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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MRI-derived cortical folding measures are an indicator of largely genetically driven early developmental processes. However, the effects of genetic risk for major mental disorders on early brain development are not well understood. METHODS: We extracted cortical complexity values from structural MRI data of 580 healthy participants using the CAT12 toolbox. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and cross-disorder (incorporating cumulative genetic risk for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) were computed and used in separate general linear models with cortical complexity as the regressand. In brain regions that showed a significant association between polygenic risk for mental disorders and cortical complexity, volume of interest (VOI)/region of interest (ROI) analyses were conducted to investigate additional changes in their volume and cortical thickness. RESULTS: The PRS for depression was associated with cortical complexity in the right orbitofrontal cortex (right hemisphere: p = 0.006). A subsequent VOI/ROI analysis showed no association between polygenic risk for depression and either grey matter volume or cortical thickness. We found no associations between cortical complexity and polygenic risk for either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or psychiatric cross-disorder when correcting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in cortical complexity associated with polygenic risk for depression might facilitate well-established volume changes in orbitofrontal cortices in depression. Despite the absence of psychopathology, changed cortical complexity that parallels polygenic risk for depression might also change reward systems, which are also structurally affected in patients with depressive syndrome.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are known to share clinical comorbidity and to have genetic overlap. Besides their shared genetics, both diseases seem to be associated with alterations in brain structural connectivity and impaired cognitive performance, but little is known about the mechanisms by which genetic risk of T2D might affect brain structure and function and if so, how these effects could contribute to the disease course of MDD. METHODS: This study explores the association of polygenic risk for T2D with structural brain connectome topology and cognitive performance in 434 nondiabetic MDD patients and 539 healthy controls. RESULTS: Polygenic risk score for T2D across MDD patients and healthy controls was found to be associated with reduced global fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter microstructure, an effect found to be predominantly present in MDD-related fronto-temporo-parietal connections. A mediation analysis further suggests that this FA variation may mediate the association between PGS and cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide preliminary evidence of a polygenic risk for T2D to be linked to brain structural connectivity and cognition in MDD patients and healthy controls, even in the absence of a direct T2D diagnosis. This suggests an effect of T2D genetic risk on white matter integrity, which may mediate an association of genetic risk for diabetes and cognitive impairments.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648793

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the strongest single gene predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been frequently associated with AD-related brain structural alterations before the onset of dementia. While previous research has primarily focused on hippocampal morphometry in relation to APOE, sporadic recent findings have questioned the specificity of the hippocampus and instead suggested more global effects on the brain. With the present study we aimed to investigate associations between homozygous APOE ε4 status and cortical gray matter structure as well as white matter microstructure. In our study, we contrasted n = 31 homozygous APOE ε4 carriers (age=34.47 years, including a subsample of n = 12 subjects with depression) with a demographically matched sample without an ε4 allele (resulting total sample: N = 62). Morphometry analyses included a) Freesurfer based cortical segmentations of thickness and surface area measures and b) tract based spatial statistics of DTI measures. We found pronounced and widespread reductions in cortical surface area of ε4 homozygotes in 57 out of 68 cortical brain regions. In contrast, no differences in cortical thickness were observed. Furthermore, APOE ε4 homozygous carriers showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, the right internal and external capsule, the left corona radiata and the right fornix. The present findings support a global rather than regionally specific effect of homozygous APOE ε4 allele status on cortical surface area and white matter microstructure. Future studies should aim to delineate the clinical implications of these findings.

4.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 126: 105148, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513455

RESUMO

Novelty seeking (NS) has previously been identified as a personality trait that is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Of note, both obesity and reduced impulse control - a core feature of NS - have previously been associated with grey matter volume (GMV) reductions in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Yet, it remains unknown, if body weight-related grey matter decline in the OFC might be explained by higher levels of NS. To address this question, we studied associations between NS, BMI and brain structure in 355 healthy subjects. Brain images were pre-processed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess NS. NS and BMI were associated positively (r = .137, p = .01) with NS being a significant predictor of BMI (B = 0.172; SE B = 0.05; ß = 0.184; p = 0.001). Significant associations between BMI and GMV specifically in the OFC (x = -44, y = 56, z = -2, t(350) = 4.34, k = 5, pFWE = 0.011) did not uphold when correcting for NS in the model. In turn, a significant negative association between NS and OFC GMV was found independent of BMI (x = -2, y = 48, z = -10, t(349) = 4.42, k = 88, pFWE = 0.008). Body mass-related grey matter decrease outside the OFC could not be attributed to NS. Our results suggest that body-weight-related orbitofrontal grey matter reduction can at least partly be linked to higher levels of NS. Given the pivotal role of the OFC in overweight as well as cognitive domains such as impulse inhibition, executive control and reward processing, its association with NS seems to provide a tenable neurobiological correlate for future research.

