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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360252

RESUMO

The current study was conducted to compare muscle damage biomarkers in single- vs. multi-match weeks in elite soccer players for two consecutive seasons. A secondary objective was to analyze the influence of playing position and exposure time on muscle damage in single- vs. multi-match weeks. This is a prospective cohort study performed in a professional elite soccer club in the English Premier League during the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 seasons up until the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected in the Medical Department Room of an English Premier League Club before and after the soccer game from a total of 29 elite soccer players (mean ± S.D.; age = 27.59 ± 3.83 years; height = 1.83 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 80.16 ± 7.45 kg) who were enrolled in the club during both seasons. The main outcome measurements were creatine kinase (CK), weight, lean mass, % fat DEXA, high speed running, total distance, density of total distance and high-speed running and wellbeing questionnaires. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Players who completed more than 60 min in the previous game had significantly increased pregame CK levels and fatigue in multi-match weeks. Midfielders had both significantly increased pregame CK and muscle soreness in multi-match weeks. Midfielders and players with an exposure time of at least 60 min showed higher pregame CK values that should play a key role for deciding substitutions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , COVID-19 , Futebol , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Músculos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371889

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health of people worldwide. An increase in perceived stress can lead to unhealthy behaviors such as increased food consumption. The aim of this study was to find the level of perceived stress and its relationship with increased food consumption during the "third wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. This was a cross-sectional study that employed anonline self-reported frequency of consumption questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale-10. A total of 637 subjects participated and 83.6% of respondents had moderate or high stress-more prevalent in the female and young respondents. Moreover, 36.1% of respondents reported that they had increased the frequency of consumption of some foods, mainly nuts, snacks, and jellybeans, along with coffee, tea, cocoa, and soft drinks. Eating between meals was more pronounced in those with high stress (65.1%) than in those with moderate stress (40.4%) and low stress (20.2%). Furthermore, the respondents with high stress reported greater weight gain. Thus, the results show that the level of perceived stress during the 'third wave' of this pandemic increased food consumption.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Hiperfagia/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hiperfagia/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064096

RESUMO

Recently, there has been an increase in the use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The consumption of these medicines can be unsafe, as incorrect self-diagnosis or the ingestion of inappropriate doses can lead to side effects and the occurrence of adverse reactions and drug-drug interactions. A cross-sectional descriptive observational study was carried out, targeting the entire Spanish population by using an online questionnaire. The results showed that 78.9% of the subjects had previously taken or were currently taking OTC drugs. This consumption decreased as the age of the subjects increased, with a prevalence of 36.4% of subjects aged ≥ 71 taking OTC drugs. Analgesics were the most consumed OTC drugs (49.1%) especially in women, youngsters with non-formal educational qualifications, and individuals of a low-medium socioeconomic level residing in urban areas. Measures should be implemented to optimize the safe use of OTC drugs in order to avoid the occurrence of secondary events associated with the lack of knowledge related to their the usage.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Automedicação
4.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066386

RESUMO

Nutritional management of patients under palliative care can lead to ethical issues, especially when Enteral Nutrition (EN) is prescribed by nasogastric tube (NGT). The aim of this review is to know the current status in the management of EN by NG tube in patients under palliative care, and its effect in their wellbeing and quality of life. The following databases were used: PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, Scielo, Embase and Medline. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, as well as different qualities screening, a total of three entries were used, published between 2015 and 2020. In total, 403 articles were identified initially, from which three were selected for this review. The use of NGT caused fewer diarrhea episodes and more restrictions than the group that did not use NG tubes. Furthermore, the use of tubes increased attendances to the emergency department, although there was no contrast between NGT and PEG devices. No statistical difference was found between use of tubes (NGT and PEG) or no use, with respect to the treatment of symptoms, level of comfort, and satisfaction at the end of life. Nevertheless, it improved hospital survival compared with other procedures, and differences were found in hospital stays in relation to the use of other probes or devices. Finally, there are not enough quality studies to provide evidence on improving the health status and quality of life of the use of EN through NGT in patients receiving palliative care. For this reason, decision making in this field must be carried out individually, weighing the benefits and damages that they can cause in the quality of life of the patients.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/instrumentação , Intubação Gastrointestinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Nutrição Enteral/ética , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/ética , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684155

