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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638429

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant epithelial tumor, most commonly located in the pharyngeal recess and endemic to parts of Asia. It is often detected at a late stage which is associated with poor prognosis (5-year survival rate of 63%). Treatment for this malignancy relies predominantly on radiotherapy and/or systemic chemotherapy, which can be associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. In endemic regions NPC is associated with infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which was shown to upregulate the somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) cell surface receptor. With recent advances in molecular techniques allowing for an improved understanding of the molecular aetiology of this disease and its relation to SSTR2 expression, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of this disease and highlight the emergence of SSTR2 as a key tumor biomarker and promising target for imaging and therapy.

2.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(608)2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433639

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common chronic inflammatory condition causing pelvic pain and infertility in women, with limited treatment options and 50% heritability. We leveraged genetic analyses in two species with spontaneous endometriosis, humans and the rhesus macaque, to uncover treatment targets. We sequenced DNA from 32 human families contributing to a genetic linkage signal on chromosome 7p13-15 and observed significant overrepresentation of predicted deleterious low-frequency coding variants in NPSR1, the gene encoding neuropeptide S receptor 1, in cases (predominantly stage III/IV) versus controls (P = 7.8 × 10-4). Significant linkage to the region orthologous to human 7p13-15 was replicated in a pedigree of 849 rhesus macaques (P = 0.0095). Targeted association analyses in 3194 surgically confirmed, unrelated cases and 7060 controls revealed that a common insertion/deletion variant, rs142885915, was significantly associated with stage III/IV endometriosis (P = 5.2 × 10-5; odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.39). Immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that NPSR1 was expressed in glandular epithelium from eutopic and ectopic endometrium, and on monocytes in peritoneal fluid. The NPSR1 inhibitor SHA 68R blocked NPSR1-mediated signaling, proinflammatory TNF-α release, and monocyte chemotaxis in vitro (P < 0.01), and led to a significant reduction of inflammatory cell infiltrate and abdominal pain (P < 0.05) in a mouse model of peritoneal inflammation as well as in a mouse model of endometriosis. We conclude that the NPSR1/NPS system is a genetically validated, nonhormonal target for the treatment of endometriosis with likely increased relevance to stage III/IV disease.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Animais , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Endometriose/genética , Endométrio , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
3.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211161

RESUMO

Here we describe single-cell corrected long-read sequencing (scCOLOR-seq), which enables error correction of barcode and unique molecular identifier oligonucleotide sequences and permits standalone cDNA nanopore sequencing of single cells. Barcodes and unique molecular identifiers are synthesized using dimeric nucleotide building blocks that allow error detection. We illustrate the use of the method for evaluating barcode assignment accuracy, differential isoform usage in myeloma cell lines, and fusion transcript detection in a sarcoma cell line.

4.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 2(4): 370-387, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258103

RESUMO

Lysine demethylase 5A (KDM5A) is a negative regulator of histone H3K4 trimethylation, a histone mark associated with activate gene transcription. We identify that KDM5A interacts with the P-TEFb complex and cooperates with MYC to control MYC targeted genes in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. We develop a cell-permeable and selective KDM5 inhibitor, JQKD82, that increases histone H3K4me3 but paradoxically inhibits downstream MYC-driven transcriptional output in vitro and in vivo. Using genetic ablation together with our inhibitor, we establish that KDM5A supports MYC target gene transcription independent of MYC itself, by supporting TFIIH (CDK7)- and P-TEFb (CDK9)-mediated phosphorylation of RNAPII. These data identify KDM5A as a unique vulnerability in MM functioning through regulation of MYC-target gene transcription, and establish JQKD82 as a tool compound to block KDM5A function as a potential therapeutic strategy for MM.

5.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 14(1): 32, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79) methyltransferase DOT1L is a key chromatin-based barrier to somatic cell reprogramming. However, the mechanisms by which DOT1L safeguards cell identity and somatic-specific transcriptional programs remain unknown. RESULTS: We employed a proteomic approach using proximity-based labeling to identify DOT1L-interacting proteins and investigated their effects on reprogramming. Among DOT1L interactors, suppression of AF10 (MLLT10) via RNA interference or CRISPR/Cas9, significantly increases reprogramming efficiency. In somatic cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) higher order H3K79 methylation is dependent on AF10 expression. In AF10 knock-out cells, re-expression wild-type AF10, but not a DOT1L binding-impaired mutant, rescues overall H3K79 methylation and reduces reprogramming efficiency. Transcriptomic analyses during reprogramming show that AF10 suppression results in downregulation of fibroblast-specific genes and accelerates the activation of pluripotency-associated genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish AF10 as a novel barrier to reprogramming by regulating H3K79 methylation and thereby sheds light on the mechanism by which cell identity is maintained in somatic cells.

