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1.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(4): 755-765, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738969

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Hearts Initiative offers technical packages to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases through population-wide and targeted health services interventions. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has led implementation of the HEARTS in the Americas Initiative since 2016. The authors mapped the developmental stages, barriers, and facilitators to implementation among the 371 primary health care centers in the participating 12 countries. The authors used the qualitative method of document review to examine cumulative country reports, technical meeting notes, and reports to regional stakeholders. Common implementation barriers include segmentation of health systems, overcoming health care professionals' scope of practice legal restrictions, and lack of health information systems limiting operational evaluation and quality improvement mechanisms. Main implementation facilitators include political support from ministries of health and leading scientific societies, PAHO's role as a regional catalyst to implementation, stakeholder endorsement demonstrated by incorporating HEARTS into official documents, and having a health system oriented to primary health care. Key lessons include the need for political commitment and cultivating on-the-ground leadership to initiate a shift in hypertension care delivery, accompanied by specific progress in the development of standardized treatment protocols and a set of high-quality medicines. By systematizing an implementation strategy to ease integration of interventions into delivery processes, the program strengthened technical leadership and ensured sustainability. These study findings will aid the regional approach by providing a staged planning model that incorporates lessons learned. A systematic approach to implementation will enhance equity, efficiency, scale-up, and sustainability, and ultimately improve population hypertension control.

2.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53287

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. • Cerca de ¼ dos adultos têm hipertensão arterial, que é o fator de risco isolado mais importante para morte (incluídas as mortes por cardiopatia e acidente vascular cerebral). • Existem políticas eficazes que poderiam facilitar escolhas pessoais saudáveis para evitar a elevação da pressão arterial e, se plenamente implementadas, podem prevenir a ocorrência da hipertensão arterial. • É fácil rastrear e tratar a hipertensão, MAS somente cerca de 50% dos adultos hipertensos estão cientes de sua condição, e apenas cerca de 1 em cada 7 é tratado adequadamente. • A prevenção e controle da hipertensão é o principal mecanismo de prevenção e controle das doenças não transmissíveis e um modelo para outros riscos de doenças não transmissíveis. • Tratamentos eficazes com mudanças de estilo de vida e medicamentos poderiam prevenir e controlar a hipertensão arterial na maioria das pessoas se aplicados sistematicamente à população; as intervenções simples são viáveis em todos os ambientes e podem melhorar a atenção primária. • É necessária a ação continuada e urgente a fim de obter mudanças efetivas nas políticas públicas e no sistema de saúde para prevenir e controlar a hipertensão arterial.


[ABSTRACT]. • About 1/4th of adults have high blood pressure which is the single most important risk for death (including heart disease and stroke). • There are effective policies that could facilitate people making healthy choices to prevent raised blood pressure, and if fully implemented, could largely prevent hypertension from occurring. • Hypertension is easy to screen and treat for BUT only about 50% of adults with hypertension are aware of their condition and only about 1 in 7 is adequately treated. • Preventing and controlling high blood pressure is the major mechanism for NCD prevention and control and a model for other NCD risks. • Effective lifestyle and drug treatments could prevent and control hypertension in most individuals if systematically applied to the population, simple interventions are feasible in all settings, and can be used to enhance primary care. • Urgent sustained action is needed is needed for effective public policies and health system changes to prevent and control hypertension.


[RESUMEN]. • Cerca de una cuarta parte de los adultos tienen hipertensión, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte (inclusive la causada por cardiopatía y accidente cerebrovascular). • Existen políticas eficaces que podrían ayudar a las personas a elegir opciones saludables para prevenir el aumento de la presión arterial; si se las aplicara plenamente, se podría evitar en gran medida el desarrollo de hipertensión. • La hipertensión es fácil de detectar y tratar, PERO solo alrededor de 50% de los adultos que presentan dicha afección son conscientes de su situación y solamente 1 de cada 7 de ellos recibe el tratamiento adecuado. • La prevención y el control de la hipertensión es el mecanismo principal para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles y un modelo para evitar otros riesgos de presentar dichas enfermedades. • La adopción de un modo de vida saludable y el tratamiento farmacológico efectivo podrían prevenir y controlar la hipertensión en la mayoría de las personas si se implementaran de manera sistemática en la población; en todos los entornos es posible aplicar intervenciones sencillas, que pueden usarse para mejorar la atención primaria. • Es urgente adoptar medidas sostenidas para introducir cambios eficaces en las políticas públicas y los sistemas de salud pública con miras a prevenir y controlar la hipertensión.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Saúde Global , Dieta Hipossódica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Saúde Global , Dieta Hipossódica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Saúde Global , Dieta Hipossódica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
3.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53286