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of obesity among the institutionalised elderly population and its severe consequences on health requires an early and accurate diagnosis that can be easily achieved in any clinical setting. This study aimed to determine new cut-off values for anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measures that are superior to body mass index criteria for overweight and obesity status in a sample of Spanish institutionalised elderly population. A total of 211 institutionalised older adults (132 women, aged 84.3±7.3 years; 79 men, aged 81.5±7.3 years) were enrolled in the current cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measures included the body mass index, waist circumference, gluteal circumference, waist-hip ratio, sagittal-abdominal diameter, trunk fat, and visceral-fat ratio. In women, the waist circumference, gluteal circumference, sagittal-abdominal diameter, trunk fat, and visceral-fat index presented strongly significant specificity and sensitivity (area under the curve [AUC], p<0.0001) and elevated discriminative values (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves: 0.827 to 0.867) for overweight and obesity status. In men, the waist-hip ratio, waist circumference, gluteal circumference, sagittal-abdominal diameter, trunk fat, and visceral-fat ratio were strongly significant AUC (p<0.0001), with moderate-to-high values (ROC curves: 0.757-0.871). In conclusion, our findings suggest that gluteal circumference, waist circumference, and sagittal-abdominal diameter in women and trunk fat, visceral-fat ratio, and waist circumference in men may represent more suitable cut-off values superior to body mass index criteria for overweight and obesity in the Spanish institutionalised elderly population.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Obesidade Abdominal , Diâmetro Abdominal Sagital , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/patologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671732

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine healthcare providers' knowledge and practices about dysphagia. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out based on a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire addressed to healthcare providers in Spain. A total of 396 healthcare providers participated in the study. Of these, 62.3% knew the definition of dysphagia as a swallowing disorder. In addition, up to 39.2% of the participants reported that they did not know whether the EatingAssessmentTool (EAT-10) dysphagia screening test was usedin their own clinical settings. Similarly, up to 49.1% of them did not know the ClinicalExaminationVolume-Viscosity (MECV-V) method. Nearly all participants (98.8%) reported that thickeners must be used forall liquids administered to patients. A higher percentage of respondents based the choice of texture on patient's tolerance (78.2%) rather than on the MECV-V result (17.3%). In addition,76.4% of the professionals had witnessed a bronchoaspiration; after it, 44.4% (n = 175) of them reported the appearance of pneumonia, and 14.5% (n = 57) the death of the patient (p = 0.005). The participants revealeda moderate/low knowledge ofthe definition, diagnosis, and clinical management of liquid dysphagia, which indicates some room for improvements.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Espanha , Viscosidade
7.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 20(6): 534-539, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580770

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies have emphasized that metabolic syndrome (MetS) was the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the institutionalized elderly. In addition, the occurrence of MetS was higher in those with longer age-adjusted institutionalization time. The present study was conducted to assess predictive value of markers of adipose tissue dysfunction for the early screening of MetS in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred and eleven institutionalized older adults (132 women, aged 74.3 ± 7.3 years; 79 men, aged 71.5 ± 7.3 years) were enrolled in the current cross-sectional study. Lipid accumulation product (LAP), visceral adiposity index (VAI), body adiposity index (BAI), and triglycerides (TG)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol ratio were determined. The receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated to compare the area under the curve of each index. The total prevalence of MetS was 23.8%. In female group, VAI and TG/HDL ratio presented moderate-high sensitivity (77.78% and 78.38%, respectively) and specificity (77.62% and 73.49%, respectively). In males group, LAP presented moderate-high sensitivity (75%) and specificity (76.9%). CONCLUSION: Gender played a key role on the prediction of MetS by adipose dysfunction markers in institutionalized elderly. Accordingly, VAI and TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio showed the highest predictive value for MetS in female elderly. LAP was the strongest predictor of MetS in male elderly.