6.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 62(12): 2981-2991, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263697

RESUMO

LEOPARD was a single arm, phase II study of lenalidomide (LEN) and alternate day prednisolone maintenance in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) following autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Sixty patients were enrolled. Estimated median potential follow-up was 44 m, median PFS was 38.3 m, median OS was not reached (landmark 36 m OS: 71.4%). Correlative immunohistochemistry performed on pre-ASCT trephines demonstrated high MM tumor cereblon (total/cytoplasmic) was associated with superior OS (p = .045, p = .031, respectively), whereas high c-Myc was associated with inferior PFS (p = .04). Patients with high cereblon (total/nuclear) were more likely to improve depth of response, whereas patients with high c-Myc were less likely, suggesting alternative/more effective post-ASCT strategies for patients with high c-Myc need identification. Peripheral blood immune profiling (mass cytometry) informed a more sustained response to LEN maintenance, demonstrating enrichment of activated/cytotoxic NK cells and cytotoxic T cells in patients with durable responses, contrasting with enrichment of B-regs in early relapsers.

7.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 612518, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968920

RESUMO

Although a rare disease, neuroblastoma accounts for the highest proportion of childhood cancer deaths. There is a lack of recurrent somatic mutations in neuroblastoma embryonal tumours, suggesting a possible role for epigenetic alterations in driving this cancer. While an increasing number of reports suggest an association of MYCN with epigenetic machinery, the mechanisms of these interactions are poorly understood in the neuroblastoma setting. Utilising chemo-genomic approaches we revealed global MYCN-epigenetic interactions and identified numerous epigenetic proteins as MYCN targets. The epigenetic regulators HDAC2, CBX8 and CBP (CREBBP) were all MYCN target genes and also putative MYCN interactors. MYCN-related epigenetic genes included SMARCs, HDACs, SMYDs, BRDs and CREBBP. Expression levels of the majority of MYCN-related epigenetic genes showed predictive ability for neuroblastoma patient outcome. Furthermore, a compound library screen targeting epigenetic proteins revealed broad susceptibility of neuroblastoma cells to all classes of epigenetic regulators, belonging to families of bromodomains, HDACs, HATs, histone methyltransferases, DNA methyltransferases and lysin demethylases. Ninety-six percent of the compounds reduced MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell viability. We show that the C646 (CBP-bromodomain targeting compound) exhibits switch-like temporal and dose response behaviour and is effective at reducing neuroblastoma viability. Responsiveness correlates with MYCN expression, with MYCN-amplified cells being more susceptible to C646 treatment. Thus, exploiting the broad vulnerability of neuroblastoma cells to epigenetic targeting compounds represents an exciting strategy in neuroblastoma treatment, particularly for high-risk MYCN-amplified tumours.

8.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791697

RESUMO

We identify the prolyl-tRNA synthetase (PRS) inhibitor halofuginone 1 , a compound in clinical trials for anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory applications 2 , as a potent inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication. The interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) promotes viral entry 3 . We find that halofuginone reduces HS biosynthesis, thereby reducing spike protein binding, SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus, and authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Halofuginone also potently suppresses SARS-CoV-2 replication post-entry and is 1,000-fold more potent than Remdesivir 4 . Inhibition of HS biosynthesis and SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on specific inhibition of PRS, possibly due to translational suppression of proline-rich proteins. We find that pp1a and pp1ab polyproteins of SARS-CoV-2, as well as several HS proteoglycans, are proline-rich, which may make them particularly vulnerable to halofuginone's translational suppression. Halofuginone is orally bioavailable, has been evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in humans and distributes to SARS-CoV-2 target organs, including the lung, making it a near-term clinical trial candidate for the treatment of COVID-19.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626255, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717143

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play a pivotal role in the immune surveillance and elimination of transformed or virally infected cells. Using a chemo-genetic approach, we identify BET bromodomain containing proteins BRD2 and BRD4 as central regulators of NK cell functions, including direct cytokine secretion, NK cell contact-dependent inflammatory cytokine secretion from monocytes as well as NK cell cytolytic functions. We show that both BRD2 and BRD4 control inflammatory cytokine production in NK cells isolated from healthy volunteers and from rheumatoid arthritis patients. In contrast, knockdown of BRD4 but not of BRD2 impairs NK cell cytolytic responses, suggesting BRD4 as critical regulator of NK cell mediated tumor cell elimination. This is supported by pharmacological targeting where the first-generation pan-BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1(+) displays anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit tumor cell eradication, while the novel bivalent BET bromodomain inhibitor AZD5153, which shows differential activity towards BET family members, does not. Given the important role of both cytokine-mediated inflammatory microenvironment and cytolytic NK cell activities in immune-oncology therapies, our findings present a compelling argument for further clinical investigation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Azepinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Citocinas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 2 Anéis/farmacologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Triazóis/farmacologia
10.
Blood ; 138(5): 370-381, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786580

