Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 17 de 17
Filtrar
1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1065, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is a major emerging infectious disease, endemic throughout the tropics and subtropics, with approximately 2.5 billion people at risk globally. Active (AS) and passive surveillance (PS), when combined, can improve our understanding of dengue's complex disease dynamics to guide effective, targeted public health interventions. The objective of this study was to compare findings from the Ministry of Health (MoH) PS to a prospective AS arbovirus research study in Machala, Ecuador in 2014 and 2015. METHODS: Dengue cases in the PS system were compared to laboratory confirmed acute dengue illness cases that entered the AS study during the study period. Variables of interest included age class and sex. Outbreak detection curves by epidemiologic week, overall cumulative incidence and age-specific incidence proportions were calculated. Descriptive statistics were tabulated for all variables of interest. Chi-square tests were performed to compare demographic characteristics between the AS and PS data sets in 2014 and 2015. RESULTS: 177 and 245 cases were identified from 1/1/2014 to 12/31/2015 by PS and AS, respectively; nine cases appeared in both systems. AS identified a greater number of laboratory-confirmed cases in 2014, accounting for more than 60% of dengue cases in the study area. In 2015, the opposite trend was observed with PS identifying 60% of the dengue cases in the study area. Peak transmission time in laboratory confirmed dengue illness, as noted by AS and PS was similar in 2014, whereas earlier detection (7 weeks) was observed by AS in 2015. Younger patients were more frequently identified by PS, while older patients were identified more frequently by AS. The cumulative incidence proportion for laboratory confirmed dengue illness reported via PS to the MoH was 4.12 cases per 10,000 residents in 2014, and 2.21 cases per 10,000 residents in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: Each surveillance system captured distinct demographic subgroups within the Machala population, possibly due to differences in healthcare seeking behaviors, access to care, emerging threats of other viruses transmitted by the same mosquito vector and/or differences in clinical presentation. Integrating AS with pre-existing PS can aid in identifying additional cases in previously underdiagnosed subpopulations, improving our understanding of disease dynamics, and facilitating the implementation of timely public health interventions.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto , Animais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Food Res Int ; 122: 340-347, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229087

RESUMO

Mamey sapote is a fruit rich in specific keto-carotenoids, namely sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin. Their chemical structure suggests their provitamin A activity, although their absorption and conversion to vitamin A remained to be demonstrated in humans. Besides structure-related factors, the fruit matrix might also hamper absorption and conversion efficiency. Therefore, we monitored carotenoid and vitamin A levels in triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions in plasma of human participants after consumption of fresh sapote and a carotenoid-rich "matrix-free" formulation derived thereof. A randomized 2-way cross-over study was conducted to compare the post-prandial bioavailability of 0.8 mg sapotexanthin and 1.2-1.5 mg cryptocapsin from the above-mentioned test meals. Seven blood samples were drawn over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. Carotenoids and retinoids were quantitated in TRL fractions using HPLC-DAD. Sapotexanthin was absorbed by all participants from all meals, being ca. 36% more bioavailable from the "matrix-free" formulation (AUCmedian = 73.4 nmol∙h/L) than from the fresh fruit (AUCmedian = 54.0 nmol∙h/L; p ≤ 0.001). Cryptocapsin was only absorbed by 4 of 13 participants. The appearance of retinyl esters was observed in all participants independent of the test meal. Although the fruit matrix hampered carotenoid in vivo-bioavailability from sapote, the fruit clearly represents a valuable source of vitamin A for humans.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/sangue , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Manilkara/química , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Feminino , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 39(3): 435-449, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771197

