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1.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 26, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The unacceptably high rate of maternal and child mortality in Nigeria prompted the government to introduce a free maternal and child health (MCH) programme, which was stopped abruptly following a change in government. This triggered increased advocacy for sustaining MCH as a political priority in the country and led to the formation of advocacy coalitions. This study set out to explain the process involved in the formation of advocacy coalition groups and how they work to bring about sustained political prioritization for MCH in Nigeria. It will contribute to the understanding of the Nigerian MCH sector subsystem and will be beneficial to health policy advocates and public health researchers in Nigeria. METHODS: This study employed a qualitative case study approach. Data were collected using a pretested interview guide to conduct 22 in-depth interviews, while advocacy events were reviewed pro forma. The document review was analysed using the manual content analysis method, while qualitative data audiotapes were transcribed verbatim, anonymized, double-coded in MS Word using colour-coded highlights and analysed using manual thematic and framework analysis guided by the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF was used to identify the policy subsystem including the actors, their belief, coordination and resources, as well as the effects of advocacy groups on policy change. Ethics and consent approval were obtained for the study. RESULTS: The policy subsystem identified the actors and characterized the coalitions, and described their group formation processes and resources/strategies for engagement. The perceived deep core belief driving the MCH agenda is the right of an individual to health. The effects of advocacy groups on policy change were identified, along with the factors that enabled effectiveness, as well as constraints to coalition formation. External factors and triggers of coalition formation were identified to include high maternal mortality and withdrawal of the free MCH programme, while the contextual issues were the health system issues and the socioeconomic factors affecting the country. CONCLUSION: Our findings add to an increasing body of evidence that the use of ACF is beneficial in exploring how advocacy coalitions are formed and in identifying the effects of advocacy groups on policy change.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524044

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study investigates the oral health-seeking behaviour of households and its influence on demand for dental caries treatment services in Enugu state Nigeria. METHODS: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study was used to explore the oral health seeking pattern of 378 urban and 348 rural household respondents in Enugu state Nigeria. The study explored dental caries treatment-seeking, oral health behavior of respondents using the three dynamics of the Andersen and Newman health utilization model; predisposing, enabling and need factors. FINDINGS: Recommendations from community members (48.9%), severity of disease (22.1%), and cost of treatment (19.4%) all influenced where oral healthcare was first sought. Gender and type of occupation, influenced positive oral health-seeking behavior (p<0.05). The least poor socioeconomic status (SES) group, sought dental treatment in the private dental clinics, while the very poor and most poor SES groups used traditional healers, home treatment and patent medicine dealers more. Dental fillings and extractions were generally the most accessed treatment options for dental caries. The tendency for all the SES groups (especially the least poor), to choose tooth extraction more as a treatment option for dental caries was influenced by the oral health awareness level of respondents and the cost of dental fillings. (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that interventions to create increased oral health awareness targeted at education on preventive strategies, appropriate time and place to seek oral health care and dental caries treatment, as well devising and implementing health financing options such as dental insurance would enable individuals to seek appropriate treatment for dental caries on time. In addition, it will reduce the proportion of people visiting unorthodox healthcare providers for their oral health problems or choosing cheaper but inappropriate treatment options.