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in KMT2D are a striking feature of germinal center (GC) lymphomas, resulting in decreased histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation and altered gene expression. We hypothesized that inhibition of the KDM5 family, which demethylates H3K4me3/me2, would reestablish H3K4 methylation and restore the expression of genes repressed on loss of KMT2D. KDM5 inhibition increased H3K4me3 levels and caused an antiproliferative response in vitro, which was markedly greater in both endogenous and gene-edited KMT2D mutant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines, whereas tumor growth was inhibited in KMT2D mutant xenografts in vivo. KDM5 inhibition reactivated both KMT2D-dependent and -independent genes, resulting in diminished B-cell signaling and altered expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family members, including BCL2 itself. KDM5 inhibition may offer an effective therapeutic strategy for ameliorating KMT2D loss-of-function mutations in GC lymphomas.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5414, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110075

RESUMO

The neoplastic stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) carry a mutation in H3F3A, leading to a mutant histone variant, H3.3-G34W, as a sole recurrent genetic alteration. We show that in patient-derived stromal cells H3.3-G34W is incorporated into the chromatin and associates with massive epigenetic alterations on the DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility and histone modification level, that can be partially recapitulated in an orthogonal cell line system by the introduction of H3.3-G34W. These epigenetic alterations affect mainly heterochromatic and bivalent regions and provide possible explanations for the genomic instability, as well as the osteolytic phenotype of GCTB. The mutation occurs in differentiating mesenchymal stem cells and associates with an impaired osteogenic differentiation. We propose that the observed epigenetic alterations reflect distinct differentiation stages of H3.3 WT and H3.3 MUT stromal cells and add to H3.3-G34W-associated changes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/genética , Histonas/genética , Osteogênese , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/metabolismo , Tumor de Células Gigantes do Osso/fisiopatologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto
12.
Cancer Res ; 80(20): 4540-4551, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855205

RESUMO

Expression of the transcription factor brachyury (TBXT) is normally restricted to the embryo, and its silencing is epigenetically regulated. TBXT promotes mesenchymal transition in a subset of common carcinomas, and in chordoma, a rare cancer showing notochordal differentiation, TBXT acts as a putative oncogene. We hypothesized that TBXT expression is controlled through epigenetic inhibition to promote chordoma cell death. Screening of five human chordoma cell lines revealed that pharmacologic inhibition of the histone 3 lysine 27 demethylases KDM6A (UTX) and KDM6B (JMJD3) leads to cell death. This effect was phenocopied by dual genetic inactivation of KDM6A/B using CRISPR/Cas9. Inhibition of KDM6A/B with a novel compound KDOBA67 led to a genome-wide increase in repressive H3K27me3 marks with concomitant reduction in active H3K27ac, H3K9ac, and H3K4me3 marks. TBXT was a KDM6A/B target gene, and chromatin changes at TBXT following KDOBA67 treatment were associated with a reduction in TBXT protein levels in all models tested, including primary patient-derived cultures. In all models tested, KDOBA67 treatment downregulated expression of a network of transcription factors critical for chordoma survival and upregulated pathways dominated by ATF4-driven stress and proapoptotic responses. Blocking the AFT4 stress response did not prevent suppression of TBXT and induction of cell death, but ectopic overexpression of TBXT increased viability, therefore implicating TBXT as a potential therapeutic target of H3K27 demethylase inhibitors in chordoma. Our work highlights how knowledge of normal processes in fetal development can provide insight into tumorigenesis and identify novel therapeutic approaches. SIGNIFICANCE: Pharmacologic inhibition of H3K27-demethylases in human chordoma cells promotes epigenetic silencing of oncogenic TBXT, alters gene networks critical to survival, and represents a potential novel therapy.