8.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513972

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that nursing staff play a key role in palliative care (PC). The use of Nasogastric tubes (NG tubes) for Enteral Nutrition (EN) administration is still controversial in patients who receive PC. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' and nursing students´ opinions and perceptions about EN using NG tubes in adult patients in palliative care. To achieve this goal, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire intended for nurses and nursing students was used. Data was descriptively and inferentially analyzed using a chi-square test to determine the differential frequency of responses. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was also conducted. A total of 511 participants completed the questionnaire. Among them, nursing staff represented 74.9% (n = 383) whereas nursing students were 25.1% (n = 128). When life expectancy was above six months, 90.0% (n = 460) reported that EN using NG should be implemented. In contrast, when life expectancy is less than a month, 57.5% (n = 294) discouraged it. Significant differences within groups were found when life expectancy was <1 month (p = 0.044). It was also found that 491 participants (96.1%) reported that patient´s autonomy must be carefully respected for deciding whether continuing EN by NG tube or not. Finally, it was concluded for both nurses and nursing students that life expectancy should be the mean reason for implementing and withdrawing EN by NG tube. Major differences were found regarding when it should be ceased, suggesting perceptions may change as nurses graduate and move into their professional roles.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Percepção , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681014

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the classical physiological model of endurance running performance - maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), %VO2max at ventilatory thresholds (VT), work economy, lactate levels, and body composition on the prediction of short trail running performance. Eleven male trail runners (age 36.1 ± 6.5 years, sport experience 6.6 ± 3.8 years, and mean ± standard deviation) were examined for fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, and performed a graded exercise test to measure VO2max, vVO2max, and VT. Also, they participated in a short 27 km trail run with a positive elevation of +1750 m. Age, years of training and skeletal muscle mass did not correlate with race time (P > 0.05), and fat mass and body mass index (BMI) showed significant correlations with race time (P < 0.05). Heart rate, velocity and VT1 and VT2 were not associated with race time (P > 0.05). Only vVO2max (P = 0.005) and VO2max (P = 0.007) is correlated to race time. Multiple regression models for VO2max accounted for 57% of the total variance. The vVO2max model variable accounted for 60% and the fat mass model for 59.5%. Finally, the combined VO2max and fat mass model explained 83.9% of the total variance (P < 0.05 in all models). The equation for this model is "race time (min) = 203.9956-1.9001 × VO2max + 10.2816 × Fat mass%" (R 2 = 0.839, SEE = 11.1 min, and P = 0.0007). The classical variable VO2max together with fat mass percent are two strong predictors for short trail running performance.

10.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(3): 603-607, 2017 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627195

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From the previously published literature on the relationship between obesity and infertility, it is clear that male obesity negatively impacts semen quality. Accordingly, this study was conducted to determine whether regular exercise may improve semen quality in sedentary obese adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety obese adults were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 45) or control group (n = 45). Participants in the intervention group performed a 16-week aerobic training program in a treadmill, three sessions per week, consisting of a warm-up (10-15 minutes), 35-50 minutes treadmill exercise (increasing five minutes per four weeks) at a work intensity of 50-65% of peak heart rate (increasing a 5% per four weeks) and cooling-down (5-10 minutes). Semen quality assessment included semen volume, sperm concentration and the percentages of progressive motility and normal morphology. Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and estradiol were determined by ELISA. Body composition and physical fitness were also assessed. RESULTS: After the completion of the training program, sperm count, motility and normal morphology were significantly increased. A second key finding was that exercise improved reproductive hormone levels by increasing serum testosterone. Lastly, significant correlations were found between seminal outcomes and abdominal obesity. CONCLUSION: A short-term intervention program based on aerobic training improved semen quality in sedentary obese adults. This finding may be explained, at least in part, by an improvement of the reproductive hormone profile.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Comportamento Sedentário , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(3): 608-612, mayo-jun. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-164116

