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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141500

RESUMO

One of the questions that arises frequently when caring for an individual with a malformation syndrome, is whether some form of tumor surveillance is indicated. In some syndromes there is a highly variable increased risk to develop tumors, while in others this is not the case. The risks can be hard to predict and difficult to explain to affected individuals and their families, and often also to caregivers. The queries arise especially if syndrome causing mutations are also known to occur in tumors. It needs insight in the mechanisms to understand and explain differences of tumor occurrence, and to offer optimal care to individuals with syndromes. Here we provide a short overview of the major mechanisms of the control for tumor occurrences in malformation syndromes.

2.
J Community Genet ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880035

RESUMO

Individuals having a genetic predisposition to cancer and their partners face challenging decisions regarding their wish to have children. This study aimed to determine the effects of an online decision aid to support couples in making an informed decision regarding their reproductive options. A nationwide pretest-posttest study was conducted in the Netherlands among 131 participants between November 2016 and May 2018. Couples were eligible for participation if one partner had a pathogenic variant predisposing for an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome. Participants completed a questionnaire before use (T0), and at 3 months (T3) after use of the decision aid to assess the primary outcome measure informed decision-making, and the secondary outcome measures decisional conflict, knowledge, realistic expectations, level of deliberation, and decision self-efficacy. T0-T3 comparisons show an overall positive effect for all outcome measures (all ps < 0.05; knowledge (ES = - 1.05), decisional conflict (ES = 0.99), participants' decision self-efficacy (ES = -0.55), level of deliberation (ES = - 0.50), and realistic expectations (ES = - 0.44). Informed decision-making increased over time and 58.0% of the participants made an informed reproductive decision at T3. The online decision aid seems to be an appropriate tool to complement standard reproductive counseling to support our target group in making an informed reproductive decision. Use of the decision aid may lessen the negative psychological impact of decision-making on couples' daily life and wellbeing.

3.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(9): 1381-1389, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729887

RESUMO

Importance: For women with a 20% or more familial risk of breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 (BRCA1, OMIM 113705; and BRCA2, OMIM 114480) or TP53 (OMIM 151623) variant, screening guidelines vary substantially, and cost-effectiveness analyses are scarce. Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening strategies for women with a 20% or more familial risk for breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 or TP53 variant. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this economic evaluation, conducted from February 1, 2019, to May 25, 2020, microsimulation modeling was used to estimate costs and effectiveness on a lifetime horizon from age 25 years until death of MRI screening among a cohort of 10 million Dutch women with a 20% or more familial risk for breast cancer without a known BRCA1/2 or TP53 variant. A Dutch screening setting was modeled. Most data were obtained from the randomized Familial MRI Screening (FaMRIsc) trial, which included Dutch women aged 30 to 55 years. A health care payer perspective was applied. Interventions: Several screening protocols with varying ages and intervals including those of the randomized FaMRIsc trial, consisting of the mammography (Mx) protocol (annual mammography and clinical breast examination) and the MRI protocol (annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography). Main Outcomes and Measures: Costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and discounted by 3%. A threshold of €22 000 (US $24 795.87) per QALY was applied. Results: This economic evaluation modeling study estimated that, on a lifetime horizon per 1000 women with the Mx protocol of the FaMRIsc trial, 346 breast cancers would be detected, and 49 women were estimated to die from breast cancer, resulting in 22 885 QALYs and total costs of €7 084 767 (US $7 985 134.61). The MRI protocol resulted in 79 additional QALYs and additional €2 657 266 (US $2 994 964.65). Magnetic resonance imaging performed only every 18 months between the ages of 35 and 60 years followed by the national screening program was considered optimal, with an ICER of €21 380 (US $24 097.08) compared with the previous nondominated strategy in the ranking, when applying the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold. Annual screening alternating MRI and mammography between the ages of 35 and 60 years, followed by the national screening program, gave similar outcomes. Higher thresholds would favor annual MRI screening. The ICER was most sensitive to the unit cost of MRI and the utility value for ductal carcinoma in situ and localized breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that MRI screening every 18 months between the ages of 35 and 60 years for women with a family history of breast cancer is cost-effective within the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold for all densities. Higher thresholds would favor annual MRI screening. These outcomes support a change of current screening guidelines for this specific risk group and support MRI screening.