Assuntos
Cordoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fetais/genética , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cordoma/genética , Cordoma/patologia , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Epigênese Genética , Proteínas Fetais/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo
13.
Ann Neurol ; 88(2): 332-347, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A hitherto undescribed phenotype of early onset muscular dystrophy associated with sensorineural hearing loss and primary ovarian insufficiency was initially identified in 2 siblings and in subsequent patients with a similar constellation of findings. The goal of this study was to understand the genetic and molecular etiology of this condition. METHODS: We applied whole exome sequencing (WES) superimposed on shared haplotype regions to identify the initial biallelic variants in GGPS1 followed by GGPS1 Sanger sequencing or WES in 5 additional families with the same phenotype. Molecular modeling, biochemical analysis, laser membrane injury assay, and the generation of a Y259C knock-in mouse were done. RESULTS: A total of 11 patients in 6 families carrying 5 different biallelic pathogenic variants in specific domains of GGPS1 were identified. GGPS1 encodes geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in the mevalonate/isoprenoid pathway, which catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, the lipid precursor of geranylgeranylated proteins including small guanosine triphosphatases. In addition to proximal weakness, all but one patient presented with congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and all postpubertal females had primary ovarian insufficiency. Muscle histology was dystrophic, with ultrastructural evidence of autophagic material and large mitochondria in the most severe cases. There was delayed membrane healing after laser injury in patient-derived myogenic cells, and a knock-in mouse of one of the mutations (Y259C) resulted in prenatal lethality. INTERPRETATION: The identification of specific GGPS1 mutations defines the cause of a unique form of muscular dystrophy with hearing loss and ovarian insufficiency and points to a novel pathway for this clinical constellation. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:332-347.


Assuntos
Dimetilaliltranstransferase/genética , Farnesiltranstransferase/genética , Geraniltranstransferase/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Distrofias Musculares/genética , Mutação/genética , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes/métodos , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distrofias Musculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Linhagem , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Curr Opin Chem Biol ; 57: 17-26, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304986

RESUMO

Understanding multicellular physiology and pathobiology requires analysis of the relationship between genotype, chromatin organisation and phenotype. In the multi-omics era, many methods exist to investigate biological processes across the genome, transcriptome, epigenome, proteome and metabolome. Until recently, this was only possible for populations of cells or complex tissues, creating an averaging effect that may obscure direct correlations between multiple layers of data. Single-cell sequencing methods have removed this averaging effect, but computational integration after profiling distinct modalities separately may still not completely reflect underlying biology. Multiplexed assays resolving multiple modalities in the same cell are required to overcome these shortcomings and have the potential to deliver unprecedented understanding of biology and disease.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Humanos
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6056-6066, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123118

RESUMO

T helper (Th) cells are CD4+ effector T cells that play a critical role in immunity by shaping the inflammatory cytokine environment in a variety of physiological and pathological situations. Using a combined chemico-genetic approach, we identify histone H3K27 demethylases KDM6A and KDM6B as central regulators of human Th subsets. The prototypic KDM6 inhibitor GSK-J4 increases genome-wide levels of the repressive H3K27me3 chromatin mark and leads to suppression of the key transcription factor RORγt during Th17 differentiation. In mature Th17 cells, GSK-J4 induces an altered transcriptional program with a profound metabolic reprogramming and concomitant suppression of IL-17 cytokine levels and reduced proliferation. Single-cell analysis reveals a specific shift from highly inflammatory cell subsets toward a resting state upon demethylase inhibition. The root cause of the observed antiinflammatory phenotype in stimulated Th17 cells is reduced expression of key metabolic transcription factors, such as PPRC1. Overall, this leads to reduced mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in a metabolic switch with concomitant antiinflammatory effects. These data are consistent with an effect of GSK-J4 on Th17 T cell differentiation pathways directly related to proliferation and include regulation of effector cytokine profiles. This suggests that inhibiting KDM6 demethylases may be an effective, even in the short term, therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases, including ankylosing spondylitis.


Assuntos
Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Benzazepinas/uso terapêutico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Código das Histonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/antagonistas & inibidores , Cultura Primária de Células , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , RNA-Seq , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilite Anquilosante/imunologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1495, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001775

RESUMO

Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease of women in reproductive age, and is thought to arise from retrograde menstruation and implantation of endometrial tissue, mostly into the peritoneal cavity. The condition is characterized by a chronic, unresolved inflammatory process thereby contributing to pain as cardinal symptom in endometriosis. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress have been postulated as factors in endometriosis pathogenesis. We here set out for a systematic study to identify novel mechanisms and pathways relating to oxidative stress in ectopic peritoneal lesions. Using combined proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, we identified novel targets including upregulated pro-oxidative enzymes, such as amine oxidase 3/vascular adhesion protein 1 (AOC3/VAP1) as well as downregulated protective factors, in particular alkenal reductase PTGR1 and methionine sulfoxide reductase. Consistent with an altered ROS landscape, we observed hemoglobin / iron overload, ROS production and lipid peroxidation in ectopic lesions. ROS-derived 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal induced interleukin IL-8 release from monocytes. Notably, AOC3 inhibitors provoked analgesic effects in inflammatory pain models in vivo, suggesting potential translational applicability.