RESUMO

Introduction: From the previously published literature on the relationship between obesity and infertility, it is clear that male obesity negatively impacts semen quality. Accordingly, this study was conducted to determine whether regular exercise may improve semen quality in sedentary obese adults. Material and methods: Ninety obese adults were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 45) or control group (n = 45). Participants in the intervention group performed a 16-week aerobic training program in a treadmill, three sessions per week, consisting of a warm-up (10-15 minutes), 35-50 minutes treadmill exercise (increasing five minutes per four weeks) at a work intensity of 50-65% of peak heart rate (increasing a 5% per four weeks) and cooling-down (5-10 minutes). Semen quality assessment included semen volume, sperm concentration and the percentages of progressive motility and normal morphology. Serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and estradiol were determined by ELISA. Body composition and physical fitness were also assessed. Results: After the completion of the training program, sperm count, motility and normal morphology were significantly increased. A second key finding was that exercise improved reproductive hormone levels by increasing serum testosterone. Lastly, significant correlations were found between seminal outcomes and abdominal obesity. Conclusion: A short-term intervention program based on aerobic training improved semen quality in sedentary obese adults. This finding may be explained, at least in part, by an improvement of the reproductive hormone profile (AU)


Introducción: cada vez existe un mayor nivel de evidencia sobre el impacto negativo de la obesidad en la calidad seminal. Sin embargo, la utilidad del ejercicio en este grupo de pacientes ha recibido escasa atención. El presente estudio pretende determinar la influencia de un programa de entrenamiento aeróbico en la calidad seminal de adultos obesos. Material y métodos: noventa adultos varones se asignaron aleatoriamente al grupo experimental (n = 45) o control (n = 45). El grupo experimental desarrolló un programa de entrenamiento aeróbico en tapiz rodante de 16 semanas con tres sesiones/semana. Cada sesión se estructuró en calentamiento (10-15 minutos), 35-50 minutos en tapiz rodante (incrementando cinco minutos/cuatro semanas) a una intensidad del 50-65% de su frecuencia cardiaca máxima (incrementando 5%/cuatro semanas) y vuelta a la calma (5-10 minutos). La calidad seminal se evaluó mediante determinación de volumen seminal, concentración espermática, así como porcentajes de motilidad y morfología normal según criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Los niveles séricos de las hormonas folículo estimulante (FSH), luteinizante (LH) y testosterona se determinaron mediante ELISA. También se evaluó la composición corporal y condición física de los participantes. Resultados: tras finalizar el entrenamiento, la concentración, la motilidad y la normal morfología se incrementaron significativamente. Asimismo, se observó una mejoría de los niveles de testosterona. Finalmente, se observaron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre parámetros seminales y marcadores de masa grasa abdominal. Conclusión: el ejercicio aeróbico mejoró la calidad seminal de adultos obesos sedentarios. Estos resultados podrían explicarse, al menos en parte, por la mejora del perfil hormonal de los participantes (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Obesidade/complicações , Comportamento Sedentário , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Testosterona/análise , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Gordura Abdominal/patologia
12.
Nutr Hosp ; 33(1): 17, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27019244

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is widely accepted that obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction. In a recent paper, we have also found circuit resistance training may reduce visceral fat in obese aged women. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to ascertain the effects of circuit resistance training on markers of endothelial dysfunction in this population group. METHODS: In the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using an immunoassay (ELISA) for endothelin-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). RESULTS: When compared to baseline, resistance training significantly reduced serum levels of endothelin-1 (2.28 ± 0.7 vs. 1.98 ± 1.1 pg/ml; p = 0.019; d = 0.67) and ICAM-1 (290 ± 69 vs. 255 ± 76 ng/ml; p = 0.004; d = 0.92) in the experimental group. No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. CONCLUSION: A short-term circuit resistance program improved endothelial dysfunction in aged obese women. Further studies on this topic are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular , Obesidade/terapia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Resultado do Tratamento , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/terapia
13.
Nutr. hosp ; 33(1): 131-134, ene.-feb. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-153148

