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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether (1) depression is associated with increased risk of past-year intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, disaggregated by sex, after controlling for potential confounders; (2) observed associations are mediated by alcohol misuse or past-year IPV victimisation. METHODS: Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-mediation analysis of general population surveys of participants aged 16 years or older, that were conducted in a high-income country setting, and measured mental disorder and IPV perpetration in the last 12 months. RESULTS: Four datasets contributed to meta-mediation analyses, with a combined sample of 12,679 participants. Depression was associated with a 7.4% and 4.8% proportion increase of past-year physical IPV perpetration among women and men, respectively. We found no evidence of mediation by alcohol misuse. Among women, past-year IPV victimisation mediated 45% of the total effect of depression on past-year IPV perpetration. Past-year severe IPV victimisation mediated 60% of the total effect of depression on past-year severe IPV perpetration. We could not investigate IPV victimisation as a mediator among men due to perfect prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health services, criminal justice services, and domestic violence perpetrator programmes should be aware that depression is associated with increased risk of IPV perpetration. Interventions to reduce IPV victimisation might help prevent IPV perpetration by women. Data collection on mental disorder and IPV perpetration should be strengthened in future population-based surveys, with greater consistency of data collection across surveys, as only four studies were able to contribute to the meta-mediation analysis.

2.
Confl Health ; 15(1): 74, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Armed conflict has significant impacts on individuals and families living in conflict-affected settings globally. Scholars working to prevent violence within families have hypothesised that experiencing armed conflict leads to an increase in family violence and mental health problems. In this review, we assessed the prevalence of family violence in conflict settings, its association with the mental health of survivors, moderating factors, and the importance of gender relations. METHODS: Following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies that assessed the prevalence of family violence and the association between family violence and mental health problems, within conflict settings (PROSPERO reference CRD42018114443). RESULTS: We identified 2605 records, from which 174 full text articles were screened. Twenty-nine studies that reported family violence during or up to 10 years after conflict were eligible for inclusion. Twenty one studies were quantitative, measuring prevalence and association between family violence and mental health problems. The studies were generally of high quality and all reported high prevalence of violence. The prevalence of violence against women was mostly in the range of 30-40%, the highest reported prevalence of physical abuse being 78.9% in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For violence against children, over three-quarters had ever experienced violence, the highest prevalence being 95.6% in Sri Lanka. Associations were found with a number of mental health problems, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder. The risk varied in different locations. Eight qualitative studies showed how men's experience of conflict, including financial stresses, contributes to their perpetration of family violence. CONCLUSIONS: Family violence was common in conflict settings and was associated with mental health outcomes, but the studies were too heterogenous to determine whether prevalence or risk was greater than in non-conflict settings. The review highlights an urgent need for more robust data on perpetrators, forms of family violence, and mental health outcomes in conflict-affected settings in order to help understand the magnitude of the problem and identify potential solutions to address it.

3.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 80, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) host the majority of the world's refugees. Evidence suggests that refugees and asylum seekers have high mental health needs compared to the host country population. However, they face many social, economic and culture barriers to receiving mental health care and benefitting from mental health interventions. This paper examines how these contextual factors affect the implementation of mental health interventions for refugees and asylum seekers in LMICs. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative systematic review searching 11 databases and 24 relevant government and non-governmental organisation (NGO) websites. We spoke with academic experts and NGO professionals for recommendations, and conducted forwards and backwards citation tracking. RESULTS: From 2055 records in abstract and title screening, and then 99 in full-text screening, 18 eligible studies were identified. Qualitative thematic synthesis was conducted on eligible papers. Three main thematic clusters were identified around: (1) support during a time of pressure and insecurity, and the need for intervention flexibility through facilitator and participant autonomy; (2) different cultural conceptions of mental health, and how interventions negotiated these differences; and (3) the importance of facilitator skills, knowledge, characteristics and relationships to intervention implementation. CONCLUSION: Evidence suggests that intervention coordinators and developers should continue to: (1) think broadly about the range of social influences on mental health, addressing structural issues where possible; (2) offer flexibility with intervention style, content and timings; and (3) encourage building research capacity in LMICs while acknowledging pre-existing mental health knowledge and practice.

