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1.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597140

RESUMO

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the central nervous system are dynamic lesions that can change with time. One of the most clinically important concerns is the development and potential rupture of AVM-associated aneurysms. In this report, we review pediatric cases of de novo development of AVM-associated aneurysms in 2 children and present the relevant clinical and radiographic records. These 2 cases, coupled with a review of the current literature, offer insight into the risks of AVMs in children and underline the importance of timely treatment of appropriate cases.

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For more than three decades, standard treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma in Europe has included 6 months of chemotherapy. The European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) aimed to investigate whether prolonging treatment with maintenance chemotherapy would improve survival in patients with high-risk rhabdomyosarcoma. METHODS: RMS 2005 was a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 102 hospitals in 14 countries. We included patients aged 6 months to 21 years with rhabdomyosarcoma who were considered to be at high risk of relapse: those with non-metastatic incompletely resected embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma occurring at unfavourable sites with unfavourable age (≥10 years) or tumour size (>5 cm), or both; those with any non-metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma with nodal involvement; and those with non-metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma but without nodal involvement. Patients in remission after standard treatment (nine cycles of ifosfamide, vincristine, dactinomycin with or without doxorubicin, and surgery or radiotherapy, or both) were randomly assigned (1:1) to stop treatment or continue maintenance chemotherapy (six cycles of intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15, and daily oral cyclophosphamide 25 mg/m2, on days 1-28). Randomisation was done by use of a web-based system and was stratified (block size of four) by enrolling country and risk subgroup. Neither investigators nor patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes were overall survival and toxicity. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2005-000217-35, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00339118, and follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between April 20, 2006, and Dec 21, 2016, 371 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the two groups: 186 to stop treatment and 185 to receive maintenance chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 60·3 months (IQR 32·4-89·4). In the intention-to-treat population, 5-year disease-free survival was 77·6% (95% CI 70·6-83·2) with maintenance chemotherapy versus 69·8% (62·2-76·2) without maintenance chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0·68 [95% CI 0·45-1·02]; p=0·061), and 5-year overall survival was 86·5% (95% CI 80·2-90·9) with maintenance chemotherapy versus 73·7% (65·8-80·1) without (HR 0·52 [95% CI 0·32-0·86]; p=0·0097). Toxicity was manageable in patients who received maintenance chemotherapy: 136 (75%) of 181 patients had grade 3-4 leucopenia, 148 (82%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia, 19 (10%) had anaemia, two (1%) had thrombocytopenia, and 56 (31%) had an infection. One (1%) patient had a grade 4 non-haematological toxicity (neurotoxicity). Two treatment-related serious adverse events occurred: one case of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and one of a severe steppage gait with limb pain, both of which resolved. INTERPRETATION: Adding maintenance chemotherapy seems to improve survival for patients with high-risk rhabdomyosarcoma. This approach will be the new standard of care for patients with high-risk rhabdomyosarcoma in future EpSSG trials. FUNDING: Fondazione Città della Speranza, Association Léon Berard Enfant Cancéreux, Clinical Research Hospital Program (French Ministry of Health), and Cancer Research UK.

3.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1102): 20190107, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322911