3.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 7, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misconceptions about the usefulness of condoms and other contraceptives still expose many unmarried adolescents to the risk of unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). This study explored beliefs and misconceptions about condoms and other contraceptives among adolescents in Ebonyi state, south-east Nigeria. METHOD: A qualitative study was undertaken in six local government areas in Ebonyi state, southeast Nigeria. Data were collected within a period of one month from in and out-of-school adolescents aged 13-18 years using twelve focus group discussions (FGD). The data were analyzed using the thematic framework approach. RESULT: Majority of the adolescents were knowledgeable about methods of contraception, how they are used and their modes of action. They were also knowledgeable about the dual effects of condoms in prevention of pregnancy and STIs. However, some misconceptions that were expressed by some adolescents were that pregnancy could be prevented by the use of (i) hard drugs, (ii) laxatives, (iii) white chlorine, and (iv) boiled alcoholic beverages. Condoms were described by some adolescent boys as reusable. Condoms were also perceived by some adolescents to reduce sexual pleasure, and this opinion was mostly held by boys. Coitus interruptus (withdrawal method) was therefore considered more preferable than condoms for prevention of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Although majority adolescents have knowledge about contraception and condom use, some misconceptions still persist. These misconceptions put many adolescents at increased risk for pregnancy and STIs which are detrimental to their health and wellbeing. Concerted efforts should be made through educational and behaviour change interventions in schools and within communities to debunk persisting misconceptions about contraception including the use of condom, and properly educate adolescents on safe sex practices. Adolescents engage in unprotected sexual intercourse and other risky sexual behaviours because of some mistaken beliefs and wrong impressions about how to prevent unwanted pregnancy. These risky sexual behaviours predispose adolescents to sexually transmitted infections, unsafe abortion and other reproductive health problems. In this qualitative study, we explored some of these mistaken beliefs about condoms and other methods of preventing pregnancy. During focus group discussions, adolescents identified modern contraceptive methods, and described their modes of action and how they are used. They also discussed their contraceptive preferences and perceived effects of condoms on sexual pleasure. Although some of these adolescents were able to correctly mention various types of contraceptives and their modes of action, there were numerous wrong impressions. Hard drugs, laxatives, white chlorine and boiled alcoholic beverage were listed as emergency contraceptive methods. Emergency pills were perceived to work by flushing away spermatozoa from a girl's system after sexual intercourse. Male condoms were perceived to be potentially dangerous because they could break and enter into the body of the female sexual partner. Some adolescent boys had the notion that particular brands of male condoms could be washed and reused. Notions about condom use and sexual pleasure varied for girls and boys. Some adolescent girls perceived that condom use during sex increases sexual pleasure because of the assurance of being protected from STIs and pregnancy. Adolescent boys were of the opinion that condoms interfere with the pleasure of direct 'flesh to flesh' contact during sex. There was a general belief that contraceptive use in early age reduces fertility prospects for boys and girls. Mistaken beliefs about methods of preventing pregnancy persist among adolescents, and this raises concerns about the quality of information they receive. Concerted efforts should be made to debunk these wrong beliefs and properly educate adolescents on safe sex practices.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During 2012-2015, the Federal Government of Nigeria launched the Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme, a health system strengthening (HSS) programme with a Maternal and Child Health component (Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme [SURE-P]/MCH), which was monitored using the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS) data reporting tools. Good quality data is essential for health policy and planning decisions yet, little is known on whether and how broad health systems strengthening programmes affect quality of data. This paper explores the effects of the SURE-P/MCH on completeness of MCH data in the National HMIS. METHODS: This mixed-methods study was undertaken in Anambra state, southeast Nigeria. A standardized proforma was used to collect facility-level data from the facility registers on MCH services to assess the completeness of data from 2 interventions and one control clusters. The facility data was collected to cover before, during, and after the SURE-P intervention activities. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with purposefully-identified health facility workers to identify their views and experiences of changes in data quality throughout the above 3 periods. RESULTS: Quantitative analysis of the facility data showed that data completeness improved substantially, starting before SURE-P and continuing during SURE-P but across all clusters (ie, including the control). Also health workers felt data completeness were improved during the SURE-P, but declined with the cessation of the programme. We also found that challenges to data completeness are dependent on many variables including a high burden on providers for data collection, many variables to be filled in the data collection tools, and lack of health worker incentives. CONCLUSION: Quantitative analysis showed improved data completeness and health workers believed the SURE-P/MCH had contributed to the improvement. The functioning of national HMIS are inevitably linked with other health systems components. While health systems strengthening programmes have a great potential for improved overall systems performance, a more granular understanding of their implications on the specific components such as the resultant quality of HMIS data, is needed.

