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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2147: 63-72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840811

RESUMO

Biofabrication is revolutionizing substitute tissue manufacturing. Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) can be blended with hydrogel biomaterials and printed to form three-dimensional structures that can closely mimic tissues of interest. Our bioink formulation takes into account the potential for cell printing including a bioink nanocomposite that contains low fraction polymeric content to facilitate cell encapsulation and survival, while preserving hydrogel integrity and mechanical properties following extrusion. Clay inclusion to the nanocomposite strengthens the alginate-methylcellulose network providing a biopaste with unique shear-thinning properties that can be easily prepared under sterile conditions. SSCs can be mixed with the clay-based paste, and the resulting bioink can be printed in 3D structures ready for implantation. In this chapter, we provide the methodology for preparation, encapsulation, and printing of SSCs in a unique clay-based bioink.

2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2206: 47-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754810

RESUMO

The development and maintenance of a functioning vascular system is a critical function for many aspects of tissue growth and regeneration. Vascular endothelial cell in vitro co-culture spheroids are self-organized cell composites that have the capacity to recapitulate the three-dimensional tissue microenvironment. These spheroid testing platforms aim to better understand the mechanisms of functional tissue and how new therapeutic agents can drive these 3D co-culture processes. Here we describe direct cell-cell 3D endothelial co-culture spheroid methods, to examine the physiological spatial growth and cell-cell interaction of vascular cells and surrounding native tissue cells in the formation of vascular networks within spheroids and the potential to regenerate tissue.

3.
J Anat ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090473

RESUMO

Describing and quantifying vascular canal orientation and volume of osteocyte lacunae in bone is important in studies of bone growth, mechanics, health and disease. It is also an important element in analysing fossil bone in palaeohistology, key to understanding the growth, life and death of extinct animals. Often, bone microstructure is studied using two-dimensional (2D) sections, and three-dimensional (3D) shape and orientation of structures are estimated by modelling the structures using idealised geometries based on information from their cross sections. However, these methods rely on structures meeting strict geometric assumptions. Recently, 3D methods have been proposed which could provide a more accurate and robust approach to bone histology, but these have not been tested in direct comparison with their 2D counterparts in terms of accuracy and sensitivity to deviations from model assumptions. We compared 2D and 3D methodologies for estimating key microstructural traits using a combination of experimental and idealised test data sets. We generated populations of cylinders (canals) and ellipsoids (osteocyte lacunae), varying the cross-sectional aspect ratios of cylinders and orientation of ellipsoids to test sensitivity to deviations from cylindricality and longitudinal orientation, respectively. Using published methods, based on 2D sections and 3D data sets, we estimated cylinder orientation and ellipsoid volume. We applied the same methods to six CT data sets of duck cortical bone, using the full volumes for 3D measurements and single CT slices to represent 2D sections. Using in silico test data sets that did deviate from ideal cylinders and ellipsoids resulted in inaccurate estimates of cylinder or canal orientation, and reduced accuracy in estimates of ellipsoid and lacunar volume. These results highlight the importance of using appropriate 3D imaging and quantitative methods for quantifying volume and orientation of 3D structures and offer approaches to significantly enhance our understanding of bone physiology based on accurate measures for bone microstructures.

4.
Biofabrication ; 12(4): 045034, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000765

RESUMO

The maintenance and expansion of the cells required for formation of tissue-engineered cartilage has, to date, proven difficult. This is, in part, due to the initial solid phase extracellular matrix demanded by the cells inhabiting this avascular tissue. Herein, we engineer an innovative alginate-fibronectin microfluidic-based carrier construct (termed a chondrobag) equipped with solid phase presentation of growth factors that support skeletal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation while preserving human articular chondrocyte phenotype. Results demonstrate biocompatibility, cell viability, proliferation and tissue-specific differentiation for chondrogenic markers SOX9, COL2A1 and ACAN. Modulation of chondrogenic cell hypertrophy, following culture within chondrobags loaded with TGF-ß1, was confirmed by down-regulation of hypertrophic genes COL10A1 and MMP13. MicroRNAs involved in the chondrogenesis process, including miR-140, miR-146b and miR-138 were observed. Results demonstrate the generation of a novel high-throughput, microfluidic-based, scalable carrier that supports human chondrogenesis with significant implications therein for cartilage repair-based therapies.