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. • Cerca de una cuarta parte de los adultos tienen hipertensión, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte (inclusive la causada por cardiopatía y accidente cerebrovascular). • Existen políticas eficaces que podrían ayudar a las personas a elegir opciones saludables para prevenir el aumento de la presión arterial; si se las aplicara plenamente, se podría evitar en gran medida el desarrollo de hipertensión. • La hipertensión es fácil de detectar y tratar, PERO solo alrededor de 50% de los adultos que presentan dicha afección son conscientes de su situación y solamente 1 de cada 7 de ellos recibe el tratamiento adecuado. • La prevención y el control de la hipertensión es el mecanismo principal para prevenir y controlar las enfermedades no transmisibles y un modelo para evitar otros riesgos de presentar dichas enfermedades. • La adopción de un modo de vida saludable y el tratamiento farmacológico efectivo podrían prevenir y controlar la hipertensión en la mayoría de las personas si se implementaran de manera sistemática en la población; en todos los entornos es posible aplicar intervenciones sencillas, que pueden usarse para mejorar la atención primaria. • Es urgente adoptar medidas sostenidas para introducir cambios eficaces en las políticas públicas y los sistemas de salud pública con miras a prevenir y controlar la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. • About 1/4th of adults have high blood pressure which is the single most important risk for death (including heart disease and stroke). • There are effective policies that could facilitate people making healthy choices to prevent raised blood pressure, and if fully implemented, could largely prevent hypertension from occurring. • Hypertension is easy to screen and treat for BUT only about 50% of adults with hypertension are aware of their condition and only about 1 in 7 is adequately treated. • Preventing and controlling high blood pressure is the major mechanism for NCD prevention and control and a model for other NCD risks. • Effective lifestyle and drug treatments could prevent and control hypertension in most individuals if systematically applied to the population, simple interventions are feasible in all settings, and can be used to enhance primary care. • Urgent sustained action is needed is needed for effective public policies and health system changes to prevent and control hypertension.


[RESUMO]. • Cerca de ¼ dos adultos têm hipertensão arterial, que é o fator de risco isolado mais importante para morte (incluídas as mortes por cardiopatia e acidente vascular cerebral). • Existem políticas eficazes que poderiam facilitar escolhas pessoais saudáveis para evitar a elevação da pressão arterial e, se plenamente implementadas, podem prevenir a ocorrência da hipertensão arterial. • É fácil rastrear e tratar a hipertensão, MAS somente cerca de 50% dos adultos hipertensos estão cientes de sua condição, e apenas cerca de 1 em cada 7 é tratado adequadamente. • A prevenção e controle da hipertensão é o principal mecanismo de prevenção e controle das doenças não transmissíveis e um modelo para outros riscos de doenças não transmissíveis. • Tratamentos eficazes com mudanças de estilo de vida e medicamentos poderiam prevenir e controlar a hipertensão arterial na maioria das pessoas se aplicados sistematicamente à população; as intervenções simples são viáveis em todos os ambientes e podem melhorar a atenção primária. • É necessária a ação continuada e urgente a fim de obter mudanças efetivas nas políticas públicas e no sistema de saúde para prevenir e controlar a hipertensão arterial.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Saúde Global , Dieta Hipossódica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Saúde Global , Dieta Hipossódica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Saúde Global , Dieta Hipossódica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
4.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(8): 1296-1309, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289261

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the Americas, resulting in substantial negative economic and social impacts. This study describes the trends and inequalities of CVD burden in the Americas to guide programmatic interventions and health system responses. We examined the CVD burden trends by age, sex, and countries between 1990 and 2017 and quantified social inequalities in CVD burden across countries. In 2017, CVD accounted for 2 million deaths in the Americas, 29% of total deaths. Age-standardized DALY rates caused by CVD declined by -1.9% (95% uncertainty interval, -2.0 to -1.7) annually from 1990 to 2017. This trend varied with a striking decreasing trend over the interval 1994-2003 (annual percent change (APC) -2.4% [-2.5 to 2.2]) and 2003-2007 (APC -2.8% [-3.4 to -2.2]). This was followed by a slowdown in the rate of decline over 2007-2013 (APC -1.83% [-2.1 to -1.6]) and a stagnation during the most recent period 2013-2017 (APC -0.1% [-0.5 to 0.3]). The social inequality in CVD burden along the socio-demographic gradient across countries decreased 2.75-fold. The CVD burden and related social inequality have both substantially decreased in the Americas since 1990, driven by the reduction in premature mortality. This trend occurred in parallel with the improvement in the socioeconomic development and health care of the region. The deceleration and stagnation in the rate of improvement of CVD burden and persistent social inequality pose major challenges to reduce the CVD burden and the achievement of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals Target 3.4.

