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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable mood disorder with complex genetic architecture and poorly understood etiology. Previous transcriptomic BD studies have had inconsistent findings due to issues such as small sample sizes and difficulty in adequately accounting for confounders like medication use. METHODS: We performed a differential expression analysis in a well-characterized BD case-control sample (Nsubjects = 480) by RNA sequencing of whole blood. We further performed co-expression network analysis, functional enrichment, and cell type decomposition, and integrated differentially expressed genes with genetic risk. RESULTS: While we observed widespread differential gene expression patterns between affected and unaffected individuals, these effects were largely linked to lithium treatment at the time of blood draw (FDR < 0.05, Ngenes = 976) rather than BD diagnosis itself (FDR < 0.05, Ngenes = 6). These lithium-associated genes were enriched for cell signaling and immune response functional annotations, among others, and were associated with neutrophil cell-type proportions, which were elevated in lithium users. Neither genes with altered expression in cases nor in lithium users were enriched for BD, schizophrenia, and depression genetic risk based on information from genome-wide association studies, nor was gene expression associated with polygenic risk scores for BD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that BD is associated with minimal changes in whole blood gene expression independent of medication use but emphasize the importance of accounting for medication use and cell type heterogeneity in psychiatric transcriptomic studies. The results of this study add to mounting evidence of lithium's cell signaling and immune-related mechanisms.

2.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391148

RESUMO

We performed a transcriptome-wide meta-analysis and gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes and gene networks dysregulated in the peripheral blood of bipolar disorder (BD) cases relative to unaffected comparison subjects, and determined the specificity of the transcriptomic signatures of BD and schizophrenia (SZ). Nineteen genes and 4 gene modules were significantly differentially expressed in BD cases. Thirteen gene modules were shown to be differentially expressed in a combined case-group of BD and SZ subjects called "major psychosis", including genes biologically linked to apoptosis, reactive oxygen, chromatin remodeling, and immune signaling. No modules were differentially expressed between BD and SZ cases. Machine-learning classifiers trained to separate diagnostic classes based solely on gene expression profiles could distinguish BD cases from unaffected comparison subjects with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.724, as well as BD cases from SZ cases with AUC = 0.677 in withheld test samples. We introduced a novel and straightforward method called "polytranscript risk scoring" that could distinguish BD cases from unaffected subjects (AUC = 0.672) and SZ cases (AUC = 0.607) significantly better than expected by chance. Taken together, our results highlighted gene expression alterations common to BD and SZ that involve biological processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and chromatin regulation, and highlight disorder-specific changes in gene expression that discriminate the major psychoses.

3.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical utility of two staging models for bipolar disorder by examining distribution, correlation, and the relationship to external criteria. These are primarily defined by the recurrence of mood episodes (model A), or by intra-episodic functioning (model B). METHODS: In the Dutch Bipolar Cohort, stages according to models A and B were assigned to all patients with bipolar-I-disorder (BD-I; N = 1396). The dispersion of subjects over the stages was assessed and the association between the two models calculated. For both models, change in several clinical markers were concordant with the stage was investigated. RESULTS: Staging was possible in 87% of subjects for model A and 75% for model B. For model A, 1079 participants (93%) were assigned to stage 3c (recurrent episodes). Subdividing stage 3c with cut-offs at 5 and 10 episodes resulted in subgroups containing 242, 510, and 327 subjects. For model B, most participants were assigned to stage II (intra-episodic symptoms, N = 431 (41%)) or stage III (inability to work, N = 451 (43%)). A low association between models was found. For both models, the clinical markers "age at onset," "treatment resistance," and "episode acceleration" changed concordant with the stages. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with BD-I clustered in recurrent stage 3 of Model A. Model B showed a larger dispersion. The stepwise change in several clinical markers supports the construct validity of both models. Combining the two staging models and sub-differentiating the recurrent stage into categories with cut-offs at 5 and 10 lifetime episodes improves the clinical utility of staging for individual patients.

4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 988-998, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384023

RESUMO

Macroscale white matter pathways are the infrastructure for large-scale communication in the human brain and a prerequisite for healthy brain function. Disruptions in the brain's connectivity architecture play an important role in many psychiatric and neurological brain disorders. Here we show that connections important for global communication and network integration are particularly vulnerable to brain alterations across multiple brain disorders. We report on a cross-disorder connectome study comprising in total 1,033 patients and 1,154 matched controls across 8 psychiatric and 4 neurological disorders. We extracted disorder connectome fingerprints for each of these 12 disorders and combined them into a 'cross-disorder disconnectivity involvement map' describing the level of cross-disorder involvement of each white matter pathway of the human brain network. Network analysis revealed connections central to global network communication and integration to display high disturbance across disorders, suggesting a general cross-disorder involvement and the importance of these pathways in normal function.