RESUMO

Many of the principles established in adults with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) apply to children, adolescents and young adults. However, NPC in young patients should be distinguished from the adult form by several points. This review focuses mainly on differences between adult and pediatric NPC. The role of biology and genetics in pediatric NPC is discussed. Systemic treatment modalities including type of chemotherapy induction, timing of treatment, role of immunotherapy as adjuvant treatment, or in relapsing/ metastatic diseases are reported. Radiation modalities (doses, techniques…) in children are also reviewed. Long-term effects including secondary cancers are finally be discussed in this young NPC population.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Criança , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(10): e27833, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare tumors of childhood. The role of standard chemotherapy in unresectable MPNST is still unclear. We report the outcome and prognostic factors in the EpSSG risk-adapted prospective study for localized pediatric MPNST. METHODS: Patients were stratified into four treatment groups defined by surgical resection, tumor size, and tumor grade (G): (a) surgery-only group-resected tumors G1; (b) adjuvant radiotherapy group-R0/R1, G2 tumors; (c) adjuvant chemotherapy group-R0/R1, G3 tumors; and (d) neoadjuvant chemotherapy group-R2 resected tumors and/or nodal involvement. Chemotherapy consisted of four courses of ifosfamide-doxorubicin and two courses of ifosfamide concomitant with radiotherapy (50.4-54 Gy). RESULTS: Overall, the study included 51 patients. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 52.9% (95% confidence interval, 38.1-65.8) and 62.1% (46.7-74.3), respectively. The 5-year EFS was 92% (56.6-98.9) for treatment group 1 (N = 13), 33% (0.9-77.4) for treatment group 2 (N = 4), 29% (4.1-61.2) for treatment group 3 (N = 7), and 42% (23.1-60.1) for treatment group 4 (N = 27). Response rate to chemotherapy (partial response + complete response) in patients with measurable disease was 46%. The presence of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; 51% of patients) was an independent poor prognostic factor for OS and EFS. CONCLUSION: The outcome for patients with resectable MPNST was excellent. Standard ifosfamide-doxorubicin for unresectable MPNST rendered the best reported outcome. Children with NF1 disease seem to have worse prognosis.

5.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 123: 33-37, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is a rare benign lesion known for its local aggressiveness. The tumor management still remains under debate. Primary head and neck (HN), represents the second most prevalently affected sitein children with DF. This study aims to analyze the specificity of HN-DF in children, focusing on long-term effects of the tumor and therapies. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study analyzed children treated for a HN-DF between 1993 and 2013. All medical files were reviewed and their outcomes analyzed according to the initial therapies provided. RESULTS: Sixteen children were selected. Mandibular and submandibular areas were the main locations (11 cases). Eight children underwent chemotherapy as first-line therapy with tumor control in 3 cases and 5 cases needing additional treatment. Six children underwent primary surgery: isolated in 3 cases and with additional treatment after tumor progression in 3 cases. A wait-and-see attitude was adopted for 2 children without any additional treatment in 1 case, and followed by additional chemotherapy in the other case. Total burden of treatment to control the disease was a biopsy (1 case), surgery (3 unique cases, 1 multiple case), surgery with chemotherapy (6 cases), and exclusive medical therapies (5 cases). Surgical postoperative sequelae were facial palsy (cases of parotid gland affection), XIth cranial nerve sacrifice or sensory impairment. CONCLUSION: HN-DF is a local and extensive disease that is difficult to control with surgery alone. Sequelae are frequent due to the initial tumor location or therapies. Initial conservative strategies need to be discussed in a multidisciplinary way in order to try to control the disease with the minimal morbidity.

6.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66 Suppl 3: e27867, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136081

RESUMO

AIM: We present the preliminary results of robotic-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) total and partial nephrectomy for renal malignant tumors in children. METHODS: This is a prospective study of patients operated with RAL between December 2016 and September 2018. Patients with Wilms tumors were treated according to the SIOP-2001 protocol. Patient and tumor characteristics, type of surgery, surgical-related morbidity, and oncologic outcomes were recorded. Results were compared with a series of patients with similar age- and tumor-related characteristics operated during the same period by an open surgical approach. RESULTS: Ten children underwent RAL nephrectomy with a mean age of five years (3.2-14.1 years). Total nephrectomy was done in six cases for Wilms tumor and in one case for renal sarcoma; three cases were converted. Complete removal of tumor without rupture was achieved in all cases. Postoperative course was uneventful, and patients were discharged between days 2 and 7. Neither recurrence nor medium-term complications occurred. Nine patients are alive with a median follow-up of 16 months (6-27 months) and one female died from complications of central nervous system metastases one year after surgery. When compared with the open surgical approach group, median tumor volume was smaller (P = 0.005), hospital stay was shorter (P = 0.01), and operative time was similar (P = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: RAL total and partial nephrectomy procedure for renal tumor in children may be an option in carefully selected cases. Indication should be discussed at tumor boards and surgery performed while adhering strictly to oncological surgical rules.