5.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(1): e24333, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone-based symptom monitoring has gained increased attention in psychiatric research as a cost-efficient tool for prospective and ecologically valid assessments based on participants' self-reports. However, a meaningful interpretation of smartphone-based assessments requires knowledge about their psychometric properties, especially their validity. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the validity of smartphone-administered assessments of self-reported affective symptoms using the Remote Monitoring Application in Psychiatry (ReMAP). METHODS: The ReMAP app was distributed to 173 adult participants of ongoing, longitudinal psychiatric phenotyping studies, including healthy control participants, as well as patients with affective disorders and anxiety disorders; the mean age of the sample was 30.14 years (SD 11.92). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and single-item mood and sleep information were assessed via the ReMAP app and validated with non-smartphone-based BDI scores and clinician-rated depression severity using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). RESULTS: We found overall high comparability between smartphone-based and non-smartphone-based BDI scores (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.921; P<.001). Smartphone-based BDI scores further correlated with non-smartphone-based HDRS ratings of depression severity in a subsample (r=0.783; P<.001; n=51). Higher agreement between smartphone-based and non-smartphone-based assessments was found among affective disorder patients as compared to healthy controls and anxiety disorder patients. Highly comparable agreement between delivery formats was found across age and gender groups. Similarly, smartphone-based single-item self-ratings of mood correlated with BDI sum scores (r=-0.538; P<.001; n=168), while smartphone-based single-item sleep duration correlated with the sleep item of the BDI (r=-0.310; P<.001; n=166). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that smartphone-based monitoring of depressive symptoms via the ReMAP app provides valid assessments of depressive symptomatology and, therefore, represents a useful tool for prospective digital phenotyping in affective disorder patients in clinical and research applications.

6.
JMIR Ment Health ; 7(12): e24066, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predictive models have revealed promising results for the individual prognosis of treatment response and relapse risk as well as for differential diagnosis in affective disorders. Yet, in order to translate personalized predictive modeling from research contexts to psychiatric clinical routine, standardized collection of information of sufficient detail and temporal resolution in day-to-day clinical care is needed. Digital collection of self-report measures by patients is a time- and cost-efficient approach to gain such data throughout treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether patients with severe affective disorders were willing and able to participate in such efforts, whether the feasibility of such systems might vary depending on individual patient characteristics, and if digitally acquired assessments were of sufficient diagnostic validity. METHODS: We implemented a system for longitudinal digital collection of risk and symptom profiles based on repeated self-reports via tablet computers throughout inpatient treatment of affective disorders at the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Münster. Tablet-handling competency and the speed of data entry were assessed. Depression severity was additionally assessed by a clinical interviewer at baseline and before discharge. RESULTS: Of 364 affective disorder patients who were approached, 242 (66.5%) participated in the study; 88.8% of participants (215/242) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and 27 (11.2%) had bipolar disorder. During the duration of inpatient treatment, 79% of expected assessments were completed, with an average of 4 completed assessments per participant; 4 participants (4/242, 1.6%) dropped out of the study prematurely. During data entry, 89.3% of participants (216/242) did not require additional support. Needing support with tablet handling and slower data entry pace were predicted by older age, whereas depression severity at baseline did not influence these measures. Patient self-reporting of depression severity showed high agreement with standardized external assessments by a clinical interviewer. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that digital collection of self-report measures is a feasible, accessible, and valid method for longitudinal data collection in psychiatric routine, which will eventually facilitate the identification of individual risk and resilience factors for affective disorders and pave the way toward personalized psychiatric care.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eighty percent of all patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse at least once in their lifetime. Thus, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the course of MDD is of utmost importance. A detrimental course of illness in MDD was most consistently associated with superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber integrity. As similar associations were, however, found between SLF fiber integrity and acute symptomatology, this study attempts to disentangle associations attributed to current depression from long-term course of illness. METHODS: A total of 531 patients suffering from acute (N = 250) or remitted (N = 281) MDD from the FOR2107-cohort were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging. First, the effects of disease state (acute v. remitted), current symptom severity (BDI-score) and course of illness (number of hospitalizations) on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity were analyzed separately. Second, disease state and BDI-scores were analyzed in conjunction with the number of hospitalizations to disentangle their effects. RESULTS: Disease state (pFWE < 0.042) and number of hospitalizations (pFWE< 0.032) were associated with decreased FA and increased MD and RD in the bilateral SLF. A trend was found for the BDI-score (pFWE > 0.067). When analyzed simultaneously only the effect of course of illness remained significant (pFWE < 0.040) mapping to the right SLF. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased FA and increased MD and RD values in the SLF are associated with more hospitalizations when controlling for current psychopathology. SLF fiber integrity could reflect cumulative illness burden at a neurobiological level and should be targeted in future longitudinal analyses.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801319