5.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219595

RESUMO

Psychosis spectrum disorders are conceptualized as neurodevelopmental disorders accompanied by disruption of large-scale functional brain networks. Dynamic functional dysconnectivity has been described in patients with schizophrenia and in help-seeking individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis. Less is known, about developmental aspects of dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) associated with psychotic symptoms (PS) in the general population. Here, we investigate resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data using established dFNC methods in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (ages 8-22 years), including 129 participants experiencing PS and 452 participants without PS (non-PS). Functional networks were identified using group spatial independent component analysis. A sliding window approach and k-means clustering were applied to covariance matrices of all functional networks to identify recurring whole-brain connectivity states. PS-associated dysconnectivity of default mode, salience, and executive networks occurred only in a few states, whereas dysconnectivity in the sensorimotor and visual systems in PS youth was more pervasive, observed across multiple states. This study provides new evidence that disruptions of dFNC are present even at the less severe end of the psychosis continuum in youth, complementing previous work on help-seeking and clinically diagnosed cohorts that represent the more severe end of this spectrum.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 157, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164630

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is associated with high mortality. DNA methylation levels vary over the life course, and pre-selected combinations of methylation array probes can be used to estimate "methylation age" (mAge). mAge correlates highly with chronological age but when it differs, termed mAge acceleration, it has been previously associated with all-cause mortality. We tested the association between mAge acceleration and mortality in SCZ and controls. We selected 190 SCZ cases and 190 controls from the Sweden Schizophrenia Study. Cases were identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register with ≥5 specialist treatment contacts and ≥5 antipsychotic prescriptions. Controls had no psychotic disorder or antipsychotics. Subjects were selected if they had died or survived during follow-up (2:1 oversampling). Extracted DNA was assayed on the Illumina MethylationEPIC array. mAge was regressed on age at sampling to obtain mAge acceleration. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, the association between mAge acceleration and mortality was tested. After quality control, the following were available: n = 126 SCZ died, 63 SCZ alive, 127 controls died, 62 controls alive. In the primary analyses, we did not find a significant association between mAge acceleration and SCZ mortality (adjusted p > 0.005). Sensitivity analyses excluding SCZ cases with pre-existing cancer demonstrated a significant association between the Hannum mAge acceleration and mortality (hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.22, p = 0.005). Per our pre-specified criteria, we did not confirm our primary hypothesis that mAge acceleration would predict subsequent mortality in people with SCZ, but we cannot rule out smaller effects or effects in patient subsets.

7.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 629-645, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087417

RESUMO

Dupuytren's disease is a common inherited tissue-specific fibrotic disorder, characterized by progressive and irreversible fibroblastic proliferation affecting the palmar fascia of the hand. Although genome-wide association study (GWAS) have identified 24 genomic regions associated with Dupuytrens risk, the biological mechanisms driving signal at these regions remain elusive. We identify potential biological mechanisms for Dupuytren's disease by integrating the most recent, largest GWAS (3,871 cases and 4,686 controls) with eQTLs (47 tissue panels from five consortia, total n = 3,975) to perform a transcriptome-wide association study. We identify 43 tissue-specific gene associations with Dupuytren's risk, including one in a novel risk region. We also estimate the genome-wide genetic correlation between Dupuytren's disease and 45 complex traits and find significant genetic correlations between Dupuytren's disease and body mass index (BMI), type II diabetes, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), suggesting a shared genetic etiology between these traits. We further examine local genetic correlation to identify 8 and 3 novel regions significantly correlated with BMI and HDL respectively. Our results are consistent with previous epidemiological findings showing that lower BMI increases risk for Dupuytren's disease. These 12 novel risk regions provide new insight into the biological mechanisms of Dupuytren's disease and serve as a starting point for functional validation.

9.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(5): 643-652, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879928