4.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(11): 1748-1758, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on older adults mental health care. Our study aimed to explore staff perspectives on key challenges and innovations in order to help inform the delivery of older adults mental health care in subsequent waves of the pandemic. METHODS: A mixed methods online questionnaire developed by National Institute for Health Research Mental Health Policy Research Unit was used to gather staff perspectives on their challenges at work, problems faced by service users and their carers, and sources of help and support. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative analysis and descriptive content analysis for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: 158 participants, working in either community or inpatient settings, and from a range of professional disciplines, were included. For inpatient staff, a significant challenge was infection control. In the community, staff identified a lack of access to physical and social care as well as reduced contact with friends and families as being challenges for patients. Remote working was seen as a positive innovation along with COVID-19 related guidance from various sources and peer support. CONCLUSION: Our study, with a focus on staff and patient well-being, helps to inform service development for future waves of the pandemic. We discuss measures to improve infection control in inpatient settings, the role of voluntary organisations in supporting socially isolated community patients, the need for better integration of physical and mental health services at an organisational level, and the importance of training staff to support patients and their families with end of life planning.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Idoso , Cuidadores , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Experiences of reported trauma are common and are associated with a range of mental health problems. Sex differences in how reported traumas are experienced over the life course in relation to mental health require further exploration. METHODS: 157,358 participants contributed data for the UK Biobank Mental Health Questionnaire (MHQ). Stratified Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to analyse combinations of reported traumatic experiences in males and females separately, and associations with mental health. RESULTS: In females, five trauma classes were identified: a low-risk class (58.6%), a childhood trauma class (13.5%), an intimate partner violence class (12.9%), a sexual violence class (9.1%), and a high-risk class (5.9%). In males, a three-class solution was preferred: a low-risk class (72.6%), a physical and emotional trauma class (21.9%), and a sexual violence class (5.5%). In comparison to the low-risk class in each sex, all trauma classes were associated with increased odds of current depression, anxiety, and hazardous/harmful alcohol use after adjustment for covariates. The high-risk class in females and the sexual violence class in males produced significantly increased odds for recent psychotic experiences. CONCLUSION: There are sex differences in how reported traumatic experiences co-occur across a lifespan, with females at the greatest risk. However, reporting either sexual violence or multiple types of trauma was associated with increased odds of mental health problems for both males and females. Findings emphasise the public mental health importance of identifying and responding to both men and women's experiences of trauma, including sexual violence.