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive deficits that in turn have been predictive for therapeutic outcome in psychiatric patients. However, previous studies have either investigated maltreatment associations with single cognitive domains or failed to adequately control for confounders such as depression, socioeconomic environment, and genetic predisposition. We aimed to isolate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dysfunction in diverse cognitive domains, while estimating the contribution of potential confounders to this relationship, and to investigate gene-environment interactions. We included 547 depressive disorder and 670 healthy control participants (mean age: 34.7 years, SD = 13.2). Cognitive functioning was assessed for the domains of working memory, executive functioning, processing speed, attention, memory, and verbal intelligence using neuropsychological tests. Childhood maltreatment and parental education were assessed using self-reports, and psychiatric diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria. Polygenic scores for depression and for educational attainment were calculated. Multivariate analysis of cognitive domains yielded significant associations with childhood maltreatment (η²p = 0.083, P < 0.001), depression (η²p = 0.097, P < 0.001), parental education (η²p = 0.085, P < 0.001), and polygenic scores for depression (η²p = 0.021, P = 0.005) and educational attainment (η²p = 0.031, P < 0.001). Each of these associations remained significant when including all of the predictors in one model. Univariate tests revealed that maltreatment was associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains. Thus, environmental, psychopathological, and genetic risk factors each independently affect cognition. The insights of the current study may aid in estimating the potential impact of different loci of interventions for cognitive dysfunction. Future research should investigate if customized interventions, informed by individual risk profiles and related cognitive preconditions, might enhance response to therapeutic treatments.

9.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors. RESULTS: We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy. CONCLUSIONS: This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).

10.
Biol Psychiatry ; 88(9): 678-686, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have consistently reported similar brain structural abnormalities across different psychiatric disorders. Yet, the extent and regional distribution of shared morphometric abnormalities between disorders remains unknown. METHODS: Here, we conducted a cross-disorder analysis of brain structural abnormalities in 6 psychiatric disorders based on effect size estimates for cortical thickness and subcortical volume differences between healthy control subjects and psychiatric patients from 11 mega- and meta-analyses from the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta Analysis) consortium. Correlational and exploratory factor analyses were used to quantify the relative overlap in brain structural effect sizes between disorders and to identify brain regions with disorder-specific abnormalities. RESULTS: Brain structural abnormalities in major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were highly correlated (r = .443 to r = .782), and one shared latent underlying factor explained between 42.3% and 88.7% of the brain structural variance of each disorder. The observed shared morphometric signature of these disorders showed little similarity with brain structural patterns related to physiological aging. In contrast, patterns of brain structural abnormalities independent of all other disorders were observed in both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Brain regions showing high proportions of independent variance were identified for each disorder to locate disorder-specific morphometric abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results offer novel insights into transdiagnostic as well as disorder-specific brain structural abnormalities across 6 major psychiatric disorders. Limitations comprise the uncertain contribution of risk factors, comorbidities, and medication effects to the observed pattern of results that should be clarified by future research.