RESUMO

The relation of heavy cannabis use with decreased neuropsychological function has frequently been described but the underlying biological mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study investigates the relation of cannabis use with genome wide gene expression and subsequently examines the relations with neuropsychological function. Genome-wide gene expression in whole blood was compared between heavy cannabis users (N = 90) and cannabis naïve participants (N = 100) that were matched for psychotic like experiences. The results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Psychotic like experiences were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychotic Experiences (CAPE). Neuropsychological function was estimated using four subtasks of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Subsequent in vitro studies in monocytes and a neuroblastoma cell line investigated expression changes in response to two major psychotropic components of cannabis; tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). mRNA expression of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type F Polypeptide-Interacting-Protein Alpha-2 (PPFIA2) was significantly higher in cannabis users (LogFold Change 0.17) and confirmed by qPCR analysis. PPFIA2 expression level was negatively correlated with estimated intelligence (B=-22.9, p = 0.002) also in the 100 non-users (B=-28.5, p = 0.037). In vitro exposure of monocytes to CBD led to significant increase in PPFIA2 expression. However, exposure of monocytes to THC and neuroblastoma cells to THC or CBD did not change PPFIA2 expression. Change in PPFIA2 gene expression in response to cannabinoids is a putative mechanism by which cannabis could influence neuropsychological functions. The findings warrant further exploration of the role of PPFIA2 in cannabis induced changes of neuropsychological function, particularly in relation to CBD.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adults with established diagnoses of serious mental illness (bipolar disorder and schizophrenia) exhibit structural brain abnormalities, yet less is known about how such abnormalities manifest earlier in development. METHOD: Cross-sectional data publicly available from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) were analyzed. Structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging data were collected on a subset of the PNC (N = 989; 9-22 years old). Cortical thickness, surface area (SA), and subcortical volumes were calculated. Study participants were assessed for psychiatric symptomatology using a structured interview and the following groups were created: typically developing (n = 376), psychosis spectrum (PS; n = 113), bipolar spectrum (BP; n = 117), and BP + PS (n = 109). Group and developmental differences in structural magnetic resonance neuroimaging measures were examined. In addition, the extent to which any structural aberration was related to neurocognition, global functioning, and clinical symptomatology was examined. RESULTS: Compared with other groups, PS youth exhibited significantly decreased SA in the orbitofrontal, cingulate, precentral, and postcentral regions. PS youth also exhibited deceased thalamic volume compared with all other groups. The strongest effects for precentral and posterior cingulate SA decreases were seen during early adolescence (13-15 years old) in PS youth. The strongest effects for decreases in thalamic volume and orbitofrontal and postcentral SA were observed in mid-adolescence (16-18 years) in PS youth. Across groups, better overall functioning was associated with increased lateral orbitofrontal SA. Increased postcentral SA was associated with better executive cognition and less severe negative symptoms in the entire sample. CONCLUSION: In a community-based sample, decreased cortical SA and thalamic volume were present early in adolescent development in youth with PS symptoms, but not in youth with BP symptoms or with BP and PS symptoms. These findings point to potential biological distinctions between PS and BP conditions, which could suggest additional biomarkers relevant to early identification.

12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common psychiatric disorders are characterized by complex disease architectures with many small genetic effects that contribute and complicate biological understanding of their etiology. There is therefore a pressing need for in vitro experimental systems that allow for interrogation of polygenic psychiatric disease risk to study the underlying biological mechanisms. METHODS: We have developed an analytical framework that integrates genome-wide disease risk from genome-wide association studies with longitudinal in vitro gene expression profiles of human neuronal differentiation. RESULTS: We demonstrate that the cumulative impact of risk loci of specific psychiatric disorders is significantly associated with genes that are differentially expressed and upregulated during differentiation. We find the strongest evidence for schizophrenia, a finding that we replicate in an independent dataset. A longitudinal gene cluster involved in synaptic function primarily drives the association with schizophrenia risk. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that in vitro human neuronal differentiation can be used to translate the polygenic architecture of schizophrenia to biologically relevant pathways that can be modeled in an experimental system. Overall, this work emphasizes the use of longitudinal in vitro transcriptomic signatures as a cellular readout and the application to the genetics of complex traits.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-13, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a large and comprehensively assessed sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI), we investigated the prevalence of psychotic features and their relationship with life course, demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics. We hypothesized that groups of psychotic symptoms (Schneiderian, mood incongruent, thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations) have distinct relations to risk factors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 1342 BDI patients, comprehensive demographical and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) interview. In addition, levels of childhood maltreatment and intelligence quotient (IQ) were assessed. The relationships between these characteristics and psychotic symptoms were analyzed using multiple general linear models. RESULTS: A lifetime history of psychotic symptoms was present in 73.8% of BDI patients and included delusions in 68.9% of patients and hallucinations in 42.6%. Patients with psychotic symptoms showed a significant younger age of disease onset (ß = -0.09, t = -3.38, p = 0.001) and a higher number of hospitalizations for manic episodes (F11 338 = 56.53, p < 0.001). Total IQ was comparable between groups. Patients with hallucinations had significant higher levels of childhood maltreatment (ß = 0.09, t = 3.04, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of BDI patients, the vast majority of patients had experienced psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms in BDI were associated with an earlier disease onset and more frequent hospitalizations particularly for manic episodes. The study emphasizes the strength of the relation between childhood maltreatment and hallucinations but did not identify distinct subgroups based on psychotic features and instead reported of a large heterogeneity of psychotic symptoms in BD.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(24): 4333-4343, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215709