5.
Tissue Cell ; 67: 101442, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977273

RESUMO

The response of adult human bone marrow stromal stem cells to surface topographies generated through femtosecond laser machining can be predicted by a deep neural network. The network is capable of predicting cell response to a statistically significant level, including positioning predictions with a probability P < 0.001, and therefore can be used as a model to determine the minimum line separation required for cell alignment, with implications for tissue structure development and tissue engineering. The application of a deep neural network, as a model, reduces the amount of experimental cell culture required to develop an enhanced understanding of cell behavior to topographical cues and, critically, provides rapid prediction of the effects of novel surface structures on tissue fabrication and cell signaling.

6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 529(2): 392-397, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703441

RESUMO

An understanding of the cell mechanical properties involved in numerous cellular processes including cell division, cell migration/invasion, and cell morphology, is crucial in developing and informing cell physiology and function. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers a powerful biophysical technique that facilitates the imaging of living cells under physiological buffer conditions. However, AFM in isolation cannot discriminate between different cell types within heterogeneous samples for example in a solid biopsy. The current studies demonstrate the potential of AFM in combination with correlative fluorescence optical sectioning microscopy for live cell imaging. Furthermore, this work establishes the advantage of fluorescence-AFM imaging to distinguish and analyse single-cell bio-physical properties in mixed human cell populations, in real-time. Critically, our results show that correlative fluorescence-AFM imaging allows the simultaneous co-localised detection of fluorescence coupled with nano-mechanical mapping. The findings from this work contribute to the promotion and dissemination of correlative multimodal imaging in life sciences, providing a platform for further investigations in biological and pre-clinical research.

7.
J Control Release ; 325: 335-346, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629135

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing processes used to create regenerative bone tissue engineered implants are not biocompatible, thereby restricting direct use with stem cells and usually require cell seeding post-fabrication. Combined delivery of stem cells with the controlled release of osteogenic factors, within a mechanically-strong biomaterial combined during manufacturing would replace injectable defect fillers (cements) and allow personalized implants to be rapidly prototyped by 3D bioprinting. Through the use of direct genetic programming via the sustained release of an exogenously delivered transcription factor RUNX2 (delivered as recombinant GET-RUNX2 protein) encapsulated in PLGA microparticles (MPs), we demonstrate that human mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (hMSCs) can be directly fabricated into a thermo-sintered 3D bioprintable material and achieve effective osteogenic differentiation. Importantly we observed osteogenic programming of gene expression by released GET-RUNX2 (8.2-, 3.3- and 3.9-fold increases in OSX, RUNX2 and OPN expression, respectively) and calcification (von Kossa staining) in our scaffolds. The developed biodegradable PLGA/PEG paste formulation augments high-density bone development in a defect model (~2.4-fold increase in high density bone volume) and can be used to rapidly prototype clinically-sized hMSC-laden implants within minutes using mild, cytocompatible extrusion bioprinting. The ability to create mechanically strong 'cancellous bone-like' printable implants for tissue repair that contain stem cells and controlled-release of programming factors is innovative, and will facilitate the development of novel localized delivery approaches to direct cellular behaviour for many regenerative medicine applications including those for personalized bone repair.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(30): 33541-33549, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633478

RESUMO

Accelerated de novo formation of bone is a highly desirable aim of implants targeting musculoskeletal injuries. To date, this has primarily been addressed by biologic factors. However, there is an unmet need for robust, highly reproducible yet economic alternative strategies that strongly induce an osteogenic cell response. Here, we present a surface engineering method of translating bioactive nanopatterns from polymeric in vitro studies to clinically relevant material for orthopedics: three-dimensional, large area metal. We use a titanium-based sol-gel whereby metal implants can be engineered to induce osteoinduction both in vitro and in vivo. We show that controlled disordered nanotopographies presented as pillars with 15-25 nm height and 100 nm diameter on titanium dioxide effectively induce osteogenesis when seeded with STRO-1-enriched human skeletal stem cells in vivo subcutaneous implantation in mice. After 28 days, samples were retrieved, which showed a 20-fold increase in osteogenic gene induction of nanopatterned substrates, indicating that the sol-gel nanopatterning method offers a promising route for translation to future clinical orthopedic implants.