RESUMO

Introduction: It is widely accepted that obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction. In a recent paper, we have also found circuit resistance training may reduce visceral fat in obese aged women. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to ascertain the effects of circuit resistance training on markers of endothelial dysfunction in this population group. Methods: In the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using an immunoassay (ELISA) for endothelin-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Results: When compared to baseline, resistance training significantly reduced serum levels of endothelin-1 (2.28 ± 0.7 vs. 1.98 ± 1.1 pg/ml; p = 0.019; d = 0.67) and ICAM-1 (290 ± 69 vs. 255 ± 76 ng/ml; p = 0.004; d = 0.92) in the experimental group. No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. Conclusion: A short-term circuit resistance program improved endothelial dysfunction in aged obese women. Further studies on this topic are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application (AU)


Introducción: recientes estudios han confirmado que el entrenamiento de fuerza en circuito podría reducir la masa grasa visceral en mujeres mayores obesas. Para seguir avanzando en esta línea de trabajo, nos propusimos determinar su impacto en marcadores de disfunción endotelial. Material y método: participaron voluntariamente 48 mujeres (70-75 años) con obesidad procedentes de la comunidad. De ellas, 24 fueron asignadas aleatoriamente al grupo experimental para desarrollar un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza en circuito de 6 estaciones durante 12 semanas con 3 sesiones/semana. Los marcadores de disfunción endotelial ensayados fueron: endotelina-1, molécula de adhesión intercelular-1 (ICAM-1) y molécula de citoadhesión vascular-1 (VCAM-1). Asimismo se evaluó su influencia en un test funcional para población mayor como el de sentarse-levantarse en 30 segundos. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un comité de ética institucional. Resultados: tras completar el programa de intervención se observó un descenso significativo de los niveles plasmáticos de entotelina-1 (2,28 ± 0,7 vs. 1,98 ± 1,1 pg/ml; p = 0,019; d = 0,67) e ICAM-1 (290 ± 69 vs. 255 ± 76 ng/ml; p = 0,004; d = 0,92). También mejoró significativamente la puntuación del test funcional (18,7 ± 3,1 vs. 23,0 ± 3,6 repeticiones; p = 0,019; d = 0,98). Por el contrario, no se observaron cambios en el grupo control. Conclusión: el entrenamiento de fuerza en circuito mejora la disfunción endotelial presente en mujeres mayores obesas. Futuros estudios siguen siendo necesarios para consolidar su aplicación en clínica (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Endotélio/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/análise , Endotelina-1/análise , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/análise , Resultado do Tratamento , Força Muscular/fisiologia
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(1)2016 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26797612

RESUMO

Human activity recognition (HAR) tasks have traditionally been solved using engineered features obtained by heuristic processes. Current research suggests that deep convolutional neural networks are suited to automate feature extraction from raw sensor inputs. However, human activities are made of complex sequences of motor movements, and capturing this temporal dynamics is fundamental for successful HAR. Based on the recent success of recurrent neural networks for time series domains, we propose a generic deep framework for activity recognition based on convolutional and LSTM recurrent units, which: (i) is suitable for multimodal wearable sensors; (ii) can perform sensor fusion naturally; (iii) does not require expert knowledge in designing features; and (iv) explicitly models the temporal dynamics of feature activations. We evaluate our framework on two datasets, one of which has been used in a public activity recognition challenge. Our results show that our framework outperforms competing deep non-recurrent networks on the challenge dataset by 4% on average; outperforming some of the previous reported results by up to 9%. Our results show that the framework can be applied to homogeneous sensor modalities, but can also fuse multimodal sensors to improve performance. We characterise key architectural hyperparameters' influence on performance to provide insights about their optimisation.


Assuntos
Atividades Humanas/classificação , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Vestuário , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
15.
Ces med. vet. zootec ; 10(2): 170-178, jul.-dic. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-779559

RESUMO

Introduction: After the skin, breast glands are the location most commonly affected by tumors in bitches. Objectives: to evaluate the survival rate in canines affected by breast neoplasms submitted to surgery, relating the histopathological diagnosis with clinical factors of prognosis. Methodology: 52 bitches were included. The treatment established included mastectomy, previous blood and chest radiographic analysis in order to rule out metastasis. In 13 individuals, euthanasia was performed due to the advanced state of the disease. The variables analyzed were: frequency of presentation, age, reproductive history, diet, previous hormonal treatment, clinical stage, recurrence and survival. Statistical analysis of the variables was performed through analysis of variance and contingency tables based on chi-square tests (Χ²). Results: The effect of type of diagnosis on survival, age and pseudopregnancy showed significant differences (p<0.05). Opposite to this, no significant differences of the type of diagnosis on hormonal treatment, diet, early neutering and recurrence were observed. Conclusions: the determinant prognostic factor on survival was tumoral histopathological pattern (type of diagnosis). Animals with pseudopregnancy showed a higher susceptibility to suffer breast neoplasms. Benign tumors were observed in later ages than malignant.