6.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043183, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is highly prevalent, with severe adverse consequences to the health and well-being of survivors. There is a smaller evidence base on the health of DVA perpetrators and their engagement with healthcare services. This review examines the experiences of perpetrators of DVA of accessing healthcare services and the barriers and facilitators to their disclosure of abusive behaviours in these settings. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was conducted in Cochrane, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, HMIC, BNID, CINAHL, ASSIA, IBSS, SSCI (peer-reviewed literature) and NDLTD, OpenGrey and SCIE Online (grey literature). Each database was searched from its start date to 15 March 2020. Eligibility criteria required that studies used qualitative or mixed methods to report on the experiences of healthcare use by perpetrators of DVA. A meta-ethnographic method was used to analyse the extracted data. RESULTS: Of 30,663 papers identified, six studies (n=125 participants; 124 men, 1 woman) met the inclusion criteria. Barriers to disclosure of DVA to healthcare staff included perpetrators' negative emotions and attitudes towards their abusive behaviours; fear of consequences of disclosure; and lack of trust in healthcare services' ability to address DVA. Facilitators of disclosure of DVA and engagement with healthcare services were experiencing social consequences of abusive behaviours; feeling listened to by healthcare professionals; and offers of emotional and practical support for relationship problems by healthcare staff. CONCLUSIONS: DVA perpetration is a complex issue with multiple barriers to healthcare engagement and disclosure. However, healthcare services can create positive conditions for the engagement of individuals who perpetrate abuse. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42017073818.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Violência Doméstica , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a recognised need to develop clear service models and pathways to provide high quality care in the community for people with complex emotional needs, who may have been given a "personality disorder" diagnosis. Services should be informed by the views of people with these experiences. AIMS: To identify and synthesise qualitative studies on service user experiences of community mental health care for Complex Emotional Needs. METHODS: We searched six bibliographic databases for papers published since 2003. We included peer reviewed studies reporting data on service user experiences and views about good care from community-based mental health services for adults with CEN, including generic mental health services and specialist "personality disorder" services. Studies using any qualitative method were included and thematic synthesis used to identify over-arching themes. RESULTS: Forty-seven papers were included. Main themes were: 1) The need for a long-term perspective on treatment journeys; 2) The need for individualised and holistic care; 3) Large variations in accessibility and quality of mental health services; 4) The centrality of therapeutic relationships; 5) Impacts of 'personality disorder' diagnosis. Themes tended to recur across studies from different countries and years. DISCUSSION: Recurrent major themes included wanting support that is individualised and holistic, provides continuity over long journeys towards recovery, and that is delivered by empathetic and well-informed clinicians who are hopeful but realistic about the prospects of treatment. Care that met these simple and clearly stated priorities tended to be restricted to often limited periods of treatment by specialist "personality disorder" services: generic and primary care services were often reported as far from adequate. There is an urgent need to co-design and test strategies for improving long-term support and treatment care for people with "personality disorders" throughout the mental health care system.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Gerenciamento Clínico , Emoções , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
8.
CMAJ ; 193(11): E361-E370, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women generally have longer life expectancy than men but have higher levels of disability and morbidity. Few studies have identified factors that explain higher mortality in men. The aim of this study was to identify potential factors contributing to sex differences in mortality at older age and to investigate variation across countries. METHODS: This study included participants age ≥ 50 yr from 28 countries in 12 cohort studies of the Ageing Trajectories of Health: Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) consortium. Using a 2-step individual participant data meta-analysis framework, we applied Cox proportional hazards modelling to investigate the association between sex and mortality across different countries. We included socioeconomic (education, wealth), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption), social (marital status, living alone) and health factors (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental disorders) as covariates or interaction terms with sex to test whether these factors contributed to the mortality gap between men and women. RESULTS: The study included 179 044 individuals. Men had 60% higher mortality risk than women after adjustment for age (pooled hazard ratio [HR] 1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.5-1.7), yet the effect sizes varied across countries (I 2 = 71.5%, HR range 1.1-2.4). Only smoking and cardiovascular diseases substantially attenuated the effect size (by about 22%). INTERPRETATION: Lifestyle and health factors may partially account for excess mortality in men compared with women, but residual variation remains unaccounted for. Variation in the effect sizes across countries may indicate contextual factors contributing to gender inequality in specific settings.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente/psicologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
9.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(1): 13-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has many potential impacts on people with mental health conditions and on mental health care, including direct consequences of infection, effects of infection control measures and subsequent societal changes. We aimed to map early impacts of the pandemic on people with pre-existing mental health conditions and services they use, and to identify individual and service-level strategies adopted to manage these. METHODS: We searched for relevant material in the public domain published before 30 April 2020, including papers in scientific and professional journals, published first person accounts, media articles, and publications by governments, charities and professional associations. Search languages were English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Mandarin Chinese. Relevant content was retrieved and summarised via a rapid qualitative framework synthesis approach. RESULTS: We found 872 eligible sources from 28 countries. Most documented observations and experiences rather than reporting research data. We found many reports of deteriorations in symptoms, and of impacts of loneliness and social isolation and of lack of access to services and resources, but sometimes also of resilience, effective self-management and peer support. Immediate service challenges related to controlling infection, especially in inpatient and residential settings, and establishing remote working, especially in the community. We summarise reports of swiftly implemented adaptations and innovations, but also of pressing ethical challenges and concerns for the future. CONCLUSION: Our analysis captures the range of stakeholder perspectives and experiences publicly reported in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in several countries. We identify potential foci for service planning and research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(1): 25-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has potential to disrupt and burden the mental health care system, and to magnify inequalities experienced by mental health service users. METHODS: We investigated staff reports regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in its early weeks on mental health care and mental health service users in the UK using a mixed methods online survey. Recruitment channels included professional associations and networks, charities, and social media. Quantitative findings were reported with descriptive statistics, and content analysis conducted for qualitative data. RESULTS: 2,180 staff from a range of sectors, professions, and specialties participated. Immediate infection control concerns were highly salient for inpatient staff, new ways of working for community staff. Multiple rapid adaptations and innovations in response to the crisis were described, especially remote working. This was cautiously welcomed but found successful in only some clinical situations. Staff had specific concerns about many groups of service users, including people whose conditions are exacerbated by pandemic anxieties and social disruptions; people experiencing loneliness, domestic abuse and family conflict; those unable to understand and follow social distancing requirements; and those who cannot engage with remote care. CONCLUSION: This overview of staff concerns and experiences in the early COVID-19 pandemic suggests directions for further research and service development: we suggest that how to combine infection control and a therapeutic environment in hospital, and how to achieve effective and targeted tele-health implementation in the community, should be priorities. The limitations of our convenience sample must be noted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e154, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787983