4.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in the CDKN2A gene are generally associated with the development of melanoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but specific genotype-phenotype correlations might exist and the extent of PDAC risk is not well established for many variants. METHODS: Using the Dutch national familial melanoma database, we identified all families with a pathogenic CDKN2A variant and investigated the occurrence of PDAC within these families. We also estimated the standardised incidence ratio and lifetime PDAC risk for carriers of a highly prevalent variant in these families. RESULTS: We identified 172 families in which 649 individuals carried 15 different pathogenic variants. The most prevalent variant was the founder mutation c.225_243del (p16-Leiden, 484 proven carriers). Second most prevalent was c.67G>C (55 proven carriers). PDAC developed in 95 of 163 families (58%, including 373 of 629 proven carriers) harbouring a variant with an effect on the p16INK4a protein, whereas PDAC did not occur in the 9 families (20 proven carriers) with a variant affecting only p14ARF. In the c.67G>C families, PDAC occurred in 12 of the 251 (5%) persons at risk. The standardised incidence ratio was 19.1 (95% CI 8.3 to 33.6) and the cumulative PDAC incidence at age 75 years (lifetime risk) was 19% (95% CI 7.5% to 30.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the notion that pathogenic CDKN2A variants affecting the p16INK4a protein, including c.67G>C, are associated with increased PDAC risk and carriers of such variants should be offered pancreatic cancer surveillance. There is no clinical evidence that impairment of only the p14ARF protein leads to an increased PDAC risk.

5.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 14: 333-342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109999

RESUMO

Purpose: Counselees' preferences are considered important for the choice of risk communication format and for improving patient-centered care. We here report on counselees' preferences for how risks are presented in familial breast cancer counseling and the impact of this preferred format on their understanding of risk. Patients and Methods: As part of a practice-based randomized controlled trial, 326 unaffected women with a family history of breast cancer received their lifetime risk in one of five presentation formats after standard genetic counseling in three Dutch familial cancer clinics: 1) in percentages, 2) in frequencies ("X out of 100"), 3) in frequencies plus graphical format (10×10 human icons), 4) in frequencies and 10-year age-related risk and 5) in frequencies and 10-year age-related risk plus graphical format. Format preferences and risk understanding (accuracy) were assessed at 2-week follow-up by a questionnaire, completed by 279/326 women. Results: The most preferred risk communication formats were numbers combined with verbal descriptions (37%) and numbers only (26%). Of the numerical formats, most (55%) women preferred percentages. The majority (73%) preferred to be informed about both lifetime and 10-year age-related risk. Women who had received a graphical display were more likely to choose a graphical display as their preferred format. There was no significant effect between the intervention groups with regard to risk accuracy. Overall, women given risk estimates in their preferred format had a slightly better understanding of risk. Conclusion: The results suggest that the accuracy of breast cancer risk estimation is slightly better for women who had received this information in their preferred format, but the risk format used had no effect on women's risk accuracy. To meet the most frequent preference, counselors should consider providing a time frame of reference (eg, risk in the next 10 years) in a numerical format, in addition to lifetime risk.