5.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 438, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335102

RESUMO

A cross-sectional survey of adolescents and heads of households was done in six urban and rural local government areas in Ebonyi state, Nigeria in August 2018. Modified cluster sampling technique was used to select households from which eligible adolescent boys and girls were recruited. This data article describes two datasets that, for the first time, expansively describe adolescents' sexual and reproductive behaviors in Nigeria. The datasets include variables on adolescents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; family relationships; sexual behaviors; awareness and use of contraceptives; access to sexual and reproductive health information and services; gender norms and ideology about adolescent sexuality; and potential strategies for reducing unwanted teenage pregnancies and unsafe abortions. This dataset would be useful to public health researchers and social scientists investigating drivers of adolescent sexual and reproductive behaviour, as well as programme managers seeking potential strategies for improving adolescent health outcomes. The datasets also provide a template that could be replicated for national or regional surveys on adolescent sexual and reproductive behaviours.


Assuntos
Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Anticoncepcionais , Família , Humanos , Governo Local , Nigéria , População Rural , Comportamento Sexual , População Urbana
6.
Front Public Health ; 8: 582072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251176

RESUMO

Background: The Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P), Maternal and Child Health (MCH) was introduced by the Nigerian government to increase the use of skilled maternal health services and reduce maternal mortality. The programme, funded out of a reduction in the fuel subsidy, was implemented between October 2012 and April 2015 and incorporated a conditional cash transfer to women to encourage use of facility based maternal services. We seek to assess the incremental cost effectiveness and long term impact of the conditional cash transfer element of the programme. Methods: An impact analysis and incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) is undertaken taking a health service perspective toward costs of the intervention. The study was undertaken in Anambra state, comparing areas that received only the investment in health services with areas that implemented the conditional cash transfer programme. An interrupted time series analysis of the programme outputs was undertaken. These were combined with a programme costing to determine the incremental cost per output. Findings: Maternal services provided to patients in conditional cash transfer areas accelerated rapidly from the middle of 2014 until after the programme in late 2015. The costs of providing services in each Primary Health Center facility was US $52,128 in the areas that only invested in health services compared to US $90,702 in facilities that also provided cash transfers. Much of the additional cost was in managing cash transfers. The incremental cost in the cash transfer areas was $572 for delivery care and $11 for antenatal care. If the programme was to be integrated as a regular service in the public health system, the cost of a delivery is estimated to fall to $389 and to $188 if 2015 levels of activity are assumed. Conclusion: Although the cost of CCTs as originally constituted as a vertical programme are relatively high compared to other similar programmes, these would fall substantially if integrated into the main health system. There is also evidence of sustained impact beyond the end of the funding suggesting that short term programmes can lead to a long-term change in patterns of health seeking behavior.

7.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(Supplement_2): ii84-ii97, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156942

RESUMO

Implementation science embraces collaboration between academic researchers and key stakeholders/implementers for the dual purpose of capacity building and context-adaptation. Co-production ensures that knowledge created with inputs from various groups of stakeholders is more reflective of local contexts. This paper highlights the experiences of academic researchers and non-academic implementers in collaborating to design implementation strategies for improving access to sexual and reproductive information and services for adolescents. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources. Detailed review of project documents such as minutes of research meetings, reports of workshops and outputs of group work activities enabled detailed description of the processes and steps of co-designing implementation strategies. Information on experiences and perspectives of benefits of the collaborative were collected through in-depth interviews of non-academic partners and focus group discussion with academic researchers. Narrative synthesis was done for information extracted through document review. Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews was done. The process of designing implementation strategies happened in three chronological steps of setting up the collaborative, selecting intervention areas and convening partners' meetings to design strategies. Specific activities include stakeholder engagement, situation analysis, selection of intervention areas, designing the implementation strategies and pre-testing implementation tools. The process of analysing and selecting collaborators was iterative, and facilitated by having an 'insider' key informant. Working with key stakeholders enabled knowledge sharing and exchange among partners. Information sharing within the collaborative facilitated shifting of mindsets about adolescent sexual and reproductive health, and contextual adaptation of names and labels given to strategies. Co-producing implementation strategies with non-academic implementers enabled stakeholder ownership of implementation strategies and set the scene for their adoption in implementation settings. Some challenges of co-production of knowledge are that it is time consuming; involves several iterations that may influence coherence of strategies; involves multiple interests and priorities and poses a threat to fidelity.