RESUMO

Forced migrants are at an increased risk of mental disorder compared to host country populations. To effectively address this, programmatic and policy responses need to be underpinned by rigorous evidence. Drawing on our experience conducting a systematic review of post-migration risk factors for mental disorder among asylum seekers and our appraisal of related systematic reviews, this paper discusses four challenges facing the field: (1)The reliance on Western conceptions of mental health.(2)The investigation, to date, of a relatively narrow range of potential risk factors.(3)The lack of consistency in the measurement and reporting of risk factor variables.(4)The use of the legal term 'asylum seeker' to define study populations.We suggest potential ways forward, including using mental health measures developed in collaboration with communities affected by forced migration, the examination of key risk factors around homelessness and workers' rights, the development of a core set of risk factors to be investigated in each study, and defining study populations using the conceptual category of 'sanctuary seekers' - people who have fled their country and are asking another country for safety and residence.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Transtornos Mentais , Refugiados/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Política
12.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 22(5): 1065-1066, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566974

RESUMO

The original version of the article unfortunately contained an error in Table 1 and the text under Result section.

13.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 22(5): 1055-1064, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430778

RESUMO

People seeking asylum are at an increased risk of mental disorder compared to refugees and other migrants. This paper aims to understand the impact of postmigration social-environmental factors to help inform efforts to reduce rates of mental disorder. We conducted a systematic review searching 11 databases, as well as 6 government and nongovernment websites. We asked 5 experts for recommendations, and carried out forwards and backwards citation tracking. From 7004 papers 21 were eligible and had the appropriate data. Narrative synthesis was conducted. 24 Social-environmental factors were identified and categorised into 7 themes: working conditions, social networks, economic class, living conditions, healthcare, community and identity, and the immigration system. Evidence suggests that discrimination and post-migration stress are associated with increased rates of mental disorder. The post-migration environment influences the mental health of people seeking asylum. Discrimination and post-migration stress are key factors, warranting further research and public attention.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Refugiados , Migrantes , Emigração e Imigração , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental
14.
BJPsych Open ; 6(2): e19, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carers are key providers of care and support to mental health patients and mental health policies consistently mandate carer involvement. Understanding carers' experiences of and views about assessment for involuntary admission and subsequent detention is crucial to efforts to improve policy and practice. AIMS: We aimed to synthesise qualitative evidence of carers' experiences of the assessment and detention of their family and friends under mental health legislation. METHOD: We searched five bibliographic databases, reference lists and citations. Studies were included if they collected data using qualitative methods and the patients were aged 18 or older; reported on carer experiences of assessment or detention under mental health legislation anywhere in the world; and were published in peer-reviewed journals. We used meta-synthesis. RESULTS: The review included 23 papers. Themes were consistent across time and setting and related to the emotional impact of detention; the availability of support for carers; the extent to which carers felt involved in decision-making; relationships with patients and staff during detention; and the quality of care provided to patients. Carers often described conflicting feelings of relief coupled with distress and anxiety about how the patient might cope and respond. Carers also spoke about the need for timely and accessible information, supportive and trusting relationships with mental health professionals, and of involvement as partners in care. CONCLUSIONS: Research is needed to explore whether and how health service and other interventions can improve the involvement and support of carers prior to, during and after the detention of family members and friends.