Introducción: después de la piel, las glándulas mamarias son el sitio más común de afectación tumoral en las perras. Objetivos: evaluar la supervivencia en caninos afectados por neoplasias de la glándula mamaria que fueron sometidos a cirugía, relacionando el diagnóstico histopatológico con factores clínicos de pronóstico. Metodología: se incluyeron 52 perras. El tratamiento instaurado fue mastectomía, previo análisis sanguíneo y radiográfico del tórax con el fin de descartar metástasis. En 13 individuos se realizó la eutanasia debido al avanzado estado de la enfermedad. Las variables analizadas fueron: frecuencia de presentación, edad, historia reproductiva, dieta, tratamientos hormonales previos, estadificación clínica, recidivas y supervivencia. El análisis estadístico de las variables se realizó mediante el análisis de varianza y tablas de contingencia asociadas a la prueba de chi cuadrado (Χ²). Resultados: El efecto del tipo de diagnóstico sobre las variables supervivencia, edad y pseudogestación evidenciaron diferencias significativas (p<0,05), contrario a esto, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en el tipo de diagnóstico para las variables tratamiento hormonal, dieta, esterilización temprana y recidivas. Conclusiones: el factor pronóstico determinante en la sobrevida fue el patrón histopatológico tumoral (tipo de diagnóstico), los animales con pseudogestación evidenciaron una mayor susceptibilidad a padecer cáncer mamario. Los tumores benignos se manifestaron en edades más tardías que los malignos.


Introdução: depois da pele, as glâdulas mamarias são o sitio mais comum de afetação tumoral nas cadelas. Objetivo: avaliar a supervivência em cadelas afetados por neoplasias na glândula mamaria e que foram submetidas a cirurgia, relacionando além o diagnóstico histopatológico com fatores clínicos de prognóstico. Metodologia: incluíramse 52 cadelas. O tratamento instaurado foi mastectomia, prévio analise sanguíneo e radiográfico do tórax com o fim de descartar metástase. Em 13 indivíduos realizou-se a eutanásia devido ao avançado estado da doença. As variáveis analisadas foram: frequência de apresentação, idade, história reprodutiva, dieta, tratamentos hormonais prévios, estadificação clínica, recidiva e sobrevivência. O analise estatístico das variáveis realizou-se mediante o analise de variância e tabelas de contingência associadas ao teste chi quadrado (X2). Resultados: O efeito do tipo de diagnóstico sobre as variáveis supervivência, idade e pseudogestação evidenciaram diferenças significativas (p<0.05), contrário a isto, não se encontraram diferenças significativas no tipo de diagnostico para as variáveis tratamento hormonal, dieta, esterilização juvenil e recidivas. Conclusões: o fator prognóstico determinante na sobrevida foi o padrão histopatológico tumoral (tipo de diagnostico), os animais com pseudogestação evidenciaram uma maior susceptibilidade a padecer câncer mamário. Os tumores benignos manifestaram-se em idades mais tardias que os malignos.