8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 903, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal and Child Health is a global priority. Access and utilization of facility-based health services remain a challenge in low and middle-income countries. Evidence on barriers to providing and accessing services omits information on the role of security within facilities. This paper explores the role of security in the provision and use of maternal health services in primary healthcare facilities in Nigeria. METHODS: Study was carried out in Anambra state, Nigeria. Qualitative data were initially collected from 35 in-depth interviews and 24 focus groups with purposively identified key informants. Information gathered was used to build a programme theory that was tested with another round of interviews (17) and focus group (4) discussions. Data analysis and reporting were based on the Context-Mechanism-Outcome heuristic of Realist Evaluation methodology. RESULTS: The presence of a male security guard in the facility was the most important security factor that facilitated provision and uptake of services. Others include perimeter fencing, lighting and staff accommodation. Lack of these components constrained provision and use of services, by impacting on behaviour of staff and patients. Security concerns of facility staff who did not feel safe to let in people into unguarded facilities, mirrored those of pregnant women who did not utilize health facilities because of fear of not being let in and attended to by facility staff. CONCLUSION: Health facility security should be key consideration in programme planning, to avert staff and women's fear of crime which currently constrains provision and use of maternal healthcare at health facilities.

9.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(12): 1522-1533, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the population groups that benefit from a Free Maternal and Child Health (FMCH) programme in Enugu State, South-east Nigeria, so as to understand the equity effects of the programme. METHOD: A community-based survey was conducted in rural and urban local government areas (LGAs) to aid the benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of the FMCH. Data were elicited from 584 randomly selected women of childbearing age. Data on their level of utilisation of FMCH services and their out-of-pocket expenditures on various FMCH services that they utilised were elicited. Benefits of the FMCH were valued using the unit cost of providing services while the net benefit was calculated by subtracting OOP expenditures made for services from the value of benefits. Costs were calculated in local currency (Naira (₦)) and converted to US Dollars. The net benefits were disaggregated by urban-rural locations and socio-economic status (SES). Concentration indices were computed to provide the level of SES inequity in BIA of FMCH. RESULTS: The total gross benefit incidence was ₦2.681 million ($7660). The gross benefit that was consumed by the urban dwellers was ₦1.581 million ($4517.1), while the rural dwellers consumed gross benefits worth ₦1.1 million ($3608.20). However, OOP expenditure for the supposedly FMCH was ₦6 527 580 (US$18 650.2) in the urban area, while it was ₦3, 194, 706 (US$ 9127.7) among rural dwellers. There was negative benefit incidence for the FMCH because the OOP exceeded the gross benefits at the point of use of services. There was no statistically significant difference in the benefit incidence and OOP expenditure between the urban and rural dwellers and across socio-economic groups. CONCLUSION: The distribution of the gross benefits of the FMCH programme indicates that it may not have achieved the desired aim of enhanced access particularly to the low-income population. Crucially, the high level of OOP erased whatever societal gain the FMCH was developed to provide. Hence, there is a need to review its implementation and re-strategise to reduce OOP and achieve greater access for improved effectiveness of the programme.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881986