11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648625

RESUMO

Reduced sleep duration and sleep deprivation have been associated with cognitive impairment as well as decreased white matter integrity as reported by experimental studies. However, it is largely unknown whether differences in sleep duration and sleep quality might affect microstructural white matter and cognition. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationship between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive performance in a naturalistic study design, by focusing on the association with white matter integrity in a large sample of healthy, young adults. To address this, 1,065 participants, taken from the publicly available sample of the Human Connectome Project, underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Moreover, broad cognitive performance measures (NIH Cognition Toolbox) and sleep duration and quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed. The results revealed a significant positive association between sleep duration and overall cognitive performance. Shorter sleep duration significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). In turn, FA in this tract was related to measures of cognitive performance and was shown to significantly mediate the association of sleep duration and cognition. For cognition only, associations shift to a negative association of sleep duration and cognition for participants sleeping more than 8 hr a day. Investigations into subjective sleep quality showed no such associations. The present study showed that real-world differences in sleep duration, but not subjective sleep quality are related to cognitive performance measures and white matter integrity in the SLF in healthy, young adults.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 273: 310-317, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine attachment insecurity and low social support as potential mediators of the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) types and depression severity in patients with a lifetime history of major depressive disorders (MDD). METHOD: Participants with an acute or remitted MDD (N = 580) completed questionnaires about CM (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), attachment (Relationship Scales Questionnaire), social support (Social Support Questionnaire), and depression severity (Beck Depression Inventory). Mediation and path models with CM types as independent variables, attachment avoidance and anxiety as mediators and depression severity as dependent variable were calculated. In addition, a sequential mediation model with attachment insecurity and social support as mediators of the association between CM and depression was tested. RESULTS: Attachment avoidance and anxiety partially mediated the effect of CM on depression. In the path model including the different CM types, there were significant indirect effects of emotional abuse on depression via attachment anxiety and of emotional neglect on depression via attachment avoidance. Results also supported the hypothesized sequential mediation via attachment insecurity and social support. LIMITATIONS: A cross-sectional design with a retrospective self-report measure of CM was used and the developmental timing of exposure to CM was not considered. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the effect of emotional abuse and emotional neglect on depression is partially mediated by attachment avoidance and anxiety. Further, the results support the hypothesis of a sequential mediation via attachment insecurity and social support. Accordingly, attachment insecurity is discussed as a target of psychotherapy for patients with MDD and CM.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 172, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472038

RESUMO

A key objective in the field of translational psychiatry over the past few decades has been to identify the brain correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD). Identifying measurable indicators of brain processes associated with MDD could facilitate the detection of individuals at risk, and the development of novel treatments, the monitoring of treatment effects, and predicting who might benefit most from treatments that target specific brain mechanisms. However, despite intensive neuroimaging research towards this effort, underpowered studies and a lack of reproducible findings have hindered progress. Here, we discuss the work of the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Consortium, which was established to address issues of poor replication, unreliable results, and overestimation of effect sizes in previous studies. The ENIGMA MDD Consortium currently includes data from 45 MDD study cohorts from 14 countries across six continents. The primary aim of ENIGMA MDD is to identify structural and functional brain alterations associated with MDD that can be reliably detected and replicated across cohorts worldwide. A secondary goal is to investigate how demographic, genetic, clinical, psychological, and environmental factors affect these associations. In this review, we summarize findings of the ENIGMA MDD disease working group to date and discuss future directions. We also highlight the challenges and benefits of large-scale data sharing for mental health research.

14.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 36: 10-17, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451266

RESUMO

While the hippocampus remains a region of high interest for neuropsychiatric research, the precise contributors to hippocampal morphometry are still not well understood. We and others previously reported a hippocampus specific effect of a tescalcin gene (TESC) regulating single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7294919) on gray matter volume. Here we aimed to replicate and extend these findings. Two complementary morphometric approaches (voxel based morphometry (VBM) and automated volumetric segmentation) were applied in a well-powered cohort from the Marburg-Münster Affective Disorder Cohort Study (MACS) including N=1137 participants (n=636 healthy controls, n=501 depressed patients). rs7294919 homozygous T-allele genotype was significantly associated with lower hippocampal gray matter density as well as with reduced hippocampal volume. Exploratory whole brain VBM analyses revealed no further associations with gray matter volume outside the hippocampus. No interaction effects of rs7294919 with depression nor with childhood trauma on hippocampal morphometry could be detected. Hippocampal subfield analyses revealed similar effects of rs7294919 in all hippocampal subfields. In sum, our results replicate a hippocampus specific effect of rs7294919 on brain structure. Due to the robust evidence for a pronounced association between the reported polymorphism and hippocampal morphometry, future research should consider investigating the potential clinical and functional relevance of the reported association.