Assuntos
Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Endometriose/metabolismo , Doenças Peritoneais/metabolismo , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/antagonistas & inibidores , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endometriose/genética , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Heme/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células Mieloides/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças Peritoneais/genética , Doenças Peritoneais/patologia , Fagocitose , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
18.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 3, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition characterised by immune cell infiltration and distinct inflammatory signatures found in the peritoneal cavity. In this study, we aim to characterise the immune microenvironment in samples isolated from the peritoneal cavity in patients with endometriosis. METHODS: We applied mass cytometry (CyTOF), a recently developed multiparameter single-cell technique, in order to characterise and quantify the immune cells found in peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood from endometriosis and control patients. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate the presence of more than 40 different distinct immune cell types within the peritoneal cavity. This suggests that there is a complex and highly heterogeneous inflammatory microenvironment underpinning the pathology of endometriosis. Stratification by clinical disease stages reveals a dynamic spectrum of cell signatures suggesting that adaptations in the inflammatory system occur due to the severity of the disease. Notably, among the inflammatory microenvironment in peritoneal fluid (PF), the presence of CD69+ T cell subsets is increased in endometriosis when compared to control patient samples. On these CD69+ cells, the expression of markers associated with T cell function are reduced in PF samples compared to blood. Comparisons between CD69+ and CD69- populations reveal distinct phenotypes across peritoneal T cell lineages. Taken together, our results suggest that both the innate and the adaptive immune system play roles in endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a systematic characterisation of the specific immune environment in the peritoneal cavity and identifies cell immune signatures associated with endometriosis. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the specific cell phenotypes governing inflammation in patients with endometriosis. This prospective study offers a useful resource for understanding disease pathology and opportunities for identifying therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Líquido Ascítico/imunologia , Endometriose/imunologia , Líquido Ascítico/metabolismo , Líquido Ascítico/patologia , Endometriose/metabolismo , Endometriose/patologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(12): 894, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772153

RESUMO

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. Despite recent developments in surgery, chemo- and radio-therapy, a currently poor prognosis of GBM patients highlights an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. TRAIL (TNF Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand) is a potent anti-cancer agent that can induce apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. GBM cells frequently develop resistance to TRAIL which renders clinical application of TRAIL therapeutics inefficient. In this study, we undertook a chemical screening approach using a library of epigenetic modifier drugs to identify compounds that could augment TRAIL response. We identified the fungal metabolite chaetocin, an inhibitor of histone methyl transferase SUV39H1, as a novel TRAIL sensitizer. Combining low subtoxic doses of chaetocin and TRAIL resulted in very potent and rapid apoptosis of GBM cells. Chaetocin also effectively sensitized GBM cells to further pro-apoptotic agents, such as FasL and BH3 mimetics. Chaetocin mediated apoptosis sensitization was achieved through ROS generation and consequent DNA damage induction that involved P53 activity. Chaetocin induced transcriptomic changes showed induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms and DNA damage response pathways. Heme Oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) was among the top upregulated genes, whose induction was ROS-dependent and HMOX1 depletion enhanced chaetocin mediated TRAIL sensitization. Finally, chaetocin and TRAIL combination treatment revealed efficacy in vivo. Taken together, our results provide a novel role for chaetocin as an apoptosis priming agent and its combination with pro-apoptotic therapies might offer new therapeutic approaches for GBMs.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/patologia , Metaboloma , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioblastoma/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4910, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659163

RESUMO

AspH is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-anchored 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase whose C-terminal oxygenase and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains present in the ER lumen. AspH catalyses hydroxylation of asparaginyl- and aspartyl-residues in epidermal growth factor-like domains (EGFDs). Here we report crystal structures of human AspH, with and without substrate, that reveal substantial conformational changes of the oxygenase and TPR domains during substrate binding. Fe(II)-binding by AspH is unusual, employing only two Fe(II)-binding ligands (His679/His725). Most EGFD structures adopt an established fold with a conserved Cys1-3, 2-4, 5-6 disulfide bonding pattern; an unexpected Cys3-4 disulfide bonding pattern is observed in AspH-EGFD substrate complexes, the catalytic relevance of which is supported by studies involving stable cyclic peptide substrate analogues and by effects of Ca(II) ions on activity. The results have implications for EGFD disulfide pattern processing in the ER and will enable medicinal chemistry efforts targeting human 2OG oxygenases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Proteínas Musculares/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Asparagina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Compostos Ferrosos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
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