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health care decision makers require capacity to demand and use research evidence for effective decision making. Capacity to undertake health policy and systems research (HPSR) and teaching is low in developing countries. Strengthening the capacity of producers and users of research is a more sustainable strategy for developing the field of HPSR in Africa, than relying on training in high-income countries. METHODS: Data were collected from 118 participants who had received the capacity building, using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents included health research scientists from institutions (producers) and decision makers (users) in the public health sector, in Anambra and Enugu states, southeast Nigeria. Data were collected on participants' progress with proposed group activities in their short- term goals; effects of these activities on evidence-informed decision making and constraints to implementing activities. Univariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. FINDINGS: All prioritised activities were carried out. However, responses were low. Highest response for an activity amongst producers was 39.1%, and 44.4% for users. Some of the activities implemented positively influenced changes in practice; like modification of existing policies and programme plans. There was a wide range of responses between producers of evidence (0.0-39.1%) and users (2.7-44.4%) across both study states. Lack of authority to implement activities was the major constraint (42-9-100.0% across activities), followed by financial constraints (70.6%). CONCLUSION: Capacity building intervention improved skills of a critical mass of research scientists, policymakers and practitioners, towards evidence-based decision making. Participants committed to undertake proposed activities but faced a number of constraints. These need to be addressed, especially the decision space and authority, improving funding to implement activities that influence Getting Research into Policy & Practice (GRIPP). Being at different stages of planning and implementing proposed activities; participants require continuous technical and financial support to successfully implement activities and engage meaningfully within and across professional boundaries and roles, in order to achieve short-, medium- and long- term goals.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Política de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto , Fortalecimento Institucional , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 884, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Nigerian government introduced and implemented a health programme to improve maternal and child health (MCH) called Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment programme for MCH (SURE-P/MCH). It ran from 2012 and ended abruptly in 2015 and was followed by increased advocacy for sustaining the MCH (antenatal, delivery, postnatal and immunization) services as a policy priority. Advocacy is important in allowing social voice, facilitating prioritization, and bringing different forces/actors together. Therefore, the study set out to understand how advocacy works - through understanding what effective advocacy implementation processes comprise and what mechanisms are triggered by which contexts to produce the intended outcomes. METHODS: The study used a Realist Evaluation design through a mixed quantitative and qualitative methods case study approach. The programme theory (PT) was developed from three substantive social theories (power politics, media influence communication theory, and the three-streams theory of agenda-setting), data and programme design documentation, and subsequently tested. We report information from 22 key informant interviews including national and State policy and law makers, policy implementers, CSOs, Development partners, NGOs, health professional groups, and media practitioners and review of relevant documents on advocacy events post-SURE-P. RESULTS: Key advocacy organizations and individuals including health professional groups, the media, civil society organizations, powerful individuals, and policymakers were involved in advocacy activities. The nature of their engagement included organizing workshops, symposiums, town hall meetings, individual meetings, press conferences, demonstrations, and engagements with media. Effective advocacy mechanism involved alliance brokering to increase influence, the media supporting and engaging in advocacy, and the use of champions, influencers, and spouses (Leadership and Elite Gendered Power Dynamics). The key contextual influences which determined the effectiveness of advocacy measures for MCH included the political cycle, availability of evidence on the issue, networking with powerful and interested champions, and alliance building in advocacy. All these enhanced the entrenchment of MCH on the political and financial agenda at the State and Federal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggest that advocacy can be a useful tool to bring together different forces by allowing expression of voices and ensuring accountability of different actors including policymakers. In the context of poor health outcomes, interest from policymakers and politicians in MCH, combined with advocacy from key policy actors armed with evidence, can improve prioritization and sustained implementation of MCH services.

12.
Int J Public Health ; 65(7): 1019-1026, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Generating additional personal income is common with primary healthcare (PHC) workforce in Nigeria, which could be because of the inconsistencies marring their monthly salaries. Therefore, this study investigates the drivers of private economic activities of PHC providers in the public sector, and the links to absenteeism, as well as inefficiency of PHC facilities in Nigeria. METHODS: A qualitative study design was used to collect data from 30 key-informants using in-depth interviews. They were selected from 5 PHC facilities across three local government areas in Enugu state, south-eastern Nigeria. Data were analysed thematically, and guided by phenomenology. RESULTS: Findings showed that majority of the health workers were involved in different private money-making activities. A main driver was inconsistencies in salaries, which makes it difficult for them to routinely meet their personal and household needs. As a result, PHC facilities were found less functional. CONCLUSIONS: Absenteeism of PHC providers can be addressed if efforts are made to close justifiable gaps that cause health workers to struggle informally. Such lesson can be instructive to low- and middle-income countries in strengthening their health systems.

13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(8)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843524

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Well-trained, adequately skilled and motivated primary healthcare (PHC) workers are essential for attaining universal health coverage (UHC). While there is abundant literature on the drivers of workforce motivation, published knowledge on the mechanisms of motivation within different contexts is limited, particularly in resource-limited countries. This paper contributes to health workforce literature by reporting on how motivation works among PHC workers in a maternal and child health (MCH) programme in Nigeria. METHODS: We adopted a realist evaluation design combining document review with 56 in-depth interviews of PHC workers, facility managers and policy-makers to assess the impact of the MCH programme in Anambra State, Nigeria. A realist process of theory development, testing and consolidation was used to understand how and under what circumstances the MCH programme impacted on workers' motivation and which mechanisms explain how motivation works. We drew on Herzberg's two-factor and Adam's equity theories to unpack how context shapes worker motivation. RESULTS: A complex and dynamic interaction between the MCH programme and organisational and wider contexts triggered five mechanisms which explain PHC worker motivation: (1) feeling supported, (2) feeling comfortable with work environment, (3) feeling valued, (4) morale and confidence to perform tasks and (5) companionship. Some mechanisms were mutually reinforcing while others operated in parallel. Other conditions that enabled worker motivation were organisational values of fairness, recognition of workers' contributions and culture of task-sharing and teamwork. CONCLUSIONS: Policy designs and management strategies for improving workforce performance, particularly in resource-constrained settings should create working environments that foster feelings of being valued and supported while enabling workers to apply their knowledge and skills to improve healthcare delivery and promote UHC. Future research can test the explanatory framework generated by this study and explore differences in motivational mechanisms among different cadres of PHC workers to inform cadre-related motivational interventions.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1162, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High rate of teenage pregnancy in Nigeria is potentially an indication of poor access to and utilization of contraceptives among this age group. This paper presents findings from in-depth exploration of perceived barriers to utilization of contraceptive services by adolescents. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in six communities in Ebonyi state, southeast Nigeria. Eighty-one in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted. Respondents comprised policy makers, community leaders, health service providers and parents of adolescents. Pre-tested interview guides were used to collect information on perceived barriers to utilization of contraceptive services by adolescents. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed in English. Data was analysed using thematic framework approach, and the socio-ecological model was adapted for data synthesis. RESULTS: Individual level factors that limit access to contraceptives for adolescents include lack of awareness and poor knowledge, fear of side effects, low self-esteem, and inability to afford cost of services. Interpersonal (family-related) barriers to access include poor parent-child communication of sexual and reproductive health matters and negative attitude of parents towards to sexuality education for adolescents. Health systems barriers to accessing contraceptives for adolescents include lack of privacy and confidentiality, stock-out of contraceptive commodities, judgmental attitude of health workers, insufficient staff that are skilled in adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Gendered cultural norms, societal shaming and religious intolerance also preclude adolescents from accessing and using contraceptive services. Wider societal factors such as negative peer and media influence, absence of sexuality education in schools, lack of social networks in communities; and macro level factors such as poor economic conditions were also perceived to limit access to contraceptives for adolescents. CONCLUSION: Utilization of contraception is constrained by an interplay of factors acting at various levels. Addressing these barriers could contribute to improved access to contraceptive services for adolescents, as well as reduction in unwanted teenage pregnancy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Comunicação , Confidencialidade , Anticoncepcionais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , Educação Sexual , Saúde Sexual
15.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 18: 21, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624709

RESUMO

Background: Nigeria health sector, like that of other sub-Saharan African countries, increasingly faces critical resource constraints. Thus, there is need to seek for ways of improving efficient use of scarce health resources. The aim of this study was to determine resource utilization rate of teaching hospitals in Southeast Nigeria as a means of estimating their efficiency. Methods: The study is a longitudinal cross sectional study. It applied ratio indicators and Pabon Lasso model using data on the number of hospital bed, number of inpatients and total inpatient-days from purposefully selected teaching hospitals in Southeast Nigeria to measure efficiency over a period of 6 years (2011-2011). Results: The hospitals' mean bed occupancy rate was as low as 42.14%, far below standard benchmark of 80-85%. The mean average length of stay was as high as 8.15 days and observed mean bed turnover was 21.27 patients/bed/year. These findings portrayed high level of inefficiency in Nigeria teaching hospitals, which was further illustrated by Pabon Lasso graph, with only 10-20% of the hospital-years located within or near the efficient zone or quadrant. Conclusion: The study was able to show that health ratio indicators such as hospital bed turnover rate (BTR) and bed occupancy rate (BOR), as well as patients' average length of stay (ALS) can be used as tools for assessing hospital performance or its efficiency in resource utilization. Thus, in low and middle income countries where medical record keeping may be inadequate or poor, ratio indicators used alone or with Pabon Lasso graph/chart could be an optional metrics for hospital efficiency.

16.
Vaccine ; 38(37): 5947-5954, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measles immunization is critical for reducing the societal burden of the disease, especially among children. However, the costs of the measles supplemental immunization activities, which are the main vaccine deployment strategy, are usually high and financing such immunization activities is a serious challenge in Nigeria. In Nigeria, little or no information exists on the costs of measles supplemental immunization activity for planning and sustenance of immunization programmes. This study aimed to determine the cost per child immunized and cost structure of a follow-up supplemental immunization activity (SIA) for measles immunization to children. METHOD: Data on costs and outputs of SIA were collected from six Local Government area (LGAs) immunization offices in Anambra state, southeast Nigeria. The ingredient approach was used for costing, based on the providers' perspective. The sample results were extrapolated to state estimates using volume weighted mean method. The major indicator considered was cost per child immunized. Two-way sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the results. RESULT: The cost per child immunized through SIA was $1.37 and the cost per child for operational cost only was $0.81. The total cost of the SIA for the sample was $345,069.35 and the operational cost was $204,969.46. The cost of personnel (43.99%) and vaccine (36.22%) contributed the highest percentage to the total cost of SIA. The cost of personnel and transportation took the first (74.6%) and second (7.10%) highest percentages of the operational cost for the sample. The estimated total and operational costs of measles SIA for the state were $1,279,127.84 and $759,795.52 respectively. CONCLUSION: The cost per child immunized with measles containing vaccine through SIA is relatively high in Nigeria. There is a need to review the activities with SIA, so as to ensure that resources are efficiently allocated and used for different activities of the programme.

17.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 9(7): 286-296, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corruption is widespread in Nigeria's health sector but the reasons why it exists and persists are poorly understood and it is often seen as intractable. We describe a consensus building exercise in which we asked health workers and policy-makers to identify and prioritise feasible responses to corruption in the Nigerian health sector. METHODS: We employed three sequential activities. First, a narrative literature review identified which types of corruption are reported in the Nigerian health system. Second, we asked 21 frontline health workers to add to what was found in the review (based on their own experiences) and prioritise them, based on their significance and the feasibility of assessing them, by means of a consensus building exercise using a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Third, we presented their assessments in a meeting of 25 policy-makers to offer their views on the practicality of implementing appropriate measures. RESULTS: Participants identified 49 corrupt practices from the literature review and their own experience as most important in the Nigerian health system. The NGT prioritised: absenteeism, procurement-related corruption, under-the-counter payments, health financing-related corruption, and employment-related corruption. This largely reflected findings from the literature review, except for the greater emphasis on employment-related corruption from the NGT. Absenteeism, Informal payments and employment-related corruption were seen as most feasible to tackle. Frontline workers and policy-makers agreed that tackling corrupt practices requires a range of approaches. CONCLUSION: Corruption is recognized in Nigeria as widespread but often seems insurmountable. We show how a structured approach can achieve consensus among multiple stakeholders, a crucial first step in mobilizing action to address corruption.

18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 473, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine how socioeconomic factors, such as level of education and employment status, affect patient experiences on quality of care for ambulatory healthcare services in teaching hospitals in southeast Nigeria. METHODS: The study is of a cross-sectional design and exit poll was used to collect its data. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered to clients accessing care in the outpatient departments of three tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. The assessment of patient experiences for quality of care was based on five (5) domains of care: waiting time; environment of the outpatient department; quality of doctor's care; quality of care by nurses/other health workers; and responsiveness of care. In addition, the overall quality of care was assessed. RESULTS: The mean rating of patient experience for quality of care for ambulatory healthcare services (outpatients' care) was 74.31 ± 0.32%. Moderate differences were observed between the hospitals assessed for various levels of patients' care, especially for waiting time, quality of doctors' care and overall quality of care. Employment status was a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) determinant of overall patient experience rating for quality of care, while the level of patient's education was an influence on the perception of waiting by the patients and their rating of care from nurses/other healthcare providers (apart from medical doctors). CONCLUSION: The study showed that educational and employment status (measures of socioeconomic status) of patients determined how patients receiving ambulatory (outpatient) healthcare services perceived the quality of care in the hospitals. Hence, in order to ensure equity, there is need to institutionalize patient-centered care, while full consideration is given to the patients' socioeconomic status.

19.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 145, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental caries, despite improvement in oral health across the globe, is still a large contributor to the global burden of oral diseases and a major public health concern. In Enugu state, Nigeria, there is minimal access to adequate and proper oral health care. This study examined the determinants of dental caries treatment provision and the challenges of providing equitable access to oral health care. METHOD: This was a mixed-method cross-sectional descriptive urban-rural study conducted in selected oral health facilities offering primary oral health care in Enugu state. The study was conducted in two phases over a 2 month period. Quantitative data was initially collected from all selected oral health care providers using a survey questionnaire format after which qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews of heads of the selected oral health facilities. The determinants of dental caries treatment services were explored with a focus on provider behavior, cost of dental services, human resource availability and availability of dental equipment. RESULTS: Quantitative findings show that to a larger extent, the cost of raw materials (100%), human resources (98.1%), infection control resources (98.1%), geographical location (98.1), Government policies (88%) and the price of other goods (80.8%) influence provision of dental caries treatment services. Qualitative results show that location and number of oral health facilities, government funding and policies for oral health, cost of dental equipment and materials, the ability of consumers to pay, human resource availability and consumer awareness of oral health are also factors that influence the provision of dental caries treatment services. CONCLUSION: Adequate access to oral health care services is a major concern that affects all aspects of healthcare and a determining factor in the country's drive to achieve universal health coverage. In order to address this, oral health facilities need to be strategically located and have adequate materials, equipment and skilled staff. There is a need to incorporate oral health into the general health care system and improve government policies and funding for oral health.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Bucal/organização & administração , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural , População Urbana
20.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 244, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nigeria has the second largest number of adolescents and young people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS contribute to spread of HIV, and constrain uptake of preventive services. This paper explored misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among adolescents in south-east Nigeria. A qualitative study was conducted in six urban and rural local government areas of Ebonyi state. Data were collected through twelve focus group discussions (FGD) with unmarried adolescents aged 13-18 who were either attending school or out-of-school. The FGDs were conducted using a pre-tested topic guide. Data were coded manually and analyzed using a thematic framework approach. RESULTS: There are persistent misconceptions about transmission of HIV/AIDS through mosquito bites and sharing of personal belongings. Some adolescents had inaccurate notions that a HIV infected person could be identified through changes in physical features such as abdominal swelling and longer fingernails. A few of them also reported that HIV could be treated with antibiotics. These misconceptions were expressed by both male and female adolescents. Adolescents have some mistaken beliefs about HIV/AIDS which constrain them from taking necessary preventive measures. Hence, the need to target adolescents with health education interventions on HIV/AIDS.

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