15.
Brain Stimul ; 13(4): 1051-1058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment with high efficacy. While knowledge regarding changes in brain structure following ECT is growing, the effects of ECT on brain function during emotional processing are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of ECT on the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala during negative emotional stimuli processing and its association with clinical response. METHODS: In this non-randomized longitudinal study, patients with MDD (n = 37) were assessed before and after treatment with ECT. Healthy controls (n = 37) were matched regarding age and gender. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was obtained twice, at baseline and after six weeks using a supraliminal face-matching paradigm. In order to evaluate effects of clinical response, additional post-hoc analyses were performed comparing responders to non-responders. RESULTS: After ECT, patients with MDD showed a statistically significant increase in ACC activity during processing of negative emotional stimuli (pFWE = .039). This effect was driven by responders (pFWE = .023), while non-responders showed no increase. Responders also had lower pre-treatment ACC activity compared to non-responders (pFWE = .025). No significant effects in the amygdala could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: ECT leads to brain functional changes in the ACC, a relevant region for emotional regulation during processing of negative stimuli. Furthermore, baseline ACC activity might serve as a biomarker for treatment response. Findings are in accordance with recent studies highlighting properties of pre-treatment ACC to be associated with general antidepressive treatment response.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467648

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that obesity impacts brain physiology at multiple levels. Here we aimed to clarify the relationship between obesity and brain structure using structural MRI (n = 6420) and genetic data (n = 3907) from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) working group. Obesity (BMI > 30) was significantly associated with cortical and subcortical abnormalities in both mass-univariate and multivariate pattern recognition analyses independent of MDD diagnosis. The most pronounced effects were found for associations between obesity and lower temporo-frontal cortical thickness (maximum Cohen´s d (left fusiform gyrus) = -0.33). The observed regional distribution and effect size of cortical thickness reductions in obesity revealed considerable similarities with corresponding patterns of lower cortical thickness in previously published studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. A higher polygenic risk score for obesity significantly correlated with lower occipital surface area. In addition, a significant age-by-obesity interaction on cortical thickness emerged driven by lower thickness in older participants. Our findings suggest a neurobiological interaction between obesity and brain structure under physiological and pathological brain conditions.

17.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(10): 1758-1765, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272482

RESUMO

Transgender individuals (TIs) show brain-structural alterations that differ from their biological sex as well as their perceived gender. To substantiate evidence that the brain structure of TIs differs from male and female, we use a combined multivariate and univariate approach. Gray matter segments resulting from voxel-based morphometry preprocessing of N = 1753 cisgender (CG) healthy participants were used to train (N = 1402) and validate (20% holdout N = 351) a support-vector machine classifying the biological sex. As a second validation, we classified N = 1104 patients with depression. A third validation was performed using the matched CG sample of the transgender women (TW) application sample. Subsequently, the classifier was applied to N = 26 TW. Finally, we compared brain volumes of CG-men, women, and TW-pre/post treatment cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) in a univariate analysis controlling for sexual orientation, age, and total brain volume. The application of our biological sex classifier to the transgender sample resulted in a significantly lower true positive rate (TPR-male = 56.0%). The TPR did not differ between CG-individuals with (TPR-male = 86.9%) and without depression (TPR-male = 88.5%). The univariate analysis of the transgender application-sample revealed that TW-pre/post treatment show brain-structural differences from CG-women and CG-men in the putamen and insula, as well as the whole-brain analysis. Our results support the hypothesis that brain structure in TW differs from brain structure of their biological sex (male) as well as their perceived gender (female). This finding substantiates evidence that TIs show specific brain-structural alterations leading to a different pattern of brain structure than CG-individuals.

18.
Nervenarzt ; 91(9): 857-859, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266440
20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 100, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198361

RESUMO

This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated with brain metrics, ENIGMA has diversified into over 50 working groups (WGs), pooling worldwide data and expertise to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, psychiatry, neurology, and genetics. Most ENIGMA WGs focus on specific psychiatric and neurological conditions, other WGs study normal variation due to sex and gender differences, or development and aging; still other WGs develop methodological pipelines and tools to facilitate harmonized analyses of "big data" (i.e., genetic and epigenetic data, multimodal MRI, and electroencephalography data). These international efforts have yielded the largest neuroimaging studies to date in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. More recent ENIGMA WGs have formed to study anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and behavior, sleep and insomnia, eating disorders, irritability, brain injury, antisocial personality and conduct disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. Here, we summarize the first decade of ENIGMA's activities and ongoing projects, and describe the successes and challenges encountered along the way. We highlight the advantages of collaborative large-scale coordinated data analyses for testing reproducibility and robustness of findings, offering the opportunity to identify brain systems involved in clinical syndromes across diverse samples and associated genetic, environmental, demographic, cognitive, and psychosocial factors.

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