16.
Nutr Hosp ; 32(5): 2193-7, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: this study was conducted to ascertain the effects of resistance circuit training on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in obese aged women. A secondary objective was to assess muscle damage induced by supervised resistance training to confirm the intervention program was effective and safe. METHODS: in the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Two experienced observers assessed EAT by transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using one-step sandwich assays for creatine kinase activity (CK) and myoglobin (MB) concentration. RESULTS: as was hypothesized, resistance training significantly reduced EAT thickness (8.4 ± 1.0 vs. 7.3 ± 1.3 mm; p = 0.014; d = 0.76) in the experimental group. Resistance training induced no significant changes in markers of muscle damage such as CK (181.6 ± 36.9 vs. 194.2 ± 37.8 U/l; p = 0.31) and MB (62.4 ± 7.1 vs. 67.3 ± 7.7 ng/ml; p = 0.26). No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. CONCLUSION: resistance training reduced EAT in aged obese women. A secondary finding was that the training program was effective and safe. While current results are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Pericárdio/anatomia & histologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 32(5): 2193-2197, nov. 2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-145548

RESUMO

Introduction: this study was conducted to ascertain the effects of resistance circuit training on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in obese aged women. A secondary objective was to assess muscle damage induced by supervised resistance training to confirm the intervention program was effective and safe. Methods: in the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Two experienced observers assessed EAT by transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using one-step sandwich assays for creatine kinase activity (CK) and myoglobin (MB) concentration. Results: as was hypothesized, resistance training significantly reduced EAT thickness (8.4 ± 1.0 vs. 7.3 ± 1.3 mm; p = 0.014; d = 0.76) in the experimental group. Resistance training induced no significant changes in markers of muscle damage such as CK (181.6 ± 36.9 vs. 194.2 ± 37.8 U/l; p = 0.31) and MB (62.4 ± 7.1 vs. 67.3 ± 7.7 ng/ml; p = 0.26). No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. Conclusion: resistance training reduced EAT in aged obese women. A secondary finding was that the training program was effective and safe. While current results are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application (AU)


Introducción: en la actualidad se acepta la asociación entre masa grasa epicárdica y patología cardiovascular. Recientes estudios sugieren que el ejercicio aeróbico podría reducir la masa grasa epicárdica. La originalidad de este trabajo reside en determinar la utilidad para tal fin de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza en mujeres adultas mayores obesas. Como segundo objetivo nos propusimos que el programa fuese seguro para las participantes. Material y método: participaron voluntariamente 48 mujeres (70-75 años) con obesidad procedentes de la comunidad. De ellas, 24 fueron asignadas aleatoriamente al grupo experimental para desarrollar un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza en circuito de seis estaciones durante doce semanas con tres sesiones/semana. La masa grasa epicárdica se determinó mediante ecografía transtorácica bidimensional por personal entrenado. También se evaluaron los niveles plasmáticos de creatina cinasa y mioglobina. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un comité de ética institucional. Resultados: el grosor de la masa grasa epicárdica se redujo significativamente tras completar el programa de intervención (8,4 ± 1,0 vs. 7,3 ± 1,3 mm; p = 0,014; d = 0,76). Además, las participantes no mostraron cambios en marcadores de daño muscular como creatin kinasa (181,6 ± 36,9 vs. 194,2 ± 37,8 U/l; p = 0,31) y mioglobina (62,4 ± 7,1 vs. 67,3 ± 7,7 ng/ml; p = 0,26). Conclusión: el entrenamiento de fuerza en circuito reduce la masa grasa epicárdica de forma segura en mujeres mayores obesas. Aunque estos resultados son prometedores, aún son necesarios futuros estudios para consolidar su aplicación en clínica (AU)


Assuntos
Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Pericárdio/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Mioglobina/análise , Creatina Quinase/análise
18.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 144(2): 59-61, ene. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131241

RESUMO

Fundamento y objetivo: La morbimortalidad cardiovascular se ha incrementado entre las personas con lesión medular crónica (LMC). Se planteó como objetivo determinar el efecto del ejercicio sobre marcadores de disfunción endotelial en adultos sedentarios con LMC. Método: Estudio prospectivo aleatorizado en 17 adultos varones con LMC a nivel o debajo de T5. Nueve de ellos realizaron un programa supervisado de ejercicios en ergómetro de manivela a intensidad moderada (12 semanas, 3 sesiones/semana). Se determinaron mediante enzimoinmunoanálisis los valores plasmáticos de endotelina-1, fracción soluble de la molécula de adhesión celular vascular tipo-1, y fracción soluble de la molécula de adhesión intercelular tipo-1 (sICAM-1), antes y después del programa de ejercicio. La capacidad aeróbica y el porcentaje de masa grasa también fueron evaluados. Resultados: Tras completar el programa de entrenamiento, tanto en el estudio comparativo como en el estudio antes-después, se observó una disminución significativa de los valores de endotelina-1 y fracción soluble de la molécula de adhesión intercelular tipo-1. Asimismo, se observó una mejora estadísticamente significativa de la capacidad aeróbica y la composición corporal. Conclusión: El ejercicio mejoró la disfunción endotelial en varones adultos con LMC (AU)