6.
Eur Urol ; 76(6): 831-842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

7.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 581-589, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The currently known breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are presently not used to guide clinical management. We explored whether a genetic test that incorporates a SNP-based polygenic risk score (PRS) is clinically meaningful in non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families. METHODS: 101 non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer families were included; 323 cases and 262 unaffected female relatives were genotyped. The 161-SNP PRS was calculated and standardised to 327 population controls (sPRS). Association analysis was performed using a Cox-type random effect regression model adjusted by family history. Updated individualised breast cancer lifetime risk scores were derived by combining the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm breast cancer lifetime risk with the effect of the sPRS. RESULTS: The mean sPRS for cases and their unaffected relatives was 0.70 (SD=0.9) and 0.53 (SD=0.9), respectively. A significant association was found between sPRS and breast cancer, HR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.28, p=0.026. Addition of the sPRS to risk prediction based on family history alone changed screening recommendations in 11.5%, 14.7% and 19.8 % of the women according to breast screening guidelines from the USA (National Comprehensive Cancer Network), UK (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the Netherlands (Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results support the application of the PRS in risk prediction and clinical management of women from genetically unexplained breast cancer families.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(8): 1136-1147, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 15% of all breast cancers occur in women with a family history of breast cancer, but for whom no causative hereditary gene mutation has been found. Screening guidelines for women with familial risk of breast cancer differ between countries. We did a randomised controlled trial (FaMRIsc) to compare MRI screening with mammography in women with familial risk. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, controlled trial done in 12 hospitals in the Netherlands, women were eligible to participate if they were aged 30-55 years and had a cumulative lifetime breast cancer risk of at least 20% because of a familial predisposition, but were BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 wild-type. Participants who were breast-feeding, pregnant, had a previous breast cancer screen, or had a previous a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ were eligible, but those with a previously diagnosed invasive carcinoma were excluded. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive either annual MRI and clinical breast examination plus biennial mammography (MRI group) or annual mammography and clinical breast examination (mammography group). Randomisation was done via a web-based system and stratified by centre. Women who did not provide consent for randomisation could give consent for registration if they followed either the mammography group protocol or the MRI group protocol in a joint decision with their physician. Results from the registration group were only used in the analyses stratified by breast density. Primary outcomes were number, size, and nodal status of detected breast cancers. Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, number NL2661. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2017, 1355 women provided consent for randomisation and 231 for registration. 675 of 1355 women were randomly allocated to the MRI group and 680 to the mammography group. 218 of 231 women opting to be in a registration group were in the mammography registration group and 13 were in the MRI registration group. The mean number of screening rounds per woman was 4·3 (SD 1·76). More breast cancers were detected in the MRI group than in the mammography group (40 vs 15; p=0·0017). Invasive cancers (24 in the MRI group and eight in the mammography group) were smaller in the MRI group than in the mammography group (median size 9 mm [5-14] vs 17 mm [13-22]; p=0·010) and less frequently node positive (four [17%] of 24 vs five [63%] of eight; p=0·023). Tumour stages of the cancers detected at incident rounds were significantly earlier in the MRI group (12 [48%] of 25 in the MRI group vs one [7%] of 15 in the mammography group were stage T1a and T1b cancers; one (4%) of 25 in the MRI group and two (13%) of 15 in the mammography group were stage T2 or higher; p=0·035) and node-positive tumours were less frequent (two [11%] of 18 in the MRI group vs five [63%] of eight in the mammography group; p=0·014). All seven tumours stage T2 or higher were in the two highest breast density categories (breast imaging reporting and data system categories C and D; p=0·0077) One patient died from breast cancer during follow-up (mammography registration group). INTERPRETATION: MRI screening detected cancers at an earlier stage than mammography. The lower number of late-stage cancers identified in incident rounds might reduce the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and decrease breast cancer-related mortality. However, the advantages of the MRI screening approach might be at the cost of more false-positive results, especially at high breast density. FUNDING: Dutch Government ZonMw, Dutch Cancer Society, A Sister's Hope, Pink Ribbon, Stichting Coolsingel, J&T Rijke Stichting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 05 20.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140768

RESUMO

Genetic testing in patients with cancer; new developments About 5% of patients with cancer have a causative germline mutation. When a germline mutation is detected, this may have major implications for treatment and follow-up of the patient, as well as for relatives who are at risk of carrying the mutation. Increasingly, DNA-testing of tumor tissue is being performed to identify potential druggable targets, aiming at personalized medicine. Both germline testing and tissue testing may have consequences for the patient, for treatment and for family members. Currently there is a trend towards mainstreaming of genetic testing, which implies that treating physicians will increasingly be the ones to order DNA tests. This implies that they need to be aware of the (family) consequences and pitfalls of genetic testing. It calls for close collaboration between clinical genetics and regional treating physicians, and adequate referral of patients with abnormal DNA results and those with other clues for a genetic predisposition. The aim being optimal tailored treatment for each patient and adequate cancer prevention for their relatives.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/tendências , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
10.
Breast ; 45: 82-88, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of intensified breast cancer (BC) screening for women with a BRCA1/2 mutation aged 60-74. Simulated strategies were: (0) annual mammography as reference, (1) alternating annual mammography and MRI for women with dense breasts only; (2) addition of annual MRI for women with dense breasts only; (3) addition of annual MRI for all women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A validated micro-simulation model of invasive BC was updated and validated for interval BC rates and tumor size distribution. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of all three intensified strategies were compared to the next best strategy and stratified for BRCA1 and BRCA2. Discount rates for costs and life years gained (LYG) were 1.5% and 4% for the Dutch situation; 3% and 3% for international comparison. A threshold of €20,000 per LYG was applied. RESULTS: All intensified strategies showed more detected BCs and LYG, reduced BC deaths, and increased false positives. The Dutch discounted ICER of intensified strategy 1 compared to annual mammography was €38,000 per LYG in BRCA1 mutation carriers and €18,000 per LYG in BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further intensified strategies showed an ICER above the threshold when compared to this strategy. With international discount rate, the ICERs of all intensified strategies were above the threshold. CONCLUSION: Of the three alternative strategies, only alternating annual MRI and mammography for BRCA2 mutation carriers and dense breasts aged 60-75 is cost-effective compared to annual mammography. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, none of the alternative strategies is cost-effective compared to the next best strategy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/economia , Mamografia/economia , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco/economia
11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(6): e27715, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882989