15.
Health Soc Care Community ; 28(1): 173-181, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483083

RESUMO

Trafficked people require timely and ongoing access to healthcare services. Yet, many encounter difficulties accessing and utilising healthcare services, both while in situations of exploitation and after their escape. This research investigated barriers that hinder healthcare providers from identifying, providing care and making necessary referrals for trafficked people in the United Kingdom (UK). Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with healthcare (n = 23) and non-health (n = 27) professionals with relevant policy or practical experience related to human trafficking in the UK. Topic guides covered identifying, referring and providing care to trafficked people. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Four interconnected themes emerged: trafficked persons' entitlements to healthcare, availability of healthcare resources, providers' knowledge about trafficking, and the particular needs of trafficked individuals. Providers explained that policies limiting entitlements to healthcare created significant obstacles to care, as did the inadequate resourcing of interpreter services, trafficking support services, and specialist mental health services. Few healthcare professionals reported having received training on responses to trafficked people and most were unaware of support options and referral routes. Healthcare professionals will be better equipped to serve trafficked individuals if they are provided training to identify and respond to human trafficking, guidance on referral and support options and entitlements to care. Simultaneously, improving trafficked people's healthcare access and use will also require government interventions to ensure they are not unjustifiably denied healthcare.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Tráfico de Pessoas/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Adulto , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reino Unido
16.
BJPsych Open ; 5(6): e102, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771677

RESUMO

Trends in detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 in two major London secondary mental healthcare providers were explored using patient-level data in a historical cohort study between 2007-2008 and 2016-2017. An increase in the number of detention episodes initiated per fiscal year was observed at both sites. The rise was accompanied by an increase in the number of active patients; the proportion of active patients detained per year remained relatively stable. Findings suggest that the rise in the number of detentions reflects the rise of the number of people receiving secondary mental healthcare.

18.
BJPsych Open ; 5(3): e37, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding patient experiences of detention under mental health legislation is crucial to efforts to reform policy and practice. AIMS: To synthesise qualitative evidence on patients' experiences of assessment and detention under mental health legislation. METHOD: Five bibliographic databases were searched, supplemented by reference list screening and citation tracking. Studies were included if they reported on patient experiences of assessment or detention under mental health legislation; reported on patients aged 18 years or older; collected data using qualitative methods; and were reported in peer-reviewed journals. Findings were analysed and synthesised using thematic synthesis. RESULTS: The review included 56 papers. Themes were generally consistent across studies and related to information and involvement in care, the environment and relationships with staff, as well as the impact of detention on feelings of self-worth and emotional state. The emotional impact of detention and views of its appropriateness varied, but a frequent theme was fear and distress during detention, including in relation to the use of force and restraint. Where staff were perceived as striving to form caring and collaborative relationships with patients despite the coercive nature of treatment, and when clear information was delivered, the negative impact of involuntary care seemed to be reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that involuntary in-patient care is often frightening and distressing, but certain factors were identified that can help reduce negative experiences. Coproduction models may be fruitful in developing new ways of working on in-patient wards that provide more voice to patients and staff, and physical and social environments that are more conducive to recovery. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None.

20.
Health Psychol Open ; 6(1): 2055102919838909, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967960

RESUMO

Repeated military relocations (accompanied postings) can have a detrimental effect on employment and well-being among the spouses and partners of military personnel. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 19 spouses of British Army/Royal Air Force personnel with recent experience of accompanied postings to explore this issue through the lens of self-determination theory; all were married women with at least one child. Participants explained how employment contributed to an independent identity, enabling social connectedness, providing a sense of self-confidence and value but limiting agency over employment decisions. Spouse employment, and therefore, well-being could be improved by the provision of better childcare access or additional support in finding employment and training opportunities.

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