Background and objective: Recent studies have found increased markers of endothelial activation in men with chronic spinal cord injury. This study was conducted to determine the effects of arm-cranking exercise on endothelial dysfunction in male adults with chronic SCI. Method: A prospective randomized study of 17 sedentary adult males with chronic SCI at or under T5 level. Nine performed a supervised exercise program at a moderate intensity (arm-cranking: 12 weeks, 3 sessions/week). Plasma levels of endothelin-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1) were assessed by ELISA. Outcome measurements also included physical fitness and total body fat mass percentage. Results: We observed both in the randomized and in the before-after studies a significant reduction of the levels of endothelin-1 and sICAM-1. Furthermore, significant improvements of both physical fitness and body composition were also found. Conclusion: Arm-cranking exercise improved endothelial dysfunction in adult males with chronic SCI. Long-term studies are still required to determine whether the correction of endothelial dysfunction improves the clinical outcomes of adults with chronic SCI (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/classificação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Biomarcadores/análise , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/classificação , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento , Hipertensão/classificação
19.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 144(2): 59-61, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24378148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found increased markers of endothelial activation in men with chronic spinal cord injury. This study was conducted to determine the effects of arm-cranking exercise on endothelial dysfunction in male adults with chronic SCI. METHOD: A prospective randomized study of 17 sedentary adult males with chronic SCI at or under T5 level. Nine performed a supervised exercise program at a moderate intensity (arm-cranking: 12 weeks, 3 sessions/week). Plasma levels of endothelin-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule type 1 (sVCAM-1) were assessed by ELISA. Outcome measurements also included physical fitness and total body fat mass percentage. RESULTS: We observed both in the randomized and in the before-after studies a significant reduction of the levels of endothelin-1 and sICAM-1. Furthermore, significant improvements of both physical fitness and body composition were also found. CONCLUSION: Arm-cranking exercise improved endothelial dysfunction in adult males with chronic SCI. Long-term studies are still required to determine whether the correction of endothelial dysfunction improves the clinical outcomes of adults with chronic SCI.


Assuntos
Endotelina-1/sangue , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Exercício , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Comportamento Sedentário , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/sangue , Adiposidade , Adulto , Braço , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Int Braz J Urol ; 40(3): 367-72, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25010302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the influence of arm-crank exercise in reproductive hormone levels in adults with chronic SCI. Further objectives were to assess the influence of arm-crank exercise on muscle strength and body composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen male adults with complete SCI at or below the 5th thoracic level (T5) volunteered for this study. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 9) or control group (n = 8) using a concealed method. The participants in the intervention group performed a 12-week arm-crank exercise program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of warming-up (10-15 min) followed by a main part in arm-crank (20-30 min [increasing 2 min and 30 seconds each three weeks]) at a moderate work intensity of 50-65% of heart rate reserve (HRR) (starting at 50% and increasing 5% each three weeks) and by a cooling-down period (5-10 min). Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and estradiol were determined by ELISA. Muscle strength (handgrip) and body composition (waist circumference [WC]) were assessed. RESULTS: After the completion of the training program, testosterone level was significantly increased (p = 0.0166;d = 1.14). Furthermore, maximal handgrip and WC were significantly improved. Lastly, a significant inverse correlation was found between WC and testosterone (r =- 0.35; p = 0.0377). CONCLUSION: The arm-crank exercise improved reproductive hormone profile by increasing testosterone levels in adults with chronic SCI. A secondary finding was that it also significantly improved muscle strength and body composition in this group.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estradiol/sangue , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Testosterona/deficiência , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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