7.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 195(6): 504-516, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963203

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to retrospectively study survival and long-term morbidities of children with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated by induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation (CRT). The total dose of radiation was adapted to the response following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Children with non-metastatic NPC treated in France between 1999 and 2015 were retrospectively included in the study. The strategy combined neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy, followed by adapted CRT to tumor response. RESULTS: In total, 95 patients (median age 15 years [range, 7-23 years], male-to-female ratio 1.8) with undifferentiated NPC were included; 59% of patients had TNM stage IV. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was delivered to 57 patients (60%), while the other patients were treated with conformal RT (3D-RT). After a median follow-up of 4.5 years [range, 3.6-5.5 years], 13 relapses and seven deaths had occurred. The 3­year overall and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 94% [95% CI, 85-97%] and 86% [77-92%], respectively. The locoregional failure rate was 6% [95% CI, 2-14]. Long-term treatment-related sequelae of grade 2+ were reported by 37 (50%) patients; odynophagia was significantly reduced treated by IMRT vs. conventional 3D-RT (7% vs. 55%, p = 0.015). Using a reduction dose of 59.4 Gy, 54 Gy, and 45 Gy, respectively, to the primary, involved, and uninvolved neck nodes, after a favorable tumor response, was not associated with an increased locoregional failure rate. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rates for NPC have been considerably improved by means of multimodal therapy, but long-term locoregional morbidity remains common. Use of IMRT may induce less residual odynophagia. Radiation dose reduction adapted to chemotherapy response does not have a negative impact on outcome. These findings support the use of an RT protocol adapted to the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for a long-lasting improvement in the patient's quality of life.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 112: 98-106, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical features, optimal treatment and outcomes of paediatric patients with epithelioid sarcoma (ES) are limited and mostly retrospective. METHODS: A subset analysis of ES patients < 30 years of age enrolled on two international prospective clinical trials conducted between 7/2005 and 11/2015 was performed. Risk-adapted therapy was based on tumour diameter, histologic grade, extent of surgery and presence/absence of metastases and included surgery ± radiotherapy for all patients with the addition of ifosfamide/doxorubicin chemotherapy for intermediate-/high-risk patients. Response to therapy, event-free and overall survival and pattern and predictors of treatment failure were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixty-three ES patients (median age 13.1 years, 52% male) were eligible. Clinical features included the following: 68% extremity, median tumour diameter 3.5 cm, 56% high histologic grade, 14% nodal metastases, 14% distant metastases. Thirty-four low-risk patients underwent surgery (n = 30) or surgery/radiotherapy (n = 4); 16 intermediate-risk and 13 high-risk patients received chemotherapy ± surgery ± radiotherapy. Partial response was observed in 11/22 (50%) patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Events were local recurrence (n = 10) and distant recurrence (n = 15); estimated 5-year survival was 86.4%, 63.5% and 0%, respectively, for low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients. Locoregional nodal involvement, invasive tumour, high grade and lesser extent of resection predicted event-free survival in patients without metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Most low-risk ES patients who have undergone an adequate resection fare well without adjuvant therapy. Large tumour size, high histologic grade, tumour invasiveness, inadequate tumour resection and metastatic disease predict poorer outcomes in higher risk ES patients, for whom more effective therapies are needed. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: COG ARST0332: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00346164, EpSSG NRSTS 2005: European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials No. 2005-001139-31.

