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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 67-71, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971935

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital brain and eye abnormalities and is associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities (1-3). In areas of the United States that experienced local Zika virus transmission, the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy increased in the second half of 2016 compared with the first half (4). To update the previous report, CDC analyzed population-based surveillance data from 22 states and territories to estimate the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of laboratory evidence of or exposure to Zika virus, among pregnancies completed during January 1, 2016-June 30, 2017. Jurisdictions were categorized as those 1) with widespread local transmission of Zika virus; 2) with limited local transmission of Zika virus; and 3) without local transmission of Zika virus. Among 2,004,630 live births, 3,359 infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy were identified (1.7 per 1,000 live births, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-1.7). In areas with widespread local Zika virus transmission, the prevalence of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy was significantly higher during the quarters comprising July 2016-March 2017 (July-September 2016 = 3.0; October-December 2016 = 4.0; and January-March 2017 = 5.6 per 1,000 live births) compared with the reference period (January-March 2016) (1.3 per 1,000). These findings suggest a fourfold increase (prevalence ratio [PR] = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.1-8.4) in birth defects potentially related to Zika virus in widespread local transmission areas during January-March 2017 compared with that during January-March 2016, with the highest prevalence (7.0 per 1,000 live births) in February 2017. Population-based birth defects surveillance is critical for identifying infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus regardless of whether Zika virus testing was conducted, especially given the high prevalence of asymptomatic disease. These data can be used to inform follow-up care and services as well as strengthen surveillance.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Vigilância da População , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ilhas Virgens Americanas/epidemiologia
2.
Infect Genet Evol ; 74: 104000, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408767

RESUMO

Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by triatomine insect vectors. In Guatemala, insecticide spraying is an integral part of management of the main vector, Triatoma dimidiata. Spraying typically has low efficacy, which may be due to incomplete elimination from infested houses, within-village dispersal, or influx from other villages or sylvan environments. To evaluate how these mechanisms contribute to reinfestation, we conducted a time-course analysis of T. dimidiata infestation, abundance and household genetic structure in two nearby villages in Jutiapa, Guatemala; houses in the first village were surveyed, treated with insecticide if infested and then re-surveyed at eight and 22 months following spraying, while the second village served as an untreated control to quantify changes associated with seasonal dispersal. Insects were genotyped at 2-3000 SNP loci for kinship and population genetic analyses. Insecticide application reduced overall infestation and abundance, while the untreated village was stable over time. Nevertheless, within two years 35.5% of treated houses were reinfested and genetic diversity had largely recovered. Insects collected from reinfested houses post-spraying were most closely related to pre-spray collections from the same house, suggesting that infestations had not been fully eliminated. Immigration by unrelated insects was also detected within a year of spraying; when it occurred, dispersal was primarily local from neighboring houses. Similar dispersal patterns were observed following the annual dispersal season in the untreated village, with high-infestation houses serving as sources for neighboring homes. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of pyrethroid application is rapidly diminished by both within-house breeding by survivors and annual cycles of among-house movement. Given these patterns, we conclude that house structural improvements, an integral part of the Ecohealth approach that makes houses refractory to vector colonization and persistence, are critical for long-term reduction of T. dimidiata infestation.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(7): 177-180, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789880

RESUMO

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that can occur following prenatal exposure to opioids (1). NAS surveillance in the United States is based largely on diagnosis codes in hospital discharge data, without validation of these codes or case confirmation. During 2004-2014, reported NAS incidence increased from 1.5 to 8.0 per 1,000 U.S. hospital births (2), based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes identified in hospital discharge data, without case confirmation. However, little is known about how well these codes identify NAS or how the October 1, 2015, transition from ICD-9-CM to the tenth revision of ICD-CM (ICD-10-CM) codes affected estimated NAS incidence. This report describes a pilot project in Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont to use birth defects surveillance infrastructure to obtain state-level, population-based estimates of NAS incidence among births in 2015 (all three states) and 2016 (Illinois) using hospital discharge records and other sources (varied by state) with case confirmation, and to evaluate the validity of NAS diagnosis codes used by each state. Wide variation in NAS incidence was observed across the three states. In 2015, NAS incidence for Illinois, New Mexico, and Vermont was 3.0, 7.5, and 30.8 per 1,000 births, respectively. Among evaluated diagnosis codes, those with the highest positive predictive values (PPVs) for identifying confirmed cases of NAS, based on a uniform case definition, were drug withdrawal syndrome in a newborn (ICD-9-CM code 779.5; state range = 58.6%-80.2%) and drug withdrawal, infant of dependent mother (ICD-10-CM code P96.1; state range = 58.5%-80.2%). The methods used to assess NAS incidence in this pilot project might help inform other states' NAS surveillance efforts.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Humanos , Illinois/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , New Mexico/epidemiologia , Vermont/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006730, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335763