9.
ACS Nano ; 14(8): 10027-10044, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658450

RESUMO

There is a pressing clinical need to develop cell-based bone therapies due to a lack of viable, autologous bone grafts and a growing demand for bone grafts in musculoskeletal surgery. Such therapies can be tissue engineered and cellular, such as osteoblasts, combined with a material scaffold. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are both available and fast growing compared to mature osteoblasts, therapies that utilize these progenitor cells are particularly promising. We have developed a nanovibrational bioreactor that can convert MSCs into bone-forming osteoblasts in two- and three-dimensional, but the mechanisms involved in this osteoinduction process remain unclear. Here, to elucidate this mechanism, we use increasing vibrational amplitude, from 30 nm (N30) to 90 nm (N90) amplitudes at 1000 Hz and assess MSC metabolite, gene, and protein changes. These approaches reveal that dose-dependent changes occur in MSCs' responses to increased vibrational amplitude, particularly in adhesion and mechanosensitive ion channel expression and that energetic metabolic pathways are activated, leading to low-level reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and to low-level inflammation as well as to ROS- and inflammation-balancing pathways. These events are analogous to those that occur in the natural bone-healing processes. We have also developed a tissue engineered MSC-laden scaffold designed using cells' mechanical memory, driven by the stronger N90 stimulation. These mechanistic insights and cell-scaffold design are underpinned by a process that is free of inductive chemicals.

10.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-12, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500846

RESUMO

Adverse programming of adult non-communicable disease can be induced by poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy and the periconception period has been identified as a vulnerable period. In the current study, we used a mouse maternal low-protein diet fed either for the duration of pregnancy (LPD) or exclusively during the preimplantation period (Emb-LPD) with control nutrition provided thereafter and postnatally to investigate effects on fetal bone development and quality. This model has been shown previously to induce cardiometabolic and neurological disease phenotypes in offspring. Micro 3D computed tomography examination at fetal stages Embryonic day E14.5 and E17.4, reflecting early and late stages of bone formation, demonstrated LPD treatment caused increased bone formation of relative high mineral density quality in males, but not females, at E14.5, disproportionate to fetal growth, with bone quality maintained at E17.5. In contrast, Emb-LPD caused a late increase in male fetal bone growth, proportionate to fetal growth, at E17.5, affecting central and peripheral skeleton and of reduced mineral density quality relative to controls. These altered dynamics in bone growth coincide with increased placental efficiency indicating compensatory responses to dietary treatments. Overall, our data show fetal bone formation and mineral quality is dependent upon maternal nutritional protein content and is sex-specific. In particular, we find the duration and timing of poor maternal diet to be critical in the outcomes with periconceptional protein restriction leading to male offspring with increased bone growth but of poor mineral density, thereby susceptible to later disease risk.