RESUMO

Cyclohexane (CHX) is an organic solvent commonly used as a drug-of-abuse. This drug increases the oxidative stress and glial reactivity in the hippocampus, which suggests that this brain region is vulnerable to CHX effects. This study aimed to establish the behavioral changes and the pathological alterations that occur in the Cornu Ammonis 3 (CA3) and Dentate Gyrus (DG) after a long-lasting exposure to CHX. We exposed CD1 mice to a recreational-like dose of CHX (~ 30,000 ppm) for 30 days and explored its consequences in motor skills, reward-seeking behavior, and the CA3 and DG hippocampal subfields. Twenty-four hours after the last administration of CHX, we found a significant decrease in the number of c-Fos+ cells in the hippocampal CA3 and DG regions. This event coincided with an increased in NMDAR1 expression and apoptotic cells in the CA3 region. At day 13th without CHX, we found a persistent reduction in the number of c-Fos+ and TUNEL+ cells in DG. At both time points, the CHX-exposed mice showed a strong overexpression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the CA3 stratum lucidum and the hippocampal hilus. In parallel, we used an operant-based task to assess motor performance and operant conditioning learning. The behavioral analysis indicated that CHX did not modify the acquisition of operant conditioning tasks, but affected some motor skills and increased the reward-seeking behavior. Altogether, this evidence reveals that CHX exposure provokes long-lasting changes in the hippocampal subfields, induces motor impairments and increases the motivation-guided behavior. These findings can help understand the deleterious effect of CHX into the adult hippocampus and unveil its potential to trigger addiction-like behaviors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Comportamento Animal , Cicloexanos/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Recompensa , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Região CA3 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Região CA3 Hipocampal/patologia , Contagem de Células , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Giro Denteado/patologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Motivação , Atividade Motora , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Postura , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Reforço Psicológico , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(7): 3220-3239, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536912

RESUMO

The frequent consumption of carotenoid-rich foods has been associated with numerous health benefits, such as the supply of provitamin A. To exert these health benefits, carotenoids need to be efficiently liberated from the food matrix, micellized in the small intestine, taken up by the enterocytes and absorbed into the human blood stream. Enormous efforts have been made to better understand these processes. Because human studies are costly, labor-intense and time-consuming, the evaluation of carotenoid liberation and micellization at the laboratory scale using simulated in vitro digestion models has proven to be an important tool for obtaining preliminary results prior to conducting human studies. In particular, the liberation from the food matrix and the intestinal micellization can be mimicked by simulated digestion, yielding an estimate of the so-called bioaccessibility of a carotenoid. In the present review, we provide an overview of the carotenoid digestion process in vivo, the currently used in vitro digestion models and the outcomes of previous bioaccessibility studies, with a special focus on correlations with concomitantly conducted human studies. Furthermore, we advocate for the on-going requirement of better standardized digestion protocols and, in addition, we provide suggestions for the complementation of the acquired knowledge and current nutritional recommendations. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/química , Digestão , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Extratos Vegetais/química
5.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 85(3/4): 120-123, jul.-dic. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-970319

RESUMO

Las infecciones humanas por Morganella morganii es poco frecuente hasta el 3% de las infecciones del tracto urinario, puede producir diversos tipos de infecciones, su papel etiológico es dudoso. Hay pocos reportes a nivel mundial en la literatura sobre infecciones causadas por este patógeno y ninguna en Honduras. Descripción de Caso. Masculino 46 años con antecedentes de trasplante renal hace 4 años por IRC, manejado con prednisona, micofelonato y sirulimus, diabético e hipertensión arterial crónica tratado con Insulina NPH 20 u. cada día y Carvedilol 12.5 mg, referido por el servicio de Nefrología a la Emergencia del HEU por iebre de una semana, continua, sugestivamente alta, no cuantiicada, diaforesis con escalofrío, con disuria de un día de evolución y un episodio de vomito. Con signos vitales P/A 90/60 mmHg, FC 88 x ́, FR 22 x ́, afebril, examen físico normal. Cuatro horas posteriores al ingreso; comenzó con iebre de 38.9 °C agregando antipiréticos al manejo establecido, con hiponatremia, falla renal aguda, uroanálisis patológico. Ecografía renal: Riñón trasplantado de corteza engrosada correspondiendo a pielonefritis aguda, sin masas, colecciones, litos e hidronefrosis, midiendo 12.7x5.8x4.9 cm. Urocultivo: crecimiento de Morganella morganii, resistente a fosfosil, nitrofurantoina, sensible a ciproloxacino y ceftazidime. Paciente se mantuvo afebril, mejorando al manejo establecido con ciproloxacino IV se da alta al quinto día posterior a su ingreso con seguimiento estricto por servicio de nefrología. Conclusiones. Reportamos una patología vista con frecuencia, pero en un paciente especial como es un post trasplante renal que pudo traer múltiples complicaciones para el paciente sumado al que el patógeno es conocida como agente infección de la vía urinaria pero rara vez causa infecciones en personas inmunocompetentes, pero si puedes llegar a ser causa de infección nosocomiales en personas inmunocomprometidas. Debemos de tener seguimiento estricto de este tipo de pacientes desde el más mínimo síntoma para evitar secuelas y/o complicaciones severas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Urológicas , Infecções Oportunistas/urina , Transplante de Rim , Morganella morganii
6.
Front Psychiatry ; 8: 126, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751869