RESUMO

Mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy is an infrequently described disorder in which affected individuals have signs and symptoms that may resemble Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. In addition, they can develop multiple benign and malignant tumors throughout life. Routine molecular diagnostics may not detect the (characteristic) low level of mosaicism, and the diagnosis is likely to be missed. Genetic counseling and a life-long alertness for the development of tumors is indicated. We describe the long diagnostic process of a patient who already had a tumor at birth and developed multiple tumors in childhood and adulthood. Furthermore, we offer clues to recognize the entity.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mosaicismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Dissomia Uniparental/diagnóstico , Dissomia Uniparental/genética , Adulto , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Beckwith-Wiedemann/genética , Feminino , Impressão Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neoplasias/classificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico
12.
J Genet Couns ; 28(3): 533-542, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629779

RESUMO

A nationwide pretest-posttest study was conducted in all clinical genetic centres in the Netherlands, to evaluate the effects of an online decision aid to support persons who have a genetic predisposition to cancer and their partners in making an informed decision regarding reproductive options. Main outcomes (decisional conflict, knowledge, realistic expectations, level of deliberation, and decision self-efficacy) were measured before use (T0), immediately after use (T1), and at 2 weeks (T2) after use of the decision aid. Paired sample t tests were used to compute differences between the first and subsequent measurements. T0-T1 and T0-T2 comparisons indicate a significant reduction in mean decisional conflict scores with stronger effects for participants with high baseline decisional conflict. Furthermore, use of the decision aid resulted in increased knowledge levels and improved realistic expectations. Level of deliberation only increased for participants with lower baseline levels of deliberation. Decision self-efficacy increased for those with low baseline scores, whereas those with high baseline scores showed a reduction at T2. It can be concluded that use of the decision aid resulted in several positive outcomes indicative of informed decision-making. The decision aid is an appropriate and highly appreciated tool to be used in addition to reproductive counseling.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/genética , Sistemas On-Line , Participação do Paciente , Reprodução , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Parceiros Sexuais
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(4): 350-364, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. METHODS: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
14.
Fam Cancer ; 18(1): 19-27, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881922

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the effect of premenopausal risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on the cholesterol profile of women at increased ovarian cancer risk and to assess possible effects of age at and time since RRSO. We included 207 women who underwent RRSO before menopausal age (52 years) attending the family cancer clinic of an academic hospital and 828 age-matched women from a general population cohort (PREVEND). Participants filled out a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and medical history, had anthropometric measurements and provided blood samples for assessment of serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol. The correlation between RRSO and cholesterol profile was assessed with logistic regression. Furthermore, subgroup analyses were performed to explore a possible effect of age at and time since RRSO. At a median time of 5.9 years (range 2.3-25.2) after surgery, RRSO was associated with low (< 60 mg/dl) HDL-cholesterol (OR 9.74, 95% CI 5.19-18.26) and high (≥ 160 mg/dl) non-HDL-cholesterol (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.21-2.82) when adjusting for body mass index, hormone therapy, participation on sports and previous chemotherapy. The observed association was not dependent on age or time since RRSO. The RRSO group had less smokers (19.3 vs. 25.8%) and more participation on sports (45.4 vs. 22.0%). Our results suggest that RRSO is associated with a more atherogenic cholesterol profile, despite a lower prevalence of smoking and higher prevalence of participation on sports as compared to controls. This observation can be useful for physicians involved in the counselling and follow-up of women having RRSO.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Menopausa Precoce/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Fam Cancer ; 18(1): 137-146, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846879