5.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310142

RESUMO

Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death. Viewed as a threat to the global economy, the United Nations included reducing noncommunicable diseases, including CVDs, in the 2030 sustainable development goals, and the World Health Assembly agreed to a target to reduce noncommunicable diseases 25% by the year 2025. In response, the World Health Organisation led the development of HEARTS, a technical package to guide governments in strengthening primary care to reduce CVDs. HEARTS recommends a public health and health system approach to introduce highly simplified interventions done systematically at a primary health care level and has a focus on hypertension as a clinical entry point. The HEARTS modules include healthy lifestyle counselling, evidence-based treatment protocols, access to essential medicines and technology, CVD risk-based management, team-based care, systems for monitoring, and an implementation guide. There are early positive global experiences in implementing HEARTS. Led by the Pan American Health Organisation, many national governments in the Americas are adopting HEARTS and have shown early success. Unfortunately, in Canada hypertension control is declining in women since 2010-2011 and the dramatic reductions in rates of CVD seen before 2010 have flattened when age adjusted and increased for rates that are not age adjusted, and there are marked increases in absolute numbers of Canadians with adverse CVD outcomes. Several steps that Canada could take to enhance hypertension control are outlined, the core of which is to implement a strong governmental nongovernmental collaborative strategy to prevent and control CVDs, focusing on HEARTS.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045133

RESUMO

Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. Despite the availability of effective antihypertensive medications, the control of hypertension at a global level is dismal, and consequently, the CVD burden continues to increase. In response, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean are implementing the HEARTS in the Americas, a community-based program that focuses on increasing hypertension control and CVD secondary prevention through risk factor mitigation. One key pillar is the implementation of a standardized hypertension treatment protocol supported by a small, high-quality formulary. This manuscript describes the methodology used by the HEARTS in the Americas program to implement a population-based standardized hypertension treatment protocol. It is rooted in a seamless transition from existing treatment practices to best practice using pharmacologic protocols built around a core set of ideal antihypertensive medications. In alignment with recent major hypertension guidelines, the HEARTS in the Americas protocols call for the rapid control of blood pressure, through the use of two antihypertensive medications, preferably in the form of a single pill, fixed-dose combination, in the initial treatment of hypertension. To date, the HEARTS in the Americas program has seen the improvement in antihypertensive medication formularies and the establishment of pharmacologic treatment protocols tailored to individual participating countries. This has translated to significant increases in hypertension control rates post-program implementation in these jurisdictions. Thus, the HEARTS in the Americas program could serve as a model, for not only the Americas Region but globally, and ultimately decrease the burden of CVD.

8.
Integr Blood Press Control ; 13: 125-133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061561

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed most aspects of everyday life in both the non-medical and medical settings. In the medical world, the pandemic has altered how healthcare is delivered and has necessitated an aggressive and new coordinated public health approach to limit its spread and reduce its disease burden and socioeconomic impact. This pandemic has resulted in a staggering morbidity and mortality and massive economic and physical hardships. Meanwhile, non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease in general continue to cause significant disease burden globally in the background. Though presently receiving less attention in the public eye than the COVID-19 pandemic, the hypertension crisis cannot be separated from the minds of healthcare providers, policymakers and the general public, as it continues to wreak havoc, particularly in vulnerable populations in resource limited settings. On this background, many of the strategies being employed to combat the COVID-19 pandemic can be used to re-energize and galvanize the fight against hypertension and hopefully bring the public health crisis associated with uncontrolled hypertension to an end.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022866

RESUMO

Global HEARTS is a WHO initiative for cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is an essential component of the initiative. This study aimed to determine the regulatory frameworks governing the accuracy of BPMDs in countries of the Americas participating in the HEARTS initiative. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the laws and regulations relevant to ensuring the accuracy of BPMDs were determined from the Ministries of Health/Regulatory Agencies among 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Analysis included characterizing the scope of regulations (ie, pre-market approval, sales and promotion, labeling, cuff sizes, and procurement), information systems for monitoring the models of BPMDs used in primary health care (PHC), and systems to enforce compliance with regulations. Ten of the 13 countries had medical device laws, but regulations that specifically address BPMDs only existed in three countries. Only one country (Brazil) had regulations for mandatory accuracy validation testing and only two countries regulated internet sales of BPMDs. Labeling and cuff size regulations existed in four and two countries, respectively. Less than half the countries reported having a data repository on the BPMD models being used in PHC facilities (four countries) or sold (five countries). Weak and fragmented regulatory frameworks on the accuracy of BPMDs exist among countries of the Americas. This will adversely affect the accuracy of blood pressure assessment and hence poses a major impediment for successful implementation of HEARTS initiative.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017506