RESUMO

Birdshot Uveitis (Birdshot) is a rare eye condition that affects HLA-A29-positive individuals and could be considered a prototypic member of the recently proposed 'MHC-I (major histocompatibility complex class I)-opathy' family. Genetic studies have pinpointed the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP1) and (ERAP2) genes as shared associations across MHC-I-opathies, which suggests ERAP dysfunction may be a root cause for MHC-I-opathies. We mapped the ERAP1 and ERAP2 haplotypes in 84 Dutch cases and 890 controls. We identified association at variant rs10044354, which mediated a marked increase in ERAP2 expression. We also identified and cloned an independently associated ERAP1 haplotype (tagged by rs2287987) present in more than half of the cases; this ERAP1 haplotype is also the primary risk and protective haplotype for other MHC-I-opathies. We show that the risk ERAP1 haplotype conferred significantly altered expression of ERAP1 isoforms in transcriptomic data (n = 360), resulting in lowered protein expression and distinct enzymatic activity. Both the association for rs10044354 (meta-analysis: odds ratio (OR) [95% CI]=2.07[1.58-2.71], P = 1.24 × 10(-7)) and rs2287987 (OR[95% CI]: =2.01[1.51-2.67], P = 1.41 × 10(-6)) replicated and showed consistent direction of effect in an independent Spanish cohort of 46 cases and 2103 controls. In both cohorts, the combined rs2287987-rs10044354 haplotype associated with Birdshot more strongly than either variant alone [meta-analysis: P=3.9 × 10(-9)]. Finally, we observed that ERAP2 protein expression is dependent on the ERAP1 background across three European populations (n = 3353). In conclusion, a functionally distinct combination of ERAP1 and ERAP2 are a hallmark of Birdshot and provide rationale for strategies designed to correct ERAP function for treatment of Birdshot and MHC-I-opathies more broadly.

15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 84(9): 644-654, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The profile of cortical neuroanatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia is not fully understood, despite hundreds of published structural brain imaging studies. This study presents the first meta-analysis of cortical thickness and surface area abnormalities in schizophrenia conducted by the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Schizophrenia Working Group. METHODS: The study included data from 4474 individuals with schizophrenia (mean age, 32.3 years; range, 11-78 years; 66% male) and 5098 healthy volunteers (mean age, 32.8 years; range, 10-87 years; 53% male) assessed with standardized methods at 39 centers worldwide. RESULTS: Compared with healthy volunteers, individuals with schizophrenia have widespread thinner cortex (left/right hemisphere: Cohen's d = -0.530/-0.516) and smaller surface area (left/right hemisphere: Cohen's d = -0.251/-0.254), with the largest effect sizes for both in frontal and temporal lobe regions. Regional group differences in cortical thickness remained significant when statistically controlling for global cortical thickness, suggesting regional specificity. In contrast, effects for cortical surface area appear global. Case-control, negative, cortical thickness effect sizes were two to three times larger in individuals receiving antipsychotic medication relative to unmedicated individuals. Negative correlations between age and bilateral temporal pole thickness were stronger in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers. Regional cortical thickness showed significant negative correlations with normalized medication dose, symptom severity, and duration of illness and positive correlations with age at onset. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the ENIGMA meta-analysis approach can achieve robust findings in clinical neuroscience studies; also, medication effects should be taken into account in future genetic association studies of cortical thickness in schizophrenia.

16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 96, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29743478

RESUMO

The role of the human microbiome in health and disease is increasingly appreciated. We studied the composition of microbial communities present in blood across 192 individuals, including healthy controls and patients with three disorders affecting the brain: schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and bipolar disorder. By using high-quality unmapped RNA sequencing reads as candidate microbial reads, we performed profiling of microbial transcripts detected in whole blood. We were able to detect a wide range of bacterial and archaeal phyla in blood. Interestingly, we observed an increased microbial diversity in schizophrenia patients compared to the three other groups. We replicated this finding in an independent schizophrenia case-control cohort. This increased diversity is inversely correlated with estimated cell abundance of a subpopulation of CD8+ memory T cells in healthy controls, supporting a link between microbial products found in blood, immunity and schizophrenia.