10.
Expert Opin Emerg Drugs ; 24(1): 43-53, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: in this review we discuss the standard of care for both pediatric and adult synovial sarcoma (SS), the prognostic differences between them, and the treatments available for localized and advanced diseases. We also overview the biology and the recent drugs under consideration in clinical trials on SS. Areas covered: we focus on new targeted therapies being investigated for advanced SS, especially anti-angiogenic drugs, and immunotherapy. We review all the published data and ongoing trials dedicated to SS or to soft tissue sarcoma in general, paying particular attention to the results obtained in SS patients. Expert opinion: we expect new treatment strategies to become available for SS in the near future. The ongoing and published trials on targeted therapies and immunotherapy mainly concern adult patients, but the somatic biology of pediatric SS has some similarities as in adult disease. A stronger cooperation between adult and pediatric oncologists in recent years has led to a more shared effort to find new treatment strategies for advanced SS patients, regardless of their age.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Sarcoma Sinovial/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Prognóstico , Sarcoma Sinovial/patologia
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(7): e27725, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of local therapies on the outcome of patients with liver-bile duct rhabdomyosarcoma (LBDRMS). METHODS: Data of 30 patients included in the EpSSG-RMS 2005 study were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 3 years (11 months-8 years). All patients had non-alveolar histology. Fifteen patients had a tumor > 5 cm and six had enlarged regional lymph nodes on imaging. Eight patients (27%) had primary surgery (1 R0). Six of them received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). All are in first complete remission (CR1) except one (R1, EBRT+ , local relapse, death). Six patients (20%) received EBRT without surgery: one had local relapse and died. Sixteen patients (53%) underwent delayed surgery, with 12 achieving R0 margins, which were higher than those in the primary surgery group (P = 0.003). Three patients with R0 margins received EBRT; one had a metastatic relapse and died. Nine patients with R0 resection did not receive EBRT, three relapsed locally (two deaths). Four R1 patients received additional EBRT without relapses. Local relapse occurred in two among 19 patients with EBRT and three among 11 without EBRT (P = 0.326). At a median follow-up of 61 months (48-84 months), five patients died; all had a tumor size > 5 cm (P = 0.01). The five-year overall survival was 85% (95% CI, 65-94), and event-free survival was 76% (95% CI, 54-89). CONCLUSION: This analysis did not show any significant difference in outcome between irradiated and nonirradiated patients. Local relapse in LBDRMS is related to initial tumor size and is often fatal.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(9): 723-730, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical significance of indeterminate pulmonary nodules at diagnosis (defined as ≤ 4 pulmonary nodules < 5 mm or 1 nodule measuring ≥ 5 and < 10 mm) in patients with pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We selected patients with supposed nonmetastatic RMS treated in large pediatric oncology centers in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and the Netherlands, who were enrolled in the European Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group (E pSSG) RMS 2005 study. Patients included in the current study received a diagnosis between September 2005 and December 2013, and had chest computed tomography scans available for review that were done at time of diagnosis. Local radiologists were asked to review the chest computed tomography scans for the presence of pulmonary nodules and to record their findings on a standardized case report form. In the E pSSG RMS 2005 Study, patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules were treated identically to patients without pulmonary nodules, enabling us to compare event-free survival and overall survival between groups by log-rank test. RESULTS: In total, 316 patients were included; 67 patients (21.2%) had indeterminate pulmonary nodules on imaging and 249 patients (78.8%) had no pulmonary nodules evident at diagnosis. Median follow-up for survivors (n = 258) was 75.1 months; respective 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates (95% CI) were 77.0% (64.8% to 85.5%) and 82.0% (69.7% to 89.6%) for patients with indeterminate nodules and 73.2% (67.1% to 78.3%) and 80.8% (75.1% to 85.3%) for patients without nodules at diagnosis ( P = .68 and .76, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that indeterminate pulmonary nodules at diagnosis do not affect outcome in patients with otherwise localized RMS. There is no need to biopsy or upstage patients with RMS who have indeterminate pulmonary nodules at diagnosis.

