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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440965

RESUMO

Background and objectives: In oral and maxillofacial operations, the iliac crest is a commonly used donor site from which to harvest bone for augmentation prior to dental implantation or for reconstruction of jaw defects caused by trauma or pathological lesions. In an aging society, the proportion of elderly patients undergoing iliac crest bone grafting for oral augmentation is growing. Although postoperative morbidity is usually moderate to low, the age and health of the patient should be considered as risk factors for complications and delayed mobilization after the operation. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the postoperative morbidity and complications in elderly patients after the harvesting of iliac crest bone grafts for oral surgery. Material and Methods: Data were collected from a total of 486 patients (aged 7-85) who had a surgical procedure that included the harvesting of iliac crest bone grafts for intraoral transplantation. All patients were operated on between 2005 and 2021 in the Department for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University Hospital in Aachen, Germany. As parameters for postoperative morbidity and complications, gait disturbances, hypesthesia of cutaneous nerves, incision hernias, iliac crest fractures, delayed wound healing, and unfavorable scar formation at the donor site were all evaluated. Results: The study was performed with 485 patients due to the exclusion of one patient as the only one from whom grafts were taken from both sides. When younger and older patients were compared, neither gait disturbances (p = 0.420), nor hernias (p = 0.239), nor fractures (p = 0.239), nor hypesthesia (p = 0.297), nor wound healing delay (p = 0.294), nor scar problems (p = 0.586) were significantly different. However, the volume of the graft was significantly correlated with the duration of the hospital stay (ρ = 0.30; p < 0.01) but not with gait disturbances (ρ = 0.60; p = 0.597). Additionally, when controlling for age (p = 0.841), sex (p = 0.031), ASA class (p = 0.699), preexisting orthopedic handicaps (p = 0.9828), and the volume of the bone graft (p = 0.770), only male sex was associated with the likelihood of suffering gait disturbances (p = 0.031). Conclusions: In conclusion, harvesting bone grafts from the anterior iliac crest for intraoral augmentation is a safe procedure for both young and elderly patients. Although there is some postoperative morbidity, such as gait disturbances, hypesthesia, scar formation, or delayed wound healing at the donor site, rates for these minor complications are low and mostly of short duration. Major complications, such as fractures or incision hernias, are very rare. However, in our study, the volume of the bone graft was associated with a longer stay in hospital, and this should be considered in the planning of iliac crest bone graft procedures.


Assuntos
Ílio , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos , Idoso , Transplante Ósseo , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Dor Pós-Operatória , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
J Wound Care ; 30(6): 492-496, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its more severe counterpart, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are skin hypersensitivity reactions defined by epidermal blistering and necrosis. The exact pathophysiology of SJS/TEN is yet to be deciphered, but a number of risk factors have been identified including adverse drug reactions. The diagnosis of SJS/TEN is made on a clinical basis, and treatment consists of supportive care and occasionally immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporin, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins and/or corticosteroids. Mortality rates can reach 20-25% in adults but are reduced with early intervention. To identify optimal treatment regimens, to better understand the patient cohort affected, and to help identify key risk factors for mortality, we report our experience with the treatment and management of SJS/TEN patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients with SJS and/or TEN admitted to a single burns centre in Germany, between 2008 and 2018, was conducted. The primary outcomes of demographics, clinical course, treatment and patient-reported outcomes were recorded and compared with a control group of patients with burns without a diagnosis of SJS/TEN. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients with SJS/TEN met the inclusion criteria: 17 (74%) with TEN; four (17%) with SJS/TEN overlap; and two (9%) with SJS. Of the patients, 14 (61%) were female and nine (39%) were male. Patient age ranged from 32-78 years (mean: 52 years). A matched cohort of 23 patients with burns served as the control group. All patients received standard of care with a multidisciplinary team. Compared with the control group, SJS/TEN patients had higher mortality rates (n=6, 26% versus n=8, 35%, respectively). The average age of death was 69 years in SJS/TEN patients versus 63 years in control group patients. Age and SCORTEN scores were significant predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: SJS and TEN are rare but extreme reactions of the skin and mucosa, associated with high disease mortality rates. This 10-year single-centre retrospective review contributes to the bank of information for reviews evaluating the management of SJS/TEN patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/terapia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/tratamento farmacológico , Cicatrização , Adulto , Idoso , Unidades de Queimados , Queimaduras/mortalidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(7): e3431, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369072