11.
Biofabrication ; 12(3): 035010, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259804

RESUMO

Acellular soft hydrogels are not ideal for hard tissue engineering given their poor mechanical stability, however, in combination with cellular components offer significant promise for tissue regeneration. Indeed, nanocomposite bioinks provide an attractive platform to deliver human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) in three dimensions producing cell-laden constructs that aim to facilitate bone repair and functionality. Here we present the in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo investigation of bioprinted HBMSCs encapsulated in a nanoclay-based bioink to produce viable and functional three-dimensional constructs. HBMSC-laden constructs remained viable over 21 d in vitro and immediately functional when conditioned with osteogenic media. 3D scaffolds seeded with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and loaded with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) implanted ex vivo into a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model showed integration and vascularisation after 7 d of incubation. In a pre-clinical in vivo application of a nanoclay-based bioink to regenerate skeletal tissue, we demonstrated bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) absorbed scaffolds produced extensive mineralisation after 4 weeks (p < 0.0001) compared to the drug-free and alginate controls. In addition, HBMSC-laden 3D printed scaffolds were found to significantly (p < 0.0001) support bone tissue formation in vivo compared to acellular and cast scaffolds. These studies illustrate the potential of nanoclay-based bioink, to produce viable and functional constructs for clinically relevant skeletal tissue regeneration.

12.
Biomacromolecules ; 21(6): 2096-2103, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267672

RESUMO

Because nitric oxide (NO) gas is an endogenously produced signaling molecule related to numerous physiological functions, manystudies have been conducted to develop NO delivery systems for potential biomedical applications. However, NO is a reactive radical gas molecule that has a very short life-time and readily transforms into nitrogen oxide species via reaction with oxygen species. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an NO delivery carrier that allows local release of the NO gas at the site of application. In this study, Laponite (LP) nanoclay was used to fabricate an NO delivery carrier through the formation of Laponite-polyamine (LP-PAn) composites. The Laponite clay and pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) formed a macromolecular structure by electrostatic interaction and the nitric oxide donor, N-diazeniumdiolate (NONOates), was synthesized into the LP-PAn composite. We investigated the conformation of the LP-PAn composite structure and the NO donor formation by ζ potential, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies and also by analyzing the NO release profile. Additionally, we confirmed the applicability in biomedical applications via a cell viability and in vitro endothelial cell tube formation assay.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1365, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170076

RESUMO

Nanoclays have generated interest in biomaterial design for their ability to enhance the mechanics of polymeric materials and impart biological function. As well as their utility as physical cross-linkers, clays have been explored for sustained localization of biomolecules to promote in vivo tissue regeneration. To date, both biomolecule-clay and polymer-clay nanocomposite strategies have utilised the negatively charged clay particle surface. As such, biomolecule-clay and polymer-clay interactions are set in competition, potentially limiting the functional enhancements achieved. Here, we apply specific bisphosphonate interactions with the positively charged clay particle edge to develop self-assembling hydrogels and functionalized clay nanoparticles with preserved surface exchange capacity. Low concentrations of nanoclay are applied to cross-link hyaluronic acid polymers derivatised with a pendant bisphosphonate to generate hydrogels with enhanced mechanical properties and preserved protein binding able to sustain, for over six weeks in vivo, the localized activity of the clinically licensed growth factor BMP-2.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/metabolismo , Hidrogéis/química , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Nanocompostos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Argila , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Polímeros/química , Ligação Proteica , Silicatos
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1182, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132534

RESUMO

Supramolecular chemistry offers an exciting opportunity to assemble materials with molecular precision. However, there remains an unmet need to turn molecular self-assembly into functional materials and devices. Harnessing the inherent properties of both disordered proteins and graphene oxide (GO), we report a disordered protein-GO co-assembling system that through a diffusion-reaction process and disorder-to-order transitions generates hierarchically organized materials that exhibit high stability and access to non-equilibrium on demand. We use experimental approaches and molecular dynamics simulations to describe the underlying molecular mechanism of formation and establish key rules for its design and regulation. Through rapid prototyping techniques, we demonstrate the system's capacity to be controlled with spatio-temporal precision into well-defined capillary-like fluidic microstructures with a high level of biocompatibility and, importantly, the capacity to withstand flow. Our study presents an innovative approach to transform rational supramolecular design into functional engineering with potential widespread use in microfluidic systems and organ-on-a-chip platforms.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Grafite/química , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Proteínas Elk-1 do Domínio ets/química , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Impressão Tridimensional , Multimerização Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína
15.
Bone ; 131: 115107, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669251

RESUMO

There is an unmet need for a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) technique to simultaneously image osteocytes and the matrix in which these cells reside. In serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF SEM), an ultramicrotome mounted within the vacuum chamber of a microscope repeatedly sections a resin-embedded block of tissue. Backscattered electron scans of the block face provide a stack of high-resolution two-dimensional images, which can be used to visualise and quantify cells and organelles in 3D. High-resolution 3D images of biological tissues from SBF SEM have been exploited considerably to date in the neuroscience field. However, non-brain samples, in particular hard biological tissues, have appeared more challenging to image by SBF SEM due to the difficulties of sectioning and rendering the samples conductive. We have developed and propose protocols for bone tissue preparation using SBF SEM, for imaging simultaneously soft and hard bone tissue components in 3D. We review the state of the art in high-resolution imaging of osteocytes, provide a historical perspective of SBF SEM, and we present first SBF SEM proof-of-concept studies for murine and human tissue. The application of SBF SEM to hard tissues will facilitate qualitative and quantitative 3D studies of tissue microstructure and ultrastructure in bone development, ageing and pathologies such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17745, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780671

RESUMO

Deficient bone vasculature is a key component in pathological conditions ranging from developmental skeletal abnormalities to impaired bone repair. Vascularisation is dependent upon vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which drives both angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of blood vessel and bone formation following transfection with VEGF RNA or delivery of recombinant human VEGF165 protein (rhVEGF165) across in vitro and in vivo model systems. To quantify blood vessels within bone, an innovative approach was developed using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to generate quantifiable three-dimensional reconstructions. Application of rhVEGF165 enhanced osteogenesis, as evidenced by increased human osteoblast-like MG-63 cell proliferation in vitro and calvarial bone thickness following in vivo administration. In contrast, transfection with VEGF RNA triggered angiogenic effects by promoting VEGF protein secretion from MG-63VEGF165 cells in vitro, which resulted in significantly increased angiogenesis in the chorioallantoic (CAM) assay in ovo. Furthermore, direct transfection of bone with VEGF RNA in vivo increased intraosseous vascular branching. This study demonstrates the importance of continuous supply as opposed to a single high dose of VEGF on angiogenesis and osteogenesis and, illustrates the potential of XCT in delineating in 3D, blood vessel connectivity in bone.

17.
Electrophoresis ; 40(20): 2718-2727, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206722

RESUMO

Microelectrode arrays are used to sort single fluorescently labeled cells and particles as they flow through a microfluidic channel using dielectrophoresis. Negative dielectrophoresis is used to create a "Dielectrophoretic virtual channel" that runs along the center of the microfluidic channel. By switching the polarity of the electrodes, the virtual channel can be dynamically reconfigured to direct particles along a different path. This is demonstrated by sorting particles into two microfluidic outlets, controlled by an automated system that interprets video data from a color camera and makes complex sorting decisions based on color, intensity, size, and shape. This enables the rejection of particle aggregates and other impurities, and the system is optimized to isolate high purity populations from a heterogeneous sample. Green beads are isolated from an excess of red beads with 100% purity at a rate of up to 0.9 particles per second, in addition application to the sorting of osteosarcoma and human bone marrow cells is evidenced. The extension of Dielectrophoretic Virtual Channels to an arbitrary number of sorting outputs is examined, with design, simulation, and experimental verification of two alternate geometries presented and compared.


Assuntos
Separação Celular , Eletroforese , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular/instrumentação , Separação Celular/métodos , Eletroforese/instrumentação , Eletroforese/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula
18.
Physiol Rep ; 7(11): e14081, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161709

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies suggest skeletal growth is programmed during intrauterine and early postnatal life. We hypothesize that bone development may be altered by maternal diet and have investigated this using a microswine model of maternal protein restriction (MPR). Mothers were fed a control diet (14% protein) or isocaloric low (1%) protein diet during late pregnancy and for 2 weeks postnatally. Offspring were weaned at 4 weeks of age to ad lib or calorie-restricted food intake groups. Femur and vertebra were analysed by micro computed tomography in offspring 3-5 months of age. Caloric restriction from 4 weeks of age, designed to prevent catch-up growth, showed no significant effects on bone structure in the offspring from either maternal dietary group. A maternal low protein diet altered trabecular number in the proximal femur and vertebra in juvenile offspring. Cortical bone was unaffected. These results further support the need to understand the key role of the nutritional environment in early development on programming of skeletal development and consequences in later life.

19.
Biofabrication ; 11(3): 035027, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991370

RESUMO

Bioprinting of living cells is rapidly developing as an advanced biofabrication approach to engineer tissues. Bioinks can be extruded in three-dimensions (3D) to fabricate complex and hierarchical constructs for implantation. However, a lack of functionality can often be attributed to poor bioink properties. Indeed, advanced bioinks encapsulating living cells should: (i) present optimal rheological properties and retain 3D structure post fabrication, (ii) promote cell viability and support cell differentiation, and (iii) localise proteins of interest (e.g. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) to stimulate encapsulated cell activity and tissue ingrowth upon implantation. In this study, we present the results of the inclusion of a synthetic nanoclay, Laponite® (LPN) together with a gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) bioink and the development of a functional cell-instructive bioink. A nanocomposite bioink displaying enhanced shape fidelity retention and interconnected porosity within extrusion-bioprinted fibres was observed. Human bone marrow stromal cell (HBMSC) viability within the nanocomposite showed no significant changes over 21 days of culture in LPN-GelMA (85.60 ± 10.27%), compared to a significant decrease in GelMA from 7 (95.88 ± 2.90%) to 21 days (55.54 ± 14.72%) (p < 0.01). HBMSCs were observed to proliferate in LPN-GelMA with a significant increase in cell number over 21 days (p < 0.0001) compared to GelMA alone. HBMSC-laden LPN-GelMA scaffolds supported osteogenic differentiation evidenced by mineralised nodule formation, including in the absence of the osteogenic drug dexamethasone. Ex vivo implantation in a chick chorioallantoic membrane model, demonstrated excellent integration of the bioink constructs in the vascular chick embryo after 7 days of incubation. VEGF-loaded LPN-GelMA constructs demonstrated significantly higher vessel penetration than GelMA-VEGF (p < 0.0001) scaffolds. Integration and vascularisation was directly related to increased drug absorption and retention by LPN-GelMA compared to LPN-free GelMA. In summary, a novel light-curable nanocomposite bioink for 3D skeletal regeneration supportive of cell growth and growth factor retention and delivery, evidenced by ex vivo vasculogenesis, was developed with potential application in hard and soft tissue reparation.


Assuntos
Gelatina/química , Tinta , Nanocompostos/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Osteogênese , Silicatos/química , Animais , Bioimpressão , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Galinhas , Membrana Corioalantoide/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Metacrilatos/química , Muramidase/metabolismo , Porosidade , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Suínos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5561, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944358

RESUMO

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) are non-linear techniques that allow label-free, non-destructive and non-invasive imaging for cellular and tissue analysis. Although live-imaging studies have been performed previously, concerns that they do not cause any changes at the molecular level in sensitive biological samples have not been addressed. This is important especially for stem cell differentiation and tissue engineering, if CARS/SHG microscopy is to be used as a non-invasive, label-free tool for assessment of the developing neo-tissue. In this work, we monitored the differentiation of human fetal-femur derived skeletal cells into cartilage in three-dimensional cultures using CARS and SHG microscopy and demonstrate the live-imaging of the same developing neo-tissue over time. Our work conclusively establishes that non-linear label-free imaging does not alter the phenotype or the gene expression at the different stages of differentiation and has no adverse effect on human skeletal cell growth and behaviour. Additionally, we show that CARS microscopy allows imaging of different molecules of interest, including lipids, proteins and glycosaminoglycans, in the bioengineered neo-cartilage. These studies demonstrate the label-free and truly non-invasive nature of live CARS and SHG imaging and their value and translation potential in skeletal research, regeneration medicine and tissue engineering.

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