14.
Eur J Cancer ; 110: 120-126, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785015

RESUMO

Although all tumours are rare in childhood, there are some particularly rare paediatric cancers which have not benefited from advances made by the international paediatric oncology network. To establish a shared definition and produce a list of these entities, the European Union Joint Action on Rare Cancers (JARC) promoted a consensus effort. The definition was based on the incidence rates estimated using the information network on rare cancers (RARECAREnet) database, pooling data from 94 population-based cancer registries and 27 countries. The RARECAREnet list of cancers was used to estimate the incidence rates. This list groups cancers by combining the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition, morphology and topography codes. According to the consensus, very rare paediatric cancers were identified as those with an annual incidence <2/1000000 and corresponded to 11% of all cancers in patients aged 0-14 years. Two subgroups were identified: tumour types typical of childhood (i.e. hepatoblastoma, pleuropulmonary blastoma, pancreatoblastoma) and those typical of adult age (i.e. carcinomas, melanoma). The threshold of 2/1000000 could also be adopted in populations aged 0-19 years: in this case, three tumour types had an incidence rate which was >2/1000000 (i.e. thyroid and testicular cancers and skin melanoma), but the consensus experts considered them as 'very rare' according to their clinical needs (e.g. shortage of knowledge and clinical expertise as the other rare paediatric cancers). The JARC consensus produced a definition and a list of very rare paediatric cancers which may represent a starting point for prioritising research on these tumours, based on data and patients' clinical needs.

15.
Bull Cancer ; 106(3): 189-200, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in children with cancer is commonly used. However, studies and data on this topic are still scarce in France. METHODS: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of CAM usage in pediatric cancer patients and describe the modality of use. Our study population comprised children and young people treated from 2011 to 2012 in 2 French centers (Nantes, Paris). An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was addressed to families and data was collected from them and from the medical record. RESULTS: Out of the 202 patients selected for the study, 111 families answered the questionnaire (55%). Fifty-four (48.6%) of respondents reported CAM used. Forty-seven (87%) patients used CAM during initial therapy of cancer. Thirty-two (59.3%) of them talked about their CAM usage with health professionals, whose 25 (75.8%) with their oncologist. The three most common therapies used were homeopathy (75.8%), chiropractic (31.5%) and faith healing (42.6%). The main reason for the use of CAM was to control the side effects of conventional treatment (85.2%). Overall perceived satisfaction was rated 7.4/10. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicines administration is high, even if scientific evidence is limited regarding the effects, mechanisms of action and security of CAM. Research is necessary to improve the communication and council quality to the family, optimize supportive cares and reinforce the pharmacovigilance.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , França , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Homeopatia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Terapia de Campo Magnético/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Manipulação Osteopática/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Satisfação do Paciente
16.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(6): e27641, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: According to the Renal Tumor Study Group (RTSG) of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), diagnostic biopsy of renal tumors prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is not mandatory unless the presentation is atypical for a Wilms tumor (WT). This study addresses the relevance of this strategy as well as the accuracy and safety of image-guided needle biopsy. METHODS: Clinical, radiological, and pathological data from 317 children (141 males/176 females, mean age: 4 years, range, 0-17.6) consecutively treated in one SIOP-affiliated institution were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Presumptive chemotherapy for WT was decided for 182 patients (57% of the cohort), 24 (8%) were operated upfront, and 111 (35%) were biopsied at diagnosis. A non-WT was confirmed after surgery in 5/182 (3%), 11/24 (46%), and 28/111 (25%), respectively. Age at diagnosis was the most commonly (46%) used criterion to go for biopsy but a nine-year threshold should be retrospectively considered more relevant. Tumor volumes of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney and WT were significantly higher than those of other tumors (P = 0.002). The agreement between core-needle biopsy (CNB) and final histology was 99%. No significant morbidity was associated with CNB. CONCLUSION: The use of SIOP criteria to identify patients eligible for presumptive WT neoadjuvant chemotherapy or upfront surgery avoided biopsy in 65% of children and led to a 97% rate of appropriate preoperative chemotherapy. Image-guided CNB is a safe and accurate diagnostic procedure. The relevance of SIOP biopsy criteria might be improved by using an older age threshold (9 years instead of 6 years) and by adding initial tumor volume.

17.
Bull Cancer ; 106(1): 12-23, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612698

RESUMO

The editorial board of Bulletin du Cancer presents some hot topics published or presented in major oncology meetings in 2018. This selection is related to pediatric oncology and to solid and hemato-malignancies in adults, with immunotherapy approaches (checkpoints or CAR-T) as one of the major breakthroughs. Putative impacts on daily practices are discussed, in order to detail what will really change our practice.