RESUMO

AIMS: Immune-mediated type 1 diabetes (T1D) in adulthood and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) share similar pathological mechanisms but differ clinically in disease progression. The aim of this study was to acquire insights into spontaneous and stimulated chemokine secretion of immune cells in different diabetes types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated in vitro spontaneous, mitogen (PI) and antigen (HSP60, p277, pGAD, pIA2) stimulated chemokine secretion of leucocytes from patients with T1D (n = 32), LADA (n = 22), type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 49), and glucose-tolerant individuals (n = 13). Chemokine concentration in supernatants was measured for CCL2 (MCP-1), CXCL10 (IP10) and CCL5 (RANTES) using a multiplex bead array assay. RESULTS: Spontaneous secretion of CCL2 and CCL5 were higher in LADA compared to T1D and T2D (all p < 0.05) while CXCL10 was similar in the groups. Mitogen-stimulated secretion of CCL2 in LADA was lower compared to T1D and T2D (all p < 0.05) while CXCL10 and CCL5 were similar in all groups. Upon stimulation with pIA2 the secretion of CCL2 in LADA was lower compared to T2D (p < 0.05). Spontaneous CXCL10 secretion in LADA was positively associated with body mass index (r2  = 0.35; p = 0.0035) and C-peptide (r2  = 0.30; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Chemokine secretion is altered between different diabetes types. Increased spontaneous secretion of CCL2 and CCL5 and decreased secretion of CCL2, upon stimulation with PI and pIA2, in LADA compared to T1D and T2D could reflect altered immune responsiveness in LADA patients in association with their slower clinical progression compared to insulin dependence.

4.
Dermatology ; 236(4): 271-280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163945

RESUMO

Hair is a defining feature of mammals and has critical functions, including protection, production of sebum, apocrine sweat and pheromones, social and sexual interactions, thermoregulation, and provision of stem cells for skin homeostasis, regeneration, and repair. The hair follicle (HF) is considered a "mini-organ," consisting of intricate and well-organized structures which originate from HF stem and progenitor cells. Dermal papilla cells are the main components of the mesenchymal compartments in the hair bulb and are instrumental in generating signals to regulate the behavior of neighboring epithelial cells during the hair cycle. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions within the dermal papilla niche drive HF embryonic development as well as the postnatal hair growth and regeneration cycle. This review summarizes the current understanding of HF development, repair, and regeneration, with special focus on cell signaling pathways governing these processes. In particular, we discuss emerging paradigms of molecular signaling governing the dermal papilla-epithelial cellular interactions during hair growth and maintenance and the recent progress made towards tissue engineering of human hair follicles.


Assuntos
Derme/fisiologia , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Pele/lesões , Pele/fisiopatologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia
5.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 48(2): 141-147, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917062

RESUMO

Over the last few decades it has been shown that nasoalveolar molding (NAM) has had an effect on the correction of nasal cartilage deformities and the alveolar process. This three-dimensional (3D) analysis evaluated the effects of NAM on the alveolar cleft region in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Alveolar gap volumes were measured in a retrospective review of 40 dental casts of 20 patients with unilateral clef lip and palate before and after treatment. Ten patients who began undergoing NAM immediately after birth were included in this study. An additional 10 patients with unilateral clefts but without NAM were included as a control group. All of the casts (pretreatment and post-treatment) were 3D scanned, and the cleft volumes and anterior gap widths underwent computer-aided evaluations. NAM resulted in a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in alveolar gap volume and anterior cleft width from birth until lip closure time, while half of the control group showed slight increases in cleft volume. Based on these results, NAM is an effective and helpful treatment that can be used to significantly reduce alveolar gap volume and anterior cleft width in patients with unilateral clefts. Harmonization of the dental arch and a reduction in the alveolar cleft region are desirable treatment goals.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Processo Alveolar , Humanos , Nariz , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e104343, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25090610

RESUMO

Obesity has become one of the largest public health challenges worldwide. Recently, certain bacterial and viral pathogens have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data, plasma samples and post-mortem tissue specimens derived from a risk assessment study in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The original study design aimed to determine minimal infectious doses after oral or intracerebral (i.c.) infection of macaques to assess the risk for humans. High-dose exposures resulted in 100% attack rates and a median incubation time of 4.7 years as described previously. Retrospective analyses of clinical data from high-dosed macaques revealed that foodborne BSE transmission caused rapid weight gain within 1.5 years post infection (ß = 0.915; P<0.0001) which was not seen in age- and sex-matched control animals or i.c. infected animals. The rapid-onset obesity was not associated with impaired pancreatic islet function or glucose metabolism. In the early preclinical phase of oral transmission associated with body weight gain, prion accumulation was confined to the gastrointestinal tract. Intriguingly, immunohistochemical findings suggest that foodborne BSE transmission has a pathophysiological impact on gut endocrine cells which may explain rapid weight gain. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental model which clearly demonstrates that foodborne pathogens can induce obesity.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/complicações , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Príons/patogenicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatia Espongiforme Bovina/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Primatas , Príons/genética , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
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