RESUMO

Growth factors (GFs) are cytokines that regulate the neural development. Recent evidence indicates that alterations in the expression level of GFs during embryogenesis are linked to the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this concise review, we summarize the current evidence that supports the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor 2, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, neurotrophins 3 and 4, and epidermal growth factor in the pathogenesis of ADHD and ASD. We also highlight the potential use of these GFs as clinical markers for diagnosis and prognosis of these neurodevelopmental disorders.

7.
Food Chem ; 221: 673-682, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27979258

RESUMO

Although different genotypes of mamey sapote with distinct pulp colors are consumed in countries from Central to South America, in-depth knowledge on genotype-related differences of their carotenoid profile is lacking. Since the fruit was found to contain the potentially vitamin A-active keto-carotenoids sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin, we sought to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the carotenoid profile of different genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MSn. Sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin were present in all genotypes. Keto-carotenoids such as cryptocapsin, capsoneoxanthin, and their esters were most abundant in orange-fleshed fruit, whereas several carotenoid epoxides prevailed in yellow-fleshed fruit. Differing carotenoid profiles were associated with different color hues of the fruit pulp, while the widely variable carotenoid content (3.7-8.0mg/100gFW) was mainly reflected by differences in color intensity (chroma C∗). Furthermore, the post-prandial absorption of sapotexanthin to human plasma was proven for the first time. Besides sapotexanthin, cryptocapsin was found to be resorbed.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/química , Frutas/química , Pouteria/química , Carotenoides/análise
8.
Malar J ; 15(1): 573, 2016 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents. Key programmatic and external factors are identified that determined the success of this eradication effort. CASE DESCRIPTION: From the mid 1980s until the early 2000s, the region experienced a surge in malaria transmission, which experts attributed to a combination of ineffective anti-malarial treatment, social-ecological factors (e.g., El Niño, increasing rice farming, construction of a reservoir), and political factors (e.g., reduction in resources and changes in management). In response to the malaria crisis, local public health practitioners from El Oro and Tumbes joined together in the mid-1990s to forge an unofficial binational collaboration for malaria control. Over the next 20 years, they effectively eradicated malaria in the region, by strengthening surveillance and treatment strategies, sharing of resources, operational research to inform policy, and novel interventions. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: The binational collaboration at the operational level was the fundamental component of the successful malaria elimination programme. This unique relationship created a trusting, open environment that allowed for flexibility, rapid response, innovation and resilience in times of crisis, and ultimately a sustainable control programme. Strong community involvement, an extensive microscopy network and ongoing epidemiologic investigations at the local level were also identified as crucial programmatic strategies. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide key principles of a successful malaria elimination programme that can inform the next generation of public health professionals in the region, and serve as a guide to ongoing and future control efforts of other emerging vector borne diseases globally.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ; 32: 85-96, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618303

RESUMO

The psychiatric disorders are one of the most disabling illnesses in the world and represent a major problem for public health. These disorders are characterized by neuroanatomical or biochemical changes and it has been suggested that such changes may be due to inadequate neurodevelopment. Diverse alterations in the gene expression and/or serum level of specific growth factors have been implicated in the etiology, symptoms and progression of some psychiatric disorders. Herein, we summarize the latest information regarding the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), neuroregulin-1 (NGR-1), erythropoietin (EPO), vascular growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß), nerve growth factor (NGF) and others cytokines in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, depression, bipolar and anxiety disorders. Focusing on the role of these growth factors and their relationship with the main impairments (cognitive, emotional and social) of these pathologies. Some of these signaling molecules may be suitable biological markers for diagnosis and prognosis in cognitive, mood and social disabilities across different mental disorders.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Prognóstico
10.
Neural Regen Res ; 11(3): 404-5, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27127470
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(9): 1989-98, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888016