Assuntos
Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/tendências
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(1): e27472, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270493

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The treatment paradigm in desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) has changed in recent years from a surgery-based strategy to a multidisciplinary approach that includes systemic therapies. Among various medical therapies, hydroxyurea has been considered of potential interest. This case series summarizes the experience gained at four centers using hydroxyurea in relapsing DF. METHODS: Eligibility requirements were age < 21 years, histologically confirmed DF, and progressive or recurrent disease after at least one line of systemic therapy. Hydroxyurea was given orally at an initial dose of 20 mg/kg/day (escalated up to 30 mg/kg/day as necessary, if well tolerated). RESULTS: The series included 16 patients treated between 2008 and 2016. Hydroxyurea was the second systemic therapy in nine cases, and the third (at least) in seven. There was no reported G3-G4 hematological toxicity, and one case of G3 diarrhea. Dose reductions were reported in three cases (due to G2 neutropenia). The response rate was 18.7% major partial remissions, 37.5% considering any amount of shrinkage, 68.7% considering symptom response or signs of tissue response as well. In patients with no progression, the treatment was continued for 9-24 months. CONCLUSION: This is the first published series on the efficacy of hydroxyurea in pediatric DF. The response rate was moderate, but similar to that reported for other medical therapies currently considered as treatment options in this disease. Though further, larger series are needed to confirm as much, hydroxyurea has potential as an effective alternative therapy for DF.

19.
Mod Pathol ; 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401946

RESUMO

The prognosis of malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors is closely related to disease stage, which is used to guide perioperative treatment recommendations. However, current scoring systems are inadequate to distinguish between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Robust microscopic prognostic features that could help determine perioperative therapy are also lacking. The aim of this national study was to review the prognostic value of the Wieneke scoring criteria and Ki67 labeling index in unselected pediatric adrenocortical tumors. Using strict definitions previously defined by expert pathologists, a Wieneke score was re-attributed to each tumor after an independent and centralized review. In addition, Ki67 proliferation index was performed and reviewed for each case. A total of 95 cases were selected; all were treated between 2000 and 2018 and had histopathologic material and sufficient outcome-related information available. Localized disease was found in 88% of patients. Among those with advanced disease, 6% had tumor extension into adjacent organs and 5% had metastases at diagnosis. Median follow-up was 5 years and 3 months. The 5-year PFS was 82%, 95% CI [73%-91%]. Tumor stage significantly correlated with PFS (p < 0.0001). Tumor weight up to 200 g, extra-adrenal extension and initial non-complete surgical resection were statistically associated with worse outcomes. No recurrences nor metastases occurred when the Ki67 index was < 15%. Up to two of the following five factors including tumor necrosis, adrenal capsular invasion, venous invasion, mitotic count > 15/20 high-power fields, and Ki67 index > 15%, significantly correlated with worse outcomes. We propose a pathological scoring system incorporating the Ki67 index as part of a two-step approach after disease staging to guide adjuvant treatment in pediatric adrenocortical tumors, especially after incomplete resection. These results should be validated in an independent cohort.

20.
Virchows Arch ; 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187166

RESUMO

Cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in adults as well as children represent a frequent dilemma for pathologists. Along this neoplasm spectrum, the differential diagnosis with CD34-positive proliferations can be challenging, particularly concerning neoplasms of fibrohistiocytic and fibroblastic lineages. In children, cutaneous and superficial soft-tissue neoplasms with CD34-positive spindle cells are associated with benign to intermediate malignancy potential and include lipofibromatosis, plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma, fibroblastic connective tissue nevus, and congenital dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Molecular biology has been valuable in showing dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and infantile fibrosarcoma that are characterized by COL1A1-PDGFB and ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangements respectively. We report a case of congenital CD34-positive dermohypodermal spindle-cell neoplasm occurring in a female infant and harboring a novel KHDRBS1-NTRK3 fusion. This tumor could belong to a new subgroup of pediatric cutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms, be an atypical presentation of a plaque-like CD34-positive dermal fibroma, of a fibroblastic connective tissue nevus, or represent a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with an alternative gene rearrangement.

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