RESUMO

Hypertension guidelines recommend that blood pressure (BP) should be measured using a monitor that has passed validation testing for accuracy. BP monitors that have not undergone rigorous validation testing can still be cleared by regulatory authorities for marketing and sale. This is the situation for most BP monitors worldwide. Thus, consumers (patients, health professionals, procurement officers, and general public) may unwittingly purchase BP monitors that are non-validated and more likely to be inaccurate. Without prior knowledge of these issues, it is extremely difficult for consumers to distinguish validated from non-validated BP monitors. For the above reasons, the aim of this paper is to provide consumers guidance on how to check whether a BP monitor has been properly validated for accuracy. The process involves making an online search of listings of BP monitors that have been assessed for validation status. Only those monitors that have been properly validated are recommended for BP measurement. There are numerous different online listings of BP monitors, several are country-specific and two are general (international) listings. Because monitors can be marketed using alternative model names in different countries, if a monitor is not found on one listing, it may be worthwhile cross-checking with a different listing. This information is widely relevant to anyone seeking to purchase a home, clinic, or ambulatory BP monitor, including individual consumers for use personally or policy makers and those procuring monitors for use in healthcare systems, and retailers looking to stock only validated BP monitors.

11.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(10): 1754-1756, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882074

RESUMO

Detection, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension require accurate blood pressure assessment. However, in clinical practice, lack of training in or nonadherence to measurement recommendations, lack of patient preparation, unsuitable environments where blood pressure is measured, and inaccurate and inappropriate equipment are widespread and commonly lead to inaccurate blood pressure readings. This has led to calls to require regular training and certification for people assessing blood pressure. Hence, the Pan American Health Organization in collaboration with Resolve to Save Lives, the World Hypertension League, Lancet Commission on Hypertension Group, and Hypertension Canada has developed a free brief training and certification course in blood pressure measurement. The course is available at www. The release of the online certification course is timed to help support World Hypertension Day. This year World Hypertension Day has been delayed to October 17 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. For 2020, the World Hypertension League calls on all health care professionals, health care professional organizations, and indeed all of society, to assess the blood pressure of all adults, measure blood pressure accurately, and achieve blood pressure control in those with hypertension.

14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e21, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117468

RESUMO

The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(4): e511-e523, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reduction by a third of premature non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality by 2030 is the ambitious target of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3.4. However, the indicator is narrowly defined, including only four major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) and only for people aged 30-70 years. This study focuses on premature avertable mortality from NCDs-premature deaths caused by NCDs that could be prevented through effective public policies and health interventions or amenable to high-quality health care-to assess trends at global, regional, and national levels using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017. METHODS: We reviewed existing lists of NCD causes of death that are either preventable through public health policies and interventions or amenable to health care to create a list of avertable NCD causes of death, which was mapped to the GBD cause list. We estimated age-standardised years of life lost (YLL) per 100 000 population due to premature avertable mortality from NCDs, avertable NCD cause clusters, and non-avertable NCD causes by sex, location, and year and reported their 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We examined trends in age-standardised YLL due to avertable and non-avertable NCDs, assessed the progress of premature avertable mortality from NCDs in achieving SDG 3.4, and explored specific avertable NCD cause clusters that could make a substantial contribution to overall trends in premature mortality. FINDINGS: Globally, premature avertable mortality from NCDs for both sexes combined declined -1·3% (95% UI -1·4 to -1·2) per year, from 12 855 years (11 809 to 14 051) in 1990 to 9008 years (8329 to 9756) in 2017. However, the absolute number of avertable NCD deaths increased 49·3% (95% UI 47·3 to 52·2) from 23·1 million (22·0-24·1) deaths in 1990 to 34·5 million (33·4 to 35·6) in 2017. Premature avertable mortality from NCDs reduced in every WHO region and in most countries and territories between 1990 and 2017. Despite these reductions, only the Western Pacific and European regions and 25 countries (most of which are high-income countries) are on track to achieve SDG target 3.4. Since 2017, there has been a global slowdown in the reduction of premature avertable mortality from NCDs. In 2017, high premature avertable mortality from NCDs was clustered in low-income and middle-income countries, mainly in the South-East Asia region, Eastern Mediterranean region, and African region. Most countries with large annual reductions in such mortality between 1990 and 2017 had achieved low levels of premature avertable mortality from NCDs by 2017. Some countries, the most populous examples being Afghanistan, the Central African Republic, Uzbekistan, Haiti, Mongolia, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Ukraine, Laos, and Egypt, reported both an upward trend and high levels of premature avertable mortality from NCDs. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases have been the main drivers of the global and regional reduction in premature avertable mortality from NCDs, whereas premature mortality from substance use disorders, chronic kidney disease and acute glomerulonephritis, and diabetes have been increasing. INTERPRETATION: Worldwide, there has been a substantial reduction in premature avertable mortality from NCDs, but progress has been uneven across populations. Countries vary substantially in current levels and trends and, hence, the extent to which they are on track to achieve SDG 3.4. By accounting for premature avertable mortality while avoiding arbitrary age cutoffs, premature avertable mortality from NCDs is a robust, comprehensive, and actionable indicator for quantifying and monitoring global and national progress towards NCD prevention and control. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Saúde Global , Tecnologia Biomédica , Padrões de Referência , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico
17.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(2): 142-149, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967722