17.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 28(6): 743-751, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779901

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) patients show aberrant white matter microstructure compared to healthy controls but little is known about the relation with clinical characteristics. We therefore investigated the relation of white matter microstructure with the main pharmacological treatments as well its relation with IQ. Patients with BD (N = 257) and controls (N = 167) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and comprehensive clinically assessments including IQ estimates. DTI images were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD) were determined. Patients had significantly lower FA and higher MD values throughout the white matter skeleton compared to controls. Within the BD patients, lithium use was associated with higher FA and lower MD. Antipsychotic medication use in the BD patients was not associated with FA but, in contrast to lithium, was associated with higher MD. IQ was significantly positively correlated with FA and negatively with MD in patients as well as in controls. In this large DTI study we found evidence for marked differences in FA and MD particularly in (but not restricted to) corpus callosum, between BD patients and controls. This effect was most pronounced in lithium-free patients, implicating that lithium affects white matter microstructure and attenuates differences associated with bipolar disorder. Effects of antipsychotic medication intake were absent in FA and only subtle in MD relative to those of lithium. The abnormal white matter microstructure was associated with IQ but not specifically for either group.

18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767709

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of a Copy Number Variant (CNV) and a functional variant on the other allele may be a relevant genetic mechanism in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that the cumulative burden of such double hits - in particular those composed of a deletion and a coding single nucleotide variation (SNV) - is increased in patients with schizophrenia.We combined CNV data with coding variants data in 795 patients with schizophrenia and 474 controls. To limit false CNV-detection, only CNVs called only by two algorithms we included. CNV-affected genes were subsequently examined for coding SNVs, which we termed "CNV-SNVs". Correcting for total queried sequence, we assessed the CNV-SNV-burden and the combined predicted deleterious effect. We estimated p-values by permutation of the phenotype.We detected 105 CNV-SNVs; 67 in duplicated and 38 in deleted genic sequence. While the difference in CNV-SNVs rates was not significant, the combined deleteriousness inferred by CNV-SNVs in deleted sequence was almost fourfold higher in cases compared to controls (nominal p = 0.009). This effect may be driven by a higher number of CNV-SNVs and/or by a higher degree of predicted deleteriousness of CNV-SNVs. No such effect was observed for duplications.We provide early evidence that deletions co-occurring with a functional variant may be relevant, albeit of modest impact, for the genetic etiology of schizophrenia. Large-scale consortium studies are required to validate our findings. Sequence-based analyses would provide the best resolution for detection of CNVs as well as coding variants genome-wide.

19.
Nat Genet ; 50(4): 538-548, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632383

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 100 risk loci for schizophrenia, but the causal mechanisms remain largely unknown. We performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) integrating a schizophrenia GWAS of 79,845 individuals from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with expression data from brain, blood, and adipose tissues across 3,693 primarily control individuals. We identified 157 TWAS-significant genes, of which 35 did not overlap a known GWAS locus. Of these 157 genes, 42 were associated with specific chromatin features measured in independent samples, thus highlighting potential regulatory targets for follow-up. Suppression of one identified susceptibility gene, mapk3, in zebrafish showed a significant effect on neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Expression and splicing from the brain captured most of the TWAS effect across all genes. This large-scale connection of associations to target genes, tissues, and regulatory features is an essential step in moving toward a mechanistic understanding of GWAS.

20.
Acad Pediatr ; 18(6): 655-661, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of adolescent sleep disturbances and their relation to psychosocial difficulties and health risk behaviors with the use of data from a province-wide health survey (n = 16,781). METHODS: Psychosocial difficulties were measured with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Additional assessments included self-reported sleep disturbances, suicidality, and health risk behaviors including current use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs, physical inactivity, and compulsive use of multimedia. We used multilevel analyses to investigate the relationhips, including differences, between boys and girls, as well as the mediating role of emotional problems. RESULTS: Just under 20% of adolescents reported sleep disturbances in the previous month. These sleep disturbances were associated with psychosocial problems (odds ratio [OR], 6.42; P < .001), suicidality (OR, 3.90-4.14; P < .001), and all health risk behaviors (OR, 1.62-2.66; P < .001), but not with physical inactivity. We found moderation by gender for the relations between sleep and suicide attempts (OR, 0.38; P < .002) and between sleep and cannabis use (OR, 0.52; P = .002), indicating attenuated relationships in girls compared with boys. Emotional problems partially mediated the relationships between sleep disturbances and multimedia use. CONCLUSIONS: This study reiterates the high prevalence of sleep disturbances during adolescence. These sleep disturbances were strongly related to psychosocial problems and a wide range of health risk behaviors. Although the direction of causality cannot be inferred, this study emphasizes the need for awareness of impaired sleep in adolescents. Moreover, the gender differences in associated suicide attempts and cannabis use call for further research into tailored intervention strategies.

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