RESUMO

An online decision aid to support persons having a genetic predisposition to cancer and their partners during reproductive decision-making was developed. A two-phase usability test was conducted among 12 couples (N = 22; 2 persons participated without their partner) at risk for hereditary cancer and 15 health care providers. Couples and health care providers expressed similar suggestions for improvements, and evaluated the modified decision aid as acceptable, easy to use, and comprehensible. The final decision aid was pilot tested (N = 16) with paired sample t tests comparing main outcomes (decisional conflict, knowledge, realistic expectations regarding the reproductive options and decision self-efficacy) before (T0), immediately (T1) and 2 weeks after (T2) use of the decision aid. Pilot testing indicated decreased decisional conflict scores, increased knowledge, and improved realistic expectations regarding the reproductive options, at T1 and T2. No effect was found for couples' decision self-efficacy. The positive findings during usability testing were thus reflected in the pilot study. The decision aid will be further evaluated in a nationwide pretest-posttest study to facilitate implementation in the onco-genetic counselling setting. Ultimately, it is expected that the decision aid will enable end-users to make an informed decision.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Reprodução/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
16.
Br J Cancer ; 119: 357-363, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is rarely examined. As carriers may increasingly undergo IVF as part of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we examined the impact of ovarian stimulation for IVF on breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1550 BRCA1 and 964 BRCA2 mutation carriers, derived from the nationwide HEBON study and the nationwide PGD registry. Questionnaires, clinical records and linkages with the Netherlands Cancer Registry were used to collect data on IVF exposure, risk-reducing surgeries and cancer diagnosis, respectively. Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were conducted, stratified for birth cohort and adjusted for subfertility. RESULTS: Of the 2514 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, 3% (n = 76) were exposed to ovarian stimulation for IVF. In total, 938 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (37.3%) were diagnosed with breast cancer. IVF exposure was not associated with risk of breast cancer (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.46-1.36). Similar results were found for the subgroups of subfertile women (n = 232; HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.39-1.37) and BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.60-2.09). In addition, age at and recency of first IVF treatment were not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found for an association between ovarian stimulation for IVF and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/efeitos adversos , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Indução da Ovulação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(6): 848-857, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483665

RESUMO

This observational study aimed to investigate whether the reported association between family history (FH) of breast cancer (BC) or ovarian cancer (OC) and OC risks in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be explained by mutation position on the gene. In total, 3310 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers participating in a nationwide prospective cohort (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer in the Netherlands) were included. FH was classified according to cancer occurrence in first-degree relatives (BC only, OC only, both, neither) and mutations were classified according to their position on the gene (OC cluster region (OCCR), BC cluster region, neither). The main outcome was OC occurrence. Cox proportional-hazard models were applied to investigate the association between FH and OC risks before and after adjusting for mutation position. Of all women included, 202 were diagnosed with OC. A BC-only FH tended to be associated with lower OC risks when compared with a FH without BC/OC (HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.52-1.17; HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.33-1.07 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively) while an OC-only FH tended to be associated with higher risks (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.90-2.77; HR: 1.75, 95% CI: 0.70-4.37 for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively). After adjusting for mutation position, association between FH and OC risks was slightly smaller in magnitude (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30; HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.34-1.21 for BC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively; HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.80-2.68; HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 0.44-4.02 for OC-only FH in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively), indicating that mutation position explains only part of the association. Considering the magnitude of the observed trend, we do not believe FH should be used to change counseling regarding OC prevention.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Br J Cancer ; 118(2): 266-276, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
20.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 2(4): pky078, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873510

RESUMO

Background: Full-term pregnancy (FTP) is associated with a reduced breast cancer (BC) risk over time, but women are at increased BC risk in the immediate years following an FTP. No large prospective studies, however, have examined whether the number and timing of pregnancies are associated with BC risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods: Using weighted and time-varying Cox proportional hazards models, we investigated whether reproductive events are associated with BC risk for mutation carriers using a retrospective cohort (5707 BRCA1 and 3525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and a prospective cohort (2276 BRCA1 and 1610 BRCA2 mutation carriers), separately for each cohort and the combined prospective and retrospective cohort. Results: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was no overall association with parity compared with nulliparity (combined hazard ratio [HRc] = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83 to 1.18). Relative to being uniparous, an increased number of FTPs was associated with decreased BC risk (HRc = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.91; HRc = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.82; HRc = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.63, for 2, 3, and ≥4 FTPs, respectively, P trend < .0001) and increasing duration of breastfeeding was associated with decreased BC risk (combined cohort P trend = .0003). Relative to being nulliparous, uniparous BRCA1 mutation carriers were at increased BC risk in the prospective analysis (prospective hazard ration [HRp] = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.09 to 2.62). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, being parous was associated with a 30% increase in BC risk (HRc = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.69), and there was no apparent decrease in risk associated with multiparity except for having at least 4 FTPs vs. 1 FTP (HRc = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.98). Conclusions: These findings suggest differential associations with parity between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with higher risk for uniparous BRCA1 carriers and parous BRCA2 carriers.

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