RESUMO

Increased blood pressure is a leading risk factor for death worldwide, and improving the control of hypertension is a major health goal to reduce non-communicable disease. Thus, in 2016, as part of a regional effort between the Pan American Health Organization and Cuban Ministry of Public Health to reduce cardiovascular risk and disease, a community demonstration project was implemented to enhance hypertension control. The intervention project was in a population of 25 868 people served by the Carlos Verdugo Martínez Polyclinic in Matanzas, Cuba. The project implemented interventions currently recommended in the World Health Organization HEARTS modules, including a standardized clinical training program with certification for blood pressure measurement, routine screening for hypertension in clinics and in the community, a simple directive pharmacologic treatment algorithm, and a registry with performance reporting and feedback. Qualitative and quantitative program monitoring and evaluation was established. In a 2010 national survey, the prevalence of hypertension and the rate of hypertension control were estimated to be 31% and 36%, respectively. Following less than one year of the full implementation of the program, the prevalence of hypertension, proportion of the hypertensive population registered as having hypertension, proportion of those drug-treated who were controlled, and estimated population rate of control were 30%, 90%, 68%, and 58%, respectively. Based on these positive results, the program has been expanded to include another demonstration program initiated in a second region. In addition, preliminary efforts to disseminate and scale-up aspects of the program to the full Cuban population have started.

18.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMO

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMO

Objetivos. El boletín de notas de México correspondiente al 2018 evalúa las oportunidades a disposición de la población infantil y joven mexicana para que puedan desarrollar niveles adecuados de actividad física y sueño, y disminuyan el sedentarismo.Métodos. El boletín es un sistema de vigilancia que recopila los datos obtenidos en las encuestas nacionales, censos, documentos gubernamentales, sitios web, literatura gris y estudios publicados con respecto al análisis de 16 indicadores en 4 categorías: comportamientos diarios, estado físico, entornos y fuentes influyentes, y estrategias e inversión. Los datos fueron cotejados con los puntos de referencia establecidos. A cada indicador se le asignó una calificación entre 1 y 10 (< 6 significa reprobado) o fue marcado como "incompleto" si los datos eran nulos o insuficientes. Resultados. Las calificaciones obtenidas para los comportamientos diarios fueron: actividad física en general: 4; participación en actividades deportivas organizadas: 5; juego activo: 3; modalidades de transporte activas: 5; sueño: 7; y sedentarismo: 3. El estado físico obtuvo un 7. Las calificaciones para los entornos y fuentes influyentes fueron: familiares y pares: "incompleto"; escuela: 3; comunidad y entorno: 4. Para las estrategias e inversión: estrategias gubernamentales: 6; entidades no gubernamentales: 2.Conclusiones. Las bajas calificaciones obtenidas en 11 de los 16 indicadores demuestran que las escuelas, las familias, las comunidades y el gobierno tienen que aunar esfuerzos para mejorar las oportunidades que tiene la población infantil y joven en México para desarrollar niveles de actividad física satisfactorios.(AU)


ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.(AU)


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.(AU)


Assuntos
Saúde Global/tendências , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico/normas , Tecnologia Biomédica , Pressão Arterial , Padrões de Referência
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