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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114653, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547420

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: BaZiBuShen formula (BZBS) is clinically used to counteract mental fatigue and to retard the aging process. Brain aging echoes in major risks of human sufferings and has become one of the main challenges to our societies and the health-care systems. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effect and mode of action of BZBS on aging-associated cognitive impairments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BZBS was orally administered to D-galactose and NaNO2-induced aging mice. Premature senescence was assessed using the Morris water maze, step-down type passive avoidance, and pole-climbing tests. Telomere length was examined by qPCR analysis. Telomerase activity was assessed using PCR ELISA assay. Mitochondrial complex IV activity was examined by biochemical test. The levels of redox and immune status were determined by ELISA or biochemical assay. The expressions of sirtuin 6 (Sirt6), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), P53, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), phospho(p)-nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (NRF2), caspase-3, Bcl-2 associated x (Bax), and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the cerebral cortex were examined by Western blot and/or immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: BZBS intervention ameliorated reduced brain performances in aging mice, including memory, cognitive, and motor functions. In addition, BZBS administration to aging mice preserved redox homeostasis, attenuated immunosenescence, and maintained telomerase activity and telomere length. Moreover, BZBS treatment were associated with a declines in P53, caspase-3, Bax expressions and an increase in Sirt6, p-HO-1, p-NRF2, PGC-1α, and Bcl-2 expressions in the brains of this rapid aging mouse. CONCLUSIONS: BZBS attenuates premature senescence possibly via the preservation of redox homeostasis and telomere integrity, and inhibition of apoptosis in rapid aging mouse. The mechanism governing the alterations may be associated with through the activation of Sirt6/NRF2/HO-1 and Sirt6/P53-PGC-1α-TERT signaling pathways. The results suggest that BZBS may provide a novel strategy for confronting aging and age-associated diseases.

2.
Phytomedicine ; 92: 153717, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radix Ginseng, one of the well-known medicinal herbs, has been used in the management of diabetes and its complications for more than 1000 years. PURPOSE: The aim of this review is devoted to summarize the phytochemistry and pharmacokinetics of Ginseng, and provide evidence for the antidiabetic effects of Ginseng and its ingredients as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. METHODS: For the purpose of this review, the following databases were consulted: the PubMed Database (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (http://www.cnki.net), National Science and Technology Library (http://www.nstl.gov.cn/), Wanfang Data (http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/) and the Web of Science Database (http://apps.webofknowledge.com/). RESULTS: Ginseng exhibits glucose-lowering effects in different diabetic animal models. In addition, Ginseng may prevent the development of diabetic complications, including liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, retinopathy, atherosclerosis and others. The main ingredients of Ginseng include ginsenosides and polysaccharides. The underlying mechanisms whereby this herb exerts antidiabetic activities may be attributed to the regulation of multiple signaling pathways, including IRS1/PI3K/AKT, LKB1/AMPK/FoxO1, AGEs/RAGE, MAPK/ERK, NF-κB, PPARδ/STAT3, cAMP/PKA/CERB and HIF-1α/VEGF, etc. The pharmacokinetic profiles of ginsenosides provide valuable information on therapeutic efficacy of Ginseng in diabetes. Although Ginseng is well-tolerated, dietary consumption of this herb should follow the doctors' advice. CONCLUSION: Ginseng may offer an alternative strategy in protection against diabetes and its complications through the regulations of the multi-targets via various signaling pathways. Efforts to understand the underlying mechanisms with strictly-controlled animal models, combined with well-designed clinical trials and pharmacokinetic evaluation, will be important subjects of the further investigations and weigh in translational value of this herb in diabetes management.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445084

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is the major cause of the development of cardiovascular disease, which, in turn, is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. From the point of view of pathogenesis, atherosclerosis is an extremely complex disease. A huge variety of processes, such as violation of mitophagy, oxidative stress, damage to the endothelium, and others, are involved in atherogenesis; however, the main components of atherogenesis are considered to be inflammation and alterations of lipid metabolism. In this review, we want to focus on inflammation, and more specifically on the cellular elements of adaptive immunity, T and B cells. It is known that various T cells are widely represented directly in atherosclerotic plaques, while B cells can be found, for example, in the adventitia layer. Of course, such widespread and well-studied cells have attracted attention as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Various approaches have been developed and tested for their efficacy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunidade , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112041, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411916

RESUMO

Senescence is a crucial player in several metabolic disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Recent data prove the involvement of hepatocyte senescence in the development of NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). As the main energy and ROS (reactive oxygen species) producing organelle, mitochondria play the central role in accelerated senescence and diseases development. In this review, we focus on the role of regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis, NAD+/NADH ratio, UPRmt (mitochondrial unfolded protein response), phospholipids and fatty acid oxidation in hepatic senescence, lifespan and NAFLD disease susceptibility. Additionally, the involvement of mitochondrial and nuclear mutations in lifespan-modulation and NAFLD development is discussed. While nuclear and mitochondria DNA mutations and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) can be used as effective diagnostic markers and targets for treatments, advanced age should be considered as an independent risk factor for NAFLD development.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445477

RESUMO

Mitochondria-derived peptides (MDPs) are small peptides hidden in the mitochondrial DNA, maintaining mitochondrial function and protecting cells under different stresses. Currently, three types of MDPs have been identified: Humanin, MOTS-c and SHLP1-6. MDPs have demonstrated anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress-protecting properties both in vitro and in vivo. Recent research suggests that MDPs have a significant cardioprotective role, affecting CVDs (cardiovascular diseases) development and progression. CVDs are the leading cause of death globally; this term combines disorders of the blood vessels and heart. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in understanding the relationships between MDPs and the main cardiovascular risk factors (atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, hyperlipidaemia and ageing). We also will discuss the therapeutic application of MDPs, modified and synthetic MDPs, and their potential as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Humanos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203309

RESUMO

The prevalence of NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is a rapidly increasing problem, affecting a huge population around the globe. However, CVDs (cardiovascular diseases) are the most common cause of mortality in NAFLD patients. Atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by plasma hypertriglyceridemia, increased small dense LDL (low-density lipoprotein) particles, and decreased HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels, is often observed in NAFLD patients. In this review, we summarize recent genetic evidence, proving the diverse nature of metabolic pathways involved in NAFLD pathogenesis. Analysis of available genetic data suggests that the altered operation of fatty-acid ß-oxidation in liver mitochondria is the key process, connecting NAFLD-mediated dyslipidemia and elevated CVD risk. In addition, we discuss several NAFLD-associated genes with documented anti-atherosclerotic or cardioprotective effects, and current pharmaceutical strategies focused on both NAFLD treatment and reduction of CVD risk.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201756

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus and related disorders significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the advances in the current therapeutic methods, further development of anti-diabetic therapies is necessary. Mitochondrial dysfunction is known to be implicated in diabetes development. Moreover, specific types of mitochondrial diabetes have been discovered, such as MIDD (maternally inherited diabetes and deafness) and DAD (diabetes and Deafness). Hereditary mitochondrial disorders are caused by certain mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes for a substantial part of mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial tRNA necessary for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Study of mtDNA mutations is challenging because the pathogenic phenotype associated with such mutations depends on the level of its heteroplasmy (proportion of mtDNA copies carrying the mutation) and can be tissue-specific. Nevertheless, modern sequencing methods have allowed describing and characterizing a number of mtDNA mutations associated with human disorders, and the list is constantly growing. In this review, we provide a list of mtDNA mutations associated with diabetes and related disorders and discuss the mechanisms of their involvement in the pathology development.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Inflamação/genética , Mutação , Animais , Doença Crônica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Surdez/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209109

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a well-known global health problem. Despite the high prevalence of the disease, numerous aspects of pathogenesis remain unclear. Subsequently, there are still no cure or adequate preventive measures available. Atherogenesis is now considered a complex interplay between lipid metabolism alterations, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Inflammation in atherogenesis involves cellular elements of both innate (such as macrophages and monocytes) and adaptive immunity (such as B-cells and T-cells), as well as various cytokines cascades. Because inflammation is, in general, a well-investigated therapeutic target, and strategies for controlling inflammation have been successfully used to combat a number of other diseases, inflammation seems to be the preferred target for the treatment of atherosclerosis as well. In this review, we summarized data on targeting the most studied inflammatory molecular targets, CRP, IL-1ß, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Studies in animal models have shown the efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy, while clinical studies revealed the incompetence of existing data, which blocks the development of an effective atheroprotective drug. However, all data on cytokine targeting give evidence that anti-inflammatory therapy can be a part of a complex treatment.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose , Citocinas/imunologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206708

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis has complex pathogenesis, which involves at least three serious aspects: inflammation, lipid metabolism alterations, and endothelial injury. There are no effective treatment options, as well as preventive measures for atherosclerosis. However, this disease has various severe complications, the most severe of which is cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is important to note, that CVD is among the leading causes of death worldwide. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is an important part of inflammatory response regulation. This system contributes to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the injured site and stimulates the production of various cytokines, such as IL-6, TNF-a, and COX-2. There is also an association between RAAS and oxidative stress, which is also an important player in atherogenesis. Angiotensin-II induces plaque formation at early stages, and this is one of the most crucial impacts on atherogenesis from the RAAS. Importantly, while stimulating the production of ROS, Angiotensin-II at the same time decreases the generation of NO. The endothelium is known as a major contributor to vascular function. Oxidative stress is the main trigger of endothelial dysfunction, and, once again, links RAAS to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. All these implications of RAAS in atherogenesis lead to an explicable conclusion that elements of RAAS can be promising targets for atherosclerosis treatment. In this review, we also summarize the data on treatment approaches involving cytokine targeting in CVD, which can contribute to a better understanding of atherogenesis and even its prevention.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/terapia , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Biomol Concepts ; 12(1): 55-67, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115932

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex degenerative vascular disease, with considerable morbidity and mortality rates among the elderly population. The mortality of AAA is related to aneurysm expansion (the enlargement of the aortic diameter up to 30 mm and above) and the subsequent rupture. The pathogenesis of AAA involves several biological processes, including aortic mural inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, elastin depletion, and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Mitochondrial dysfunction was also found to be associated with AAA formation. The evidence accumulated to date supports a close relationship between environmental and genetic factors in AAA initiation and progression. However, a comprehensive pathophysiological understanding of AAA formation remains incomplete. The open surgical repair of AAA is the only therapeutic option currently available, while a specific pharmacotherapy is still awaited. Therefore, there is a great need to clarify pathophysiological cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying AAA formation that would help to develop effective pharmacological therapies. In this review, pathophysiological aspects of AAA development with a special focus on mitochondrial dysfunction and genetic associations were discussed.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114348, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153448

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) is an edible herb with anti-osteoporotic activity, yet whether and how the aqueous extract of this herb affect calcium metabolism in preservation of bone quality remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of FLL aqueous extract on calcium balance and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OVX rats were daily and orally administrated with FLL aqueous extract (3.5 g/kg) for 14 weeks. The levels of N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx-I) in rat serum were evaluated by ELISA assays. The concentration of calcium in serum, urine, and feces were determined by biochemical assays. Bone quality was determined by Micro-CT, a three-point bending assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometry. The expressions of Calbindin D28K and Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in kidney as well as the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 6 (TRPV6), Calbindin D9k in the duodenum were measured by immunohistochemistry, western blotting, or real-time PCR. The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels in the feces of the cecum were tested by gas chromatograghy. RESULTS: The administration of FLL to OVX rats resulted in a significant improvement in bone mineral density and biomechanical strength as well as in maintaining bone microstructures and material quality. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of PINP and increased levels of CTx-I in OVX rats were restored by FLL treatment. Additionally, FLL treatment increased calcium absorption, upregulated VDR, TRPV6, Calbindin D9k expressions in the duodenum, Calbindin D28K in kidney, and down-regulated CaSR expression in the kidney, as well as enhanced SCFAs levels in the feces of OVX rats. CONCLUSIONS: FLL aqueous extract may preserve bone quality through regulation of the calcium balance and intestinal SCFAs production in OVX rats. This offers translational value of FLL into osteoporosis clinical trial.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946649

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a highly contagious new infection caused by the single-stranded RNA Sars-CoV-2 virus. For the first time, this infection was recorded in December 2019 in the Chinese province of Wuhan. The virus presumably crossed the interspecies barrier and passed to humans from a bat. Initially, the disease was considered exclusively in the context of damage to the respiratory system, but it quickly became clear that the disease also entails serious consequences from various systems, including the cardiovascular system. Among these consequences are myocarditis, myocardial damage, subsequent heart failure, myocardial infarction, and Takotsubo syndrome. On the other hand, clinical data indicate that the presence of chronic diseases in a patient aggravates the course and outcome of coronavirus infection. In this context, the relationship between COVID-19 and atherosclerosis, a condition preceding cardiovascular disease and other disorders of the heart and blood vessels, is particularly interesting. The renin-angiotensin system is essential for the pathogenesis of both coronavirus disease and atherosclerosis. In particular, it has been shown that ACE2, an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, plays a key role in Sars-CoV-2 infection due to its receptor activity. It is noteworthy that this enzyme is important for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system. Disruptions in its production and functioning can lead to various disorders, including atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923295

RESUMO

NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is a widespread liver disease that is often linked with other life-threatening ailments (metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, obesity, and others) and canprogress to more severe forms, such as NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), cirrhosis, and HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma). In this review, we summarized and analyzed data about single nucleotide polymorphism sites, identified in genes related to NAFLD development and progression. Additionally, the causative role of mitochondrial mutations and mitophagy malfunctions in NAFLD is discussed. The role of mitochondria-related metabolites of the urea cycle as a new non-invasive NAFLD biomarker is discussed. While mitochondria DNA mutations and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) canbe used as effective diagnostic markers and target for treatments, age and ethnic specificity should be taken into account.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920227

RESUMO

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder affecting a vast population worldwide; it is linked with anovulation, mitochondrial dysfunctions and hormonal disbalance. Mutations in mtDNA have been identified in PCOS patients and likely play an important role in PCOS aetiology and pathogenesis; however, their causative role in PCOS development requires further investigation. As a low-grade chronic inflammation disease, PCOS patients have permanently elevated levels of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18). In this review, we summarise recent data regarding the role of mtDNA mutations and mitochondrial malfunctions in PCOS pathogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss recent papers dedicated to the identification of novel biomarkers for early PCOS diagnosis. Finally, traditional and new mitochondria-targeted treatments are discussed. This review intends to emphasise the key role of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in PCOS pathogenesis; however, the exact molecular mechanism is mostly unknown and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Inflamação/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/patologia , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mutação/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920897

RESUMO

In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, we include insightful reviews and research papers on the subject "Immunopathology of Atherosclerosis and Related Diseases: Focus on Molecular Biology".[...].


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biologia Molecular , Alarminas/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/patologia , Microbiota , Modelos Biológicos
16.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669743

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the greatest health problems affecting people worldwide. Atherosclerosis, in turn, is one of the most common causes of cardiovascular disease. Due to the high mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, prevention and treatment at the earliest stages become especially important. This requires developing a deep understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of atherosclerosis. It is well-known that atherogenesis is a complex multi-component process that includes lipid metabolism disorders, inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy disorders and mitochondrial dysfunction. Autophagy is a cellular control mechanism that is critical to maintaining health and survival. One of the specific forms of autophagy is mitophagy, which aims to control and remove defective mitochondria from the cell. Particularly defective mitophagy has been shown to be associated with atherogenesis. In this review, we consider the role of autophagy, focusing on a special type of it-mitophagy-in the context of its role in the development of atherosclerosis.

17.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671887

RESUMO

It is known that the shortening of the telomeres leads to cell senescence, accompanied by acquiring of pro-inflammatory phenotype. The expression of telomerase can elongate telomeres and resist the onset of senescence. The initiation of atherosclerosis is believed to be associated with local senescence of the endothelial cells of the arteries in places with either low or multidirectional oscillatory wall shear stress. The process of regeneration of the artery surface that has begun does not lead to success for several reasons. Atherosclerotic plaques are formed, which, when developed, lead to fatal consequences, which are the leading causes of death in the modern world. The pronounced age dependence of the manifestations of atherosclerosis pushes scientists to try to link the development of atherosclerosis with telomere length. The study of the role of telomere shortening in atherosclerosis is mainly limited to measuring the telomeres of blood cells, and only in rare cases (surgery or post-mortem examination) are the telomeres of local cells available for measurement. The review discusses the basic issues of cellular aging and the interpretation of telomere measurement data in atherosclerosis, as well as the prospects for the prevention and possible treatment of atherosclerosis.

18.
Diseases ; 9(1)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668325

RESUMO

The emergence of the novel coronavirus in December 2019 in China marked the beginning of a pandemic that impacted healthcare systems and economic life all over the world. The virus primarily targets the respiratory system causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in some patients, and therefore received the name of SARS-CoV-2. The pathogen stands out among other coronaviruses by its rapid transmission from human to human, with the majority of infected individuals being asymptomatic or presenting with only minor illness, therefore facilitating the pathogen spread. At the same time, people from the risk groups, such as the elderly, patients suffering from chronic diseases, or obese individuals, have increased chances of developing a severe or even fatal disease. The search for risk factors explaining this phenomenon continues. In this review, we focus on the known mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection affecting the functioning of the immune system and discuss potential risk factors responsible for the severe disease course. Oxidative stress is one of such factors, which plays a prominent role in innate immunity activity, and recent research has revealed its tight involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We discuss these recent findings and the development of excessive inflammation and cytokine storm observed during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we consider potential use of antioxidant drugs for alleviating the severe symptoms in affected patients.

19.
Life (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672784

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with a wide range of chronic human disorders, including atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant turnover in living cells. Through the processes of mitochondrial fission and fusion, a functional population of mitochondria is maintained, that responds to the energy needs of the cell. Damaged or excessive mitochondria are degraded by mitophagy, a specialized type of autophagy. These processes are orchestrated by a number of proteins and genes, and are tightly regulated. When one or several of these processes are affected, it can lead to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, deficient energy production, increased oxidative stress and cell death-features that are described in many human disorders. While severe mitochondrial dysfunction is known to cause specific and mitochondrial disorders in humans, progressing damage of the mitochondria is also observed in a wide range of other chronic diseases, including cancer and atherosclerosis, and appears to play an important role in disease development. Therefore, correction of mitochondrial dynamics can help in developing new therapies for the treatment of these conditions. In this review, we summarize the recent knowledge on the processes of mitochondrial turnover and the proteins and genes involved in it. We provide a list of known mutations that affect mitochondrial function, and discuss the emerging therapeutic approaches.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(4): e018756, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554615

RESUMO

Background Chronic vascular disease atherosclerosis starts with an uptake of atherogenic modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by resident macrophages, resulting in formation of arterial fatty streaks and eventually atheromatous plaques. Increased plasma sialic acid levels, increased neuraminidase activity, and reduced sialic acid LDL content have been previously associated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in human patients, but the mechanism underlying this association has not been explored. Methods and Results We tested the hypothesis that neuraminidases contribute to development of atherosclerosis by removing sialic acid residues from glycan chains of the LDL glycoprotein and glycolipids. Atherosclerosis progression was investigated in apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor knockout mice with genetic deficiency of neuraminidases 1, 3, and 4 or those treated with specific neuraminidase inhibitors. We show that desialylation of the LDL glycoprotein, apolipoprotein B 100, by human neuraminidases 1 and 3 increases the uptake of human LDL by human cultured macrophages and by macrophages in aortic root lesions in Apoe-/- mice via asialoglycoprotein receptor 1. Genetic inactivation or pharmacological inhibition of neuraminidases 1 and 3 significantly delays formation of fatty streaks in the aortic root without affecting the plasma cholesterol and LDL levels in Apoe-/- and Ldlr-/- mouse models of atherosclerosis. Conclusions Together, our results suggest that neuraminidases 1 and 3 trigger the initial phase of atherosclerosis and formation of aortic fatty streaks by desialylating LDL and increasing their uptake by resident macrophages.

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