RESUMO

The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Pouteria/química , Salmão , Animais , Antioxidantes , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica , Plastídeos/química , Plastídeos/ultraestrutura , Pouteria/ultraestrutura , Xantofilas/farmacocinética
12.
Eur J Neurosci ; 43(2): 139-47, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26370587

RESUMO

Phenytoin is a widely used antiepileptic drug that induces cell proliferation in several tissues, such as heart, bone, skin, oral mucosa and neural precursors. Some of these effects are mediated via fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). These receptors are strongly expressed in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), the main neurogenic niche in the adult brain. The aim of this study was to determine the cell lineage and cell fate of V-SVZ neural progenitors expanded by phenytoin, as well as the effects of this drug on EGFR/FGFR phosphorylation. Male BALB/C mice received 10 mg/kg phenytoin by oral cannula for 30 days. We analysed the proliferation of V-SVZ neural progenitors by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Our findings indicate that phenytoin enhanced twofold the phosphorylation of EGFR and FGFR in the V-SVZ, increased the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+/Sox2+ and BrdU+/doublecortin+ cells in the V-SVZ, and expanded the population of Olig2-expressing cells around the lateral ventricles. After phenytoin removal, a large number of BrdU+/Receptor interacting protein (RIP)+ cells were observed in the olfactory bulb. In conclusion, phenytoin enhanced the phosphorylation of FGFR and EGFR, and promoted the expression of neural precursor markers in the V-SVZ. In parallel, the number of oligodendrocytes increased significantly after phenytoin removal.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Ventrículos Laterais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos Laterais/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenitoína/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Bulbo Olfatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Oligodendroglia/fisiologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo
13.
Front Pharmacol ; 6: 291, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26779017

RESUMO

Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes, and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity, and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse.

14.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 35(4): 503-12, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25433657

RESUMO

Cyclohexane is a volatile substance that has been utilized as a safe substitute of several organic solvents in diverse industrial processes, such as adhesives, paints, paint thinners, fingernail polish, lacquers, and rubber industry. A number of these commercial products are ordinarily used as inhaled drugs. However, it is not well known whether cyclohexane has noxious effects in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of cyclohexane inhalation on motor behavior, spatial memory, and reactive gliosis in the hippocampus of adult mice. We used a model that mimics recreational drug use in male Balb/C mice (P60), divided into two groups: controls and the cyclohexane group (exposed to 9,000 ppm of cyclohexane for 30 days). Both groups were then evaluated with a functional observational battery (FOB) and the Morris water maze (MWM). Furthermore, the relative expression of AP endonuclease 1 (APE1), and the number of astrocytes (GFAP+ cells) and microglia (Iba1+ cells) were quantified in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Our findings indicated that cyclohexane produced severe functional deficits during a recreational exposure as assessed by the FOB. The MWM did not show statistically significant changes in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory. Remarkably, a significant increase in the number of astrocytes and microglia cells, as well as in the cytoplasmic processes of these cells were observed in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of cyclohexane-exposed mice. This cellular response was associated with an increase in the expression of APE1 in the same brain regions. In summary, cyclohexane exposure produces functional deficits that are associated with an important increase in the APE1 expression as well as the number of astrocytes and microglia cells and their cytoplasmic complexity in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the adult hippocampus.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexanos/farmacologia , Gliose/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Região CA3 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , DNA Liase (Sítios Apurínicos ou Apirimidínicos)/metabolismo , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Gliose/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 1135, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25370883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing burden of dengue fever and the lack of a vaccine or specific medical treatment have increased the urgency of the public health sector to identify alternative management strategies. A prevailing trend in Latin America has been a shift towards decentralized vector control programs with integrated management strategies, requiring significant intersectoral coordination, community engagement, and knowledge of the local social-ecological system (SES). Community perceptions and responses are a critical component of this system, since perceptions shape actions, and thus govern behavioral responses and acceptance of shifts in policy and management. METHODS: We investigated perceptions, misconceptions, and local SES risk factors for dengue in high risk communities located at the urban periphery and center in Machala, Ecuador. We facilitated twelve focus group discussions with community members using semi-structured question guides and causal diagrams. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify emergent themes using qualitative methods for theme analysis. To estimate the relative importance of the themes in each study area, we tabulated the number of focus groups in which each theme was present. Household surveys (n = 79) were conducted to further explore these themes, and we compared survey responses from the two areas using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We identified thirty biophysical, political-institutional, and community-household risk factors for dengue. People at the periphery identified a greater number of risk factors. Dengue control required considerable investment of time and resources, which presented a greater challenge for women and people at the periphery. Common misperceptions included confusion with other febrile diseases, lack of knowledge of transmission mechanisms, and misconceptions about mosquito behavior. People perceived that dengue control programs had been limited by the lack of inter-institutional coordination and lack of social cohesion. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for local, policy-relevant research that can be translated to strengthen the design, implementation, and evaluation of new dengue management strategies. This study contributes to a growing body of research in this area. Based on these findings, we identify key policy and management recommendations that will inform the ongoing transition to a decentralized dengue control program in Ecuador and other dengue endemic countries.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Dengue/microbiologia , Equador , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 14: 610, 2014 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25420543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is a rapidly emerging public health problem in Ecuador and throughout the tropics. However, we have a limited understanding of the disease transmission dynamics in these regions. Previous studies in southern coastal Ecuador have demonstrated the potential to develop a dengue early warning system (EWS) that incorporates climate and non-climate information. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics and climatic and social-ecological risk factors associated with the largest dengue epidemic to date in Machala, Ecuador, to inform the development of a dengue EWS. METHODS: The following data from Machala were included in analyses: neighborhood-level georeferenced dengue cases, national census data, and entomological surveillance data from 2010; and time series of weekly dengue cases (aggregated to the city-level) and meteorological data from 2003 to 2012. We applied LISA and Moran's I to analyze the spatial distribution of the 2010 dengue cases, and developed multivariate logistic regression models through a multi-model selection process to identify census variables and entomological covariates associated with the presence of dengue at the neighborhood level. Using data aggregated at the city-level, we conducted a time-series (wavelet) analysis of weekly climate and dengue incidence (2003-2012) to identify significant time periods (e.g., annual, biannual) when climate co-varied with dengue, and to describe the climate conditions associated with the 2010 outbreak. RESULTS: We found significant hotspots of dengue transmission near the center of Machala. The best-fit model to predict the presence of dengue included older age and female gender of the head of the household, greater access to piped water in the home, poor housing condition, and less distance to the central hospital. Wavelet analyses revealed that dengue transmission co-varied with rainfall and minimum temperature at annual and biannual cycles, and we found that anomalously high rainfall and temperatures were associated with the 2010 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of geospatial information in dengue surveillance and the potential to develop a climate-driven spatiotemporal prediction model to inform disease prevention and control interventions. This study provides an operational methodological framework that can be applied to understand the drivers of local dengue risk.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clima , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Exp Neurol ; 261: 236-44, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24858805

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus can develop secondarily to a disturbance in production, flow and/or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Experimental models of hydrocephalus, especially subacute and chronic hydrocephalus, are few and limited, and the effects of hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of long-term obstructive hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone, which is the neurogenic niche lining the lateral ventricles. We developed a new method to induce hydrocephalus by obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius in the mouse brain, thus simulating aqueductal stenosis in humans. In 120-day-old rodents (n=18 per group), the degree of ventricular dilatation and cellular composition of the subventricular zone were studied by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In adult patients (age>18years), the sizes of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule were analyzed by magnetic resonance images obtained from patients with and without aqueductal stenosis (n=25 per group). Mice with 60-day hydrocephalus had a reduced number of Ki67+ and doublecortin+cells on immunofluorescence, as well as decreased number of neural progenitors and neuroblasts in the subventricular zone on electron microscopy analysis as compared to non-hydrocephalic mice. Remarkably, a number of extracellular matrix structures (fractones) contacting the ventricular lumen and blood vessels were also observed around the subventricular zone in mice with hydrocephalus. In humans, the widths of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule in patients with aqueductal stenosis were significantly smaller than age and gender-matched patients without aqueductal stenosis. In summary, supratentorial hydrocephalus reduces the proliferation rate of neural progenitors and modifies the cytoarchitecture and extracellular matrix compounds of the subventricular zone. In humans, this similar process reduces the subventricular niche as well as the width of corpus callosum and internal capsule.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia/patologia , Ventrículos Laterais/metabolismo , Ventrículos Laterais/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/fisiopatologia , Cápsula Interna/metabolismo , Cápsula Interna/patologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Ventrículos Laterais/ultraestrutura , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...