RESUMO

Chagas disease, considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organization, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted by >140 triatomine species across the Americas. In Central America, the main vector is Triatoma dimidiata, an opportunistic blood meal feeder inhabiting both domestic and sylvatic ecotopes. Given the diversity of interacting biological agents involved in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, having simultaneous information on the dynamics of the parasite, vector, the gut microbiome of the vector, and the blood meal source would facilitate identifying key biotic factors associated with the risk of T. cruzi transmission. In this study, we developed a RADseq-based analysis pipeline to study mixed-species DNA extracted from T. dimidiata abdomens. To evaluate the efficacy of the method across spatial scales, we used a nested spatial sampling design that spanned from individual villages within Guatemala to major biogeographic regions of Central America. Information from each biotic source was distinguished with bioinformatics tools and used to evaluate the prevalence of T. cruzi infection and predominant Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in the region, the population genetic structure of T. dimidiata, gut microbial diversity, and the blood meal history. An average of 3.25 million reads per specimen were obtained, with approximately 1% assigned to the parasite, 20% to the vector, 11% to bacteria, and 4% to putative blood meals. Using a total of 6,405 T. cruzi SNPs, we detected nine infected vectors harboring two distinct DTUs: TcI and a second unidentified strain, possibly TcIV. Vector specimens were sufficiently variable for population genomic analyses, with a total of 25,710 T. dimidiata SNPs across all samples that were sufficient to detect geographic genetic structure at both local and regional scales. We observed a diverse microbiotic community, with significantly higher bacterial species richness in infected T. dimidiata abdomens than those that were not infected. Unifrac analysis suggests a common assemblage of bacteria associated with infection, which co-occurs with the typical gut microbial community derived from the local environment. We identified vertebrate blood meals from five T. dimidiata abdomens, including chicken, dog, duck and human; however, additional detection methods would be necessary to confidently identify blood meal sources from most specimens. Overall, our study shows this method is effective for simultaneously generating genetic data on vectors and their associated parasites, along with ecological information on feeding patterns and microbial interactions that may be followed up with complementary approaches such as PCR-based parasite detection, 18S eukaryotic and 16S bacterial barcoding.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Alimentar , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Triatoma/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , América Central , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Triatoma/microbiologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Triatoma/fisiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(3): 91-96, 2018 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370151

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1). Population-based birth defects surveillance systems are critical to monitor all infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of known exposure or laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. CDC analyzed data from 15 U.S. jurisdictions conducting population-based surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.* Jurisdictions were stratified into the following three groups: those with 1) documented local transmission of Zika virus during 2016; 2) one or more cases of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents; and 3) less than one case of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents. A total of 2,962 infants and fetuses (3.0 per 1,000 live births; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-3.2) (2) met the case definition.† In areas with local transmission there was a non-statistically significant increase in total birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection from 2.8 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 3.0 cases in the second half (p = 0.10). However, when neural tube defects and other early brain malformations (NTDs)§ were excluded, the prevalence of birth defects strongly linked to congenital Zika virus infection increased significantly, from 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 2.4 cases in the second half, an increase of 29 more cases than expected (p = 0.009). These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Vigilância da População , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 11(6): 1124-6, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21951598

RESUMO

This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne × purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne × purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cryptocoryne cordata var. cordata, Cryptocoryne elliptica, Cryptocoryne griffithii, Cryptocoryne minima, Cryptocoryne nurii and Cryptocoryne schulzei. This article also documents the addition of 24 sequencing primer pairs and 24 allele-specific primers or probes for Aphis glycines.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Ecologia/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Primers do DNA/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
PLoS One ; 5(6): e11370, 2010 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20614011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aphids are one of the most important insect taxa in terms of ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics and genomics, and interactions with endosymbionts. Additionally, many aphids are serious pest species of agricultural and horticultural plants. Recent genetic and genomic research has expanded molecular resources for many aphid species, including the whole genome sequencing of the pea aphid, Acrythosiphon pisum. However, the invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, lacks in any significant molecular resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two next-generation sequencing technologies (Roche-454 and Illumina GA-II) were used in a combined approach to develop both transcriptomic and genomic resources, including expressed genes and molecular markers. Over 278 million bp were sequenced among the two methods, resulting in 19,293 transcripts and 56,688 genomic sequences. From this data set, 635 SNPs and 1,382 microsatellite markers were identified. For each sequencing method, different soybean aphid biotypes were used which revealed potential biotype specific markers. In addition, we uncovered 39,822 bp of sequence that were related to the obligatory endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, as well as sequences that suggest the presence of Hamiltonella defensa, a facultative endosymbiont. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Molecular resources for an invasive, non-model aphid species were generated. Additionally, the power of next-generation sequencing to uncover endosymbionts was demonstrated. The resources presented here will complement ongoing molecular studies within the Aphididae, including the pea aphid whole genome, lead to better understanding of aphid adaptation and evolution, and help provide novel targets for soybean aphid control.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/genética , DNA Complementar , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Inseto , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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