleeding risk in patients receiving fondaparinux versus low-molecular weight heparin before coronary artery bypass grafting has not been reported. We evaluated perioperative coronary artery bypass grafting-related bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndrome preoperatively treated with fondaparinux or low-molecular weight heparin. All patients with acute coronary syndrome from the prospective, European multicenter registry on coronary artery bypass grafting preoperatively treated with fondaparinux or low-molecular weight heparin undergoing isolated primary CABG were eligible. The primary outcome measure was severe or massive bleeding defined according to the Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding stratified by P2Y12 inhibitor discontinuation. Secondary outcome measures included 3 additional definitions of major bleeding used in cardiac surgery trials. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for differences in pre- and perioperative covariates. 1,525 patients were included, of whom 276 (18.1%) received fondaparinux and 1,249 (81.9%) low-molecular weight heparin preoperatively. In the propensity score-matched cohort (245 pairs), the risk of major bleeding according to the universal definition of perioperative bleeding severe or massive bleeding (11.8 vs 9.0%, p = 0.285) and the 3 other major bleeding definitions was similar between the fondaparinux and low-molecular weight heparin cohorts. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with fondaparinux compared with low-molecular weight heparin was associated with similar incidence of perioperative bleeding in patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros
15.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 400-403, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440418

RESUMO

Pupil size is governed by the synergic action of the Autonomic Nervous System. Pupil Diameter (PD) is primarily influenced by the light level and it is responsive to variations of global luminance level. However, recent studies have shown that there is also a high-level interpretation which could modulate this physiological response. In this paper, we develop an ad-hoc protocol based on iso-luminant stimuli and validate its effectiveness for the analysis of high-level modulation of pupil response. A visual illusion was reproduced from literature and adapted in two different colors. Prior to the response analysis, a reconstruction of the missing data due to blinks and other artifacts were reconstructed by using a recently developed signal reconstruction algorithm (Iterative - Single Spectrum Analysis: I-SSA); then both time and frequency domain parameters were extracted from the PD signal. Results indicate that there are peculiarly different responses to iso-luminant stimuli with different image structures and dominating colors, thus indicating a possible high-level processing mechanism. Our results pave the way for future evaluation of comatose or generic unconscious state based on non-contact pupil dynamics assessment.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Pupila/fisiologia , Artefatos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Piscadela , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual
16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(20): e010089, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371287

RESUMO

Background Multiple percutaneous coronary interventions ( PCIs ) are considered determinant of poor outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting ( CABG ), but scarce data exist to substantiate this. Methods and Results Patients who underwent CABG without history of prior PCI or with PCI performed >30 days before surgery were selected for the present analysis from the prospective, multicenter E-CABG (European Multicenter Study on Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting) registry. Out of 6563 patients with data on preoperative SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score, 1181 patients (18.0%) had undergone PCI >30 days before CABG . Of these, 11.6% underwent a single PCI , 4.4% 2 PCI s, and 2.1% ≥3 PCI s. PCI of a single main coronary vessel was performed in 11.3%, of 2 main vessels in 4.9%, and of 3 main vessels in 1.6% of patients. Multivariable analysis showed that differences in early mortality and other outcomes were not significantly different in the study cohorts. The adjusted hospital/30-day mortality rate was 1.8% in patients without history of prior PCI , 1.9% in those with a history of 1 PCI , 1.4% after 2 PCI s, and 2.5% after ≥3 PCI s (adjusted P=0.8). The adjusted hospital/30-day mortality rate was 2.0% in those who had undergone PCI of 1 main coronary vessel, 1.3% after PCI of 2 main vessels, and 3.1% after PCI of 3 main coronary vessels (adjusted P=0.6). Conclusions Multiple prior PCI s are not associated with increased risk of early adverse events in patients undergoing isolated CABG . The present results are conditional to survival after PCI and should not be viewed as a support for a policy of multiple PCI as opposed to earlier CABG . Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.Clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 02319083.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Stents
17.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 56(5): 741-748, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of untreated asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (CS) in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicentre observational study. Patients without history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack from the multicentre E-CABG registry who were screened for CS before isolated CABG were included. RESULTS: Among 2813 patients screened by duplex ultrasound and who did not undergo carotid intervention for asymptomatic CS, 11.1% had a stenosis of 50-59%, 6.0% of 60-69%, 3.1% of 70-79%, 1.4% of 80-89%, 0.5% of 90-99%, and 1.1% had carotid occlusion. In the screened population post-operative stroke occurred in 25 patients (0.9%), with an incidence of 1.5% among patients with CS ≥ 50% (n = 649). Pre-operative screening had not found a relevant CS in 15 of 25 patients suffering stroke after CABG. Brain imaging identified cerebral ischaemic injury in 20 patients, which was bilateral in five patients (25%), ipsilateral to a CS ≥ 50% in six (30%), and ipsilateral to a CS ≥ 70% in three (15%). In univariable analysis, the severity of CS was associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke (CS < 50%, 0.7%; 50-59%, 1.0%; 60-69%, 0.6%; 70-79%, 1.2%; 80-89%, 5.1%; 90-99%, 7.7%; occluded, 6.7%, p < .001). In multivariable analysis, a CS of 90-99% (OR 12.03, 95% CI 1.34-108.23) and the presence of an occluded internal carotid artery (OR 8.783, 95% CI 1.820-42.40) were independent predictors of stroke along with urgency of the procedure, severe massive bleeding according to the E-CABG classification, and the presence of a porcelain ascending aorta. CONCLUSIONS: Among screened patients with untreated asymptomatic patients, CS ≥ 90% was an independent predictor of post-operative stroke. As this condition has a low prevalence and when left untreated is associated with a relatively low rate of stroke, pre-operative screening of asymptomatic CS before CABG may not be justified. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02319083.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Adulto , Idoso , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 4(4): 246-257, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939246

RESUMO

Aims: No data exists on inter-institutional differences in terms of adherence to international guidelines regarding the discontinuation of antithrombotics and rates of severe bleeding in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and results: This is an analysis of 7118 patients from the prospective multicentre European CABG (E-CABG) registry who underwent isolated CABG in 15 European centres. Preoperative pause of P2Y12 receptor antagonists shorter than that suggested by the 2017 ESC guidelines (overall 11.6%) ranged from 0.7% to 24.8% between centres (adjusted P < 0.0001) and increased the rate of severe-massive bleeding [E-CABG bleeding grades 2-3, OR 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-2.17; Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding (UDPB) bleeding grades 3-4, OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.16-1.93]. The incidence of resternotomy for bleeding (overall 2.6%) ranged from 0% to 6.9% (adjusted P < 0.0001), and surgical site bleeding (overall 59.6%) ranged from 0% to 84.6% (adjusted P = 0.003). The rate of the UDPB bleeding grades 3-4 (overall 8.4%) ranged from 3.7% to 22.3% (P < 0.0001), and of the E-CABG bleeding grades 2-3 (overall 6.5%) ranged from 0.4% to 16.4% between centres (P < 0.0001). Resternotomy for bleeding (adjusted OR 5.04, 95% CI 2.85-8.92), UDPB bleeding grades 3-4 (adjusted OR 6.61, 95% CI 4.42-9.88), and E-CABG bleeding grades 2-3 (adjusted OR 8.71, 95% CI 5.76-13.15) were associated with an increased risk of hospital/30-day mortality. Conclusions: Adherence to the current guidelines on the early discontinuation of P2Y12 receptor antagonists is of utmost importance to reduce excessive bleeding and early mortality after CABG. Inter-institutional variation should be considered for a correct interpretation of the results in multicentre studies evaluating perioperative bleeding and use of blood products.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue/normas , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/normas , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 54(6): 1102-1109, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of frailty on the outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and whether it may improve the predictive ability of European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II). METHODS: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) was assessed preoperatively in patients undergoing isolated CABG from the multicentre E-CABG registry, and patients were stratified into 3 classes: scores 1-2, scores 3-4 and scores 5-7. RESULTS: Of the 6156 patients enrolled, 39.2% had CFS scores 1-2, 57.6% scores 3-4, and 3.2% scores 5-7. Logistic regression adjusted for multiple covariates showed that the CFS was an independent predictor of hospital/30-day mortality [CFS scores 3-4, odds ratio (OR) 3.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19-7.14; CFS scores 5-7, OR 5.90, 95% CI 2.67-13.05] and resulted in an Integrated Improvement Index of 1.3 (P < 0.001) and a Net Reclassification Index of 55.6 (P < 0.001) for prediction of hospital/30-day mortality. Adding the CFS classes to EuroSCORE II resulted in an Integrated Improvement Index of 0.9 (P < 0.001) and Net Reclassification Index of 59.6 (P < 0.001) for prediction of hospital/30-day mortality with a significantly larger area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.809 vs 0.781, P = 0.028). The CFS was an independent predictor of mid-term mortality [CFS scores 3-4, hazard ratio (HR) 2.05, 95% CI 1.43-2.85; CFS scores 5-7, HR 3.05, 95% CI 1.83-5.06]. CONCLUSIONS: The CFS predicted early- and mid-term mortality in patients undergoing isolated CABG. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether frailty may improve the estimation of the operative risk of patients undergoing adult cardiac surgery. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02319083.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade , Idoso , Feminino , Fragilidade/classificação , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 25(1_suppl): 42-50, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708032

RESUMO

Background Sporadic non-syndromic thoracic aortic aneurysms (SNSTAAs) are less well understood than familial non-syndromic or syndromic ones. The study aimed at defining the peculiar morphologic and molecular changes occurring in the media layer of SNSTAAs. Design This study was based on a single centre design. Methods Media layer samples taken from seven carefully selected SNSTAAs and seven reference patients (controls) were investigated via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, proteomics-bioinformatics, immunoblotting, quantitative histology, and immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence. Results In SNSTAAs media, aortic smooth muscle cells numbers were halved due to an apoptotic process coupled with a negligible cell proliferation. Cystathionine γ-lyase was diffusely up-regulated. Surviving aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited diverging phenotypes: in inner- and outer-media contractile cells prevailed, having higher contents of smooth-muscle-α-actin holoprotein (45-kDa) and of caspase-3-cleaved smooth-muscle-α-actin 25-kDa fragments; in mid-media, aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited a synthetic/secretor phenotype, down-regulating vimentin, but up-regulating glial fibrillary acidic protein, trans-Golgi network 46 protein, Jagged1 (172-kDa) holoprotein, and Jagged1's receptor Notch1. Extracellular soluble Jagged1 (42-kDa) fragments accumulated. Conclusions In SNSTAAs, there is a relentless aortic smooth muscle cells attrition caused by the up-regulated cystathionine γ-lyase. In mid-media, synthetic/secretor aortic smooth muscle cells intensify Jagged1/NOTCH1 signalling in the attempt to counterbalance the weakened aortic wall, due to aortic smooth muscle cells net loss and mechanical stress. Synthetic/secretor aortic smooth muscle cells are apoptosis-prone, and the accruing thrombin-cleaved Jagged1 fragments counteract the otherwise useful effects of Jagged1/NOTCH1 signalling, thus hampering tissue homeostasis/remodelling, and aortic smooth muscle cells adhesion, differentiation, and migration.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteína Jagged-1/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , RNA/genética , Receptor Notch1/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Apoptose , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Proteína Jagged-1/biossíntese , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Receptor